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Stierhorn (Ger., ‘Bull horn’). Giant medieval bugle horn used in war. Straight tubes with exact conical bore and no bell flare. Wagner requires them off-stage in Die Walküre, Act 2, and in Götterdämmerung, Acts 2 and 3. Three special instrs. were made, in C, D♭, and D, played by trombonists.