Koch, Kenneth 1925–2002
Koch, Kenneth 1925–2002
PERSONAL: Surname is pronounced "coke"; born February 27, 1925, in Cincinnati, OH; died of leukemia, July 6, 2002, in New York, NY; son of Stuart J. and Lillian Amy (Loth) Koch; married Mary Janice Elwood, June 12, 1954 (died, 1981); married Karen Culler, December 29, 1994; children: Katherine. Education: Harvard University, A.B., 1948; Columbia University, M.A., 1953, Ph.D., 1959.
CAREER: Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, lecturer, 1953–58; Brooklyn College (now of the City University of New York), Brooklyn, NY, lecturer, 1957–59; Columbia University, New York, NY, assistant professor, 1959–66, associate professor, 1966–71, professor of English and comparative literature, beginning 1971. Director of Poetry Workshop at New School for Social Research (now New School University), 1958–66. Exhibitions of Koch's collaborative work were held at the Ipswich Museum, England, 1993, at the Tibor de Nagy Gallery, New York, NY, 1994, and at Guild Hall, East Hampton, NY, 2000. Military service: U.S. Army, 1943–46.
MEMBER: American Academy of Arts and Letters.
AWARDS, HONORS: Fulbright fellow, 1950–51, 1978, and 1982; Guggenheim fellow, 1960–61; grant from National Endowment for the Arts, 1966; Ingram Merrill Foundation fellow, 1969; Harbison Award, 1970, for teaching; Frank O'Hara Prize, 1973, for Poetry; Christopher Book Award and Ohioana Book Award, both 1974, both for Rose, Where Did You Get That Red?; National Institute of Arts and Letters award, 1976; Award of Merit for Poetry, American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters, 1986; National Book Critics Circle nomination, 1988, for One Thousand Avant-garde Plays; Bollingen Prize, Yale University, 1995; Rebekah Johnson Bobbitt National Prize for Poetry, Library of Congress, 1996, for One Train: Poems; named chevalier, Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (France), 1999; National Book Award finalist, 2000, for New Address; Levinson Prize, Poetry, 2000.
Poems, Tibor de Nagy Gallery (New York, NY), 1953.
Ko; or, A Season on Earth (also see below), Grove (New York, NY), 1959.
Permanently, Tiber Press, 1960.
Thank You and Other Poems, Grove (New York, NY), 1962.
Poems from 1952 and 1953 (limited edition), Black Sparrow Press (Santa Barbara, CA), 1968.
The Pleasures of Peace and Other Poems, Grove (New York, NY), 1969.
When the Sun Tries to Go On, Black Sparrow Press (Santa Barbara, CA), 1969.
Sleeping with Women (limited edition), Black Sparrow Press (Santa Barbara, CA), 1969.
The Art of Love, Random House (New York, NY), 1975.
The Duplications (also see below), Random House (New York, NY), 1977.
The Burning Mystery of Anna in 1951, Random House (New York, NY), 1979.
Days and Nights, Random House (New York, NY), 1982.
Selected Poems, 1950–1982, Random House (New York, NY), 1985.
On the Edge, Viking (New York, NY), 1986.
Seasons on Earth (includes Ko; or, A Season on Earth and The Duplications), Penguin (New York, NY), 1987.
Selected Poems, Carcanet (Manchester, England), 1991.
One Train: Poems, Knopf (New York, NY).
On the Great Atlantic Rainway: Selected Poems, 1950–1988, Knopf (New York, NY), 1994.
Straits: Poems, Knopf (New York, NY), 1998.
New Addresses: Poems, Knopf (New York, NY), 2000.
Sun Out: Selected Poems, 1952–54, Knopf (New York, NY), 2002.
A Possible World, Knopf (New York, NY), 2002.
(With Alex Katz) Interlocking Lives, Kulchur Foundation (New York, NY), 1970.
The Red Robins (also see below), Random House (New York, NY), 1975.
Hotel Lambosa and Other Stories, Coffee House Press (Minneapolis, MN), 1993.
Wishes, Lies, and Dreams: Teaching Children to Write Poetry, Chelsea House (New York, NY), 1970.
Rose, Where Did You Get That Red?: Teaching Great Poetry to Children, Random House (New York, NY), 1973.
I Never Told Anybody: Teaching Poetry Writing in a Nursing Home, Random House (New York, NY), 1977, revised edition, Teachers and Writers Collaborative (New York, NY), 1997.
(With Kate Farrell) Sleeping on the Wing: An Anthology of Modern Poetry, with Essays on Reading and Writing, Random House (New York, NY), 1981.
(With Kate Farrell) Talking to the Sun: An Illustrated Anthology of Poems for Young People, Metropolitan Museum of Art/Holt (New York, NY), 1985.
Making Your Own Days: The Pleasures of Reading and Writing Poetry, Scribner (New York, NY), 1998.
Koch's works have been translated into French and Italian.
Little Red Riding Hood, produced in New York, NY, 1953.
Bertha (also see below), produced in New York, NY, 1959; produced as an opera, music by Ned Rorem, 1971.
Pericles (also see below), produced off-Broadway, 1960.
The Election (also see below), produced in New York, NY, 1960.
George Washington Crossing the Delaware (also see below), produced off-Broadway, 1962.
The Construction of Boston (also see below), produced off-Broadway, 1962; produced in Boston as an opera, music by Scott Wheeler, 1990–91.
Guinevere; or, The Death of the Kangaroo (also see below), produced in New York, NY, 1964.
The Tinguely Machine Mystery; or, The Love Suicides at Kaluka (also see below), produced in New York, NY, 1965.
The Moon Balloon (also see below), produced in New York's Central Park, 1969.
The Artist (opera; based on poem of the same title), music by Paul Reif), produced in New York, NY, 1972.
A Little Light, produced in Amagansett, NY, 1972.
The Gold Standard (also see below), produced in New York, NY, 1975.
Rooster Redivivus, produced in Garnerville, NY, 1975.
The Red Robins (based on novel of the same title; produced in New York, NY, 1978), Theatre Arts, 1979.
The New Diana, produced in New York, NY, 1984.
A Change of Hearts (opera; also see below), produced in New York, NY, 1985.
Popeye among the Polar Bears, produced in New York, NY, 1986.
(With composer Marcello Panni) The Banquet, produced in Bremen, Germany, 1998.
OMNIBUS VOLUMES; PLAYS
Bertha and Other Plays (also see below; includes Bertha, Pericles, George Washington Crossing the Delaware, The Construction of Boston, The Return of Yellowmay, The Revolt of the Giant Animals, The Building of Florence, Angelica, The Merry Stones, The Academic Murders, Easter, The Lost Feed, Mexico, Coil Supreme, The Gold Standard, and Guinevere; or, The Death of the Kangaroo), Grove (New York, NY), 1966.
A Change of Hearts: Plays, Films, and Other Dramatic Works, 1951–1971 (also see below; contains Bertha and Other Plays, A Change of Hearts, The Tinguely Machine Mystery; or, The Love Suicides at Kaluka, The Moon Balloon, E. Kology, Without Kinship, Youth, The Enchantment, and the film scripts Because, The Color Game, Mountains and Electricity, Sheep Harbor, Oval Gold, Moby Dick, L'école nor-male, The Cemetery, The Scotty Dog, and The Apple), Random House (New York, NY), 1973.
One Thousand Avant-garde Plays (produced in New York, NY, 1987), Knopf (New York, NY), 1988.
The Gold Standard: A Book of Plays, Knopf (New York, NY), 1996.
(Editor, with others, and author of introduction) Joseph Ceravolo, The Green Lake Is Awake: Selected Poems, Coffee House Press (Minneapolis, MN), 1994.
Contributor to Penguin Modern Poets 24, Penguin, 1974; contributor of fiction, poetry, and plays to magazines, including Art and Literature, Locus Solus, Poetry, Raritan, Grand Street, and New York Review of Books. Member of editorial board of Locus Solus, 1960–62.
ADAPTATIONS: The Art of Love was adapted for stage by Mike Nussbaum and produced in Chicago, IL, 1976.
SIDELIGHTS: Prize-winning author Kenneth Koch published numerous collections of poetry, avant-garde plays, and short fiction while also serving as one of the nation's best-known creative writing teachers during a career that spanned over five decades. Associated with the New York School of poetry for most of his career, Koch used surrealism, satire, irony, and an element of surprise in many of his poems. However, "his satires are more than mere jokes," explained Roberta Berke in her Bounds out of Bounds: A Compass for Recent American and British Poetry: "They have a serious purpose of literary and social criticism." Koch explored an assortment of emotions in his poetry, but in an era seemingly dedicated to deep seriousness he refused to relinquish lightness or a sense of humor. According to Phoebe Pettingell in New Leader, Koch's works "convey his perennial freshness in at least two senses of that word: novelty and cheekiness. He has a subtle grasp of the nuances of language as well as a gift for hilarious parody, and behind his casual, friendly manner there is formidable technique and learning."
During his career, Koch was called "the funniest serious poet we have," by David Lehman in Newsweek. Although Peter Stitt maintained in Georgia Review that the author's "greatest commitment as a poet is to not making very much sense, to not taking things very seriously," other critics contend that Koch's poetry has an underlying seriousness and have praised his imagination and originality. Koch's "playfulness, in tone and technique, has often caused him to be underrated," stated Salmagundi contributor Paul Zweig. "But it is just his great capacity for humor, based on so much more than mere irony, that makes him important. He has reclaimed the humorous for serious writers of poetry and for that we are in his debt." David Lehman, in his book The Last Avant-garde, commented that Koch "had the misfortune to be a protean comic genius at the moment when the lyric poem [was] the be-all and end-all of verse and [was] mistakenly held to be incompatible with the spirit of comedy."
Koch himself once addressed the idea of comic poetry in an interview with Jordan Davis, published in Koch's The Art of Poetry. "Some readers think of a poem as a sort of ceremony—a funeral, a wedding—where anything comic is out of order. They expect certain feelings to be touched on in certain conventional ways. Dissociation, even obscurity, may be tolerated, but only as long as the tone remains solemn or sad enough." Koch continued, "There may be a perfectly serious poem, a good poem … and some other person writes a parody of it and one line of the parody may have more truth than the whole original poem, or at least be freer to reach the intoxicating heights that sometimes seem where truth is from."
Koch is credited as being one of the founders of the New York School of poetry, which came into existence in the 1950s. At the time, the poets who were working within the "school"—including John Ashbery, Frank O'Hara, and Koch, among others—hardly considered themselves trend-setters. The name "New York School" was coined for them by Donald Allen for an anthology he was editing in the late 1950s, and it suggested a spirit of novelty and experimentation that well suited its young practitioners. "The so-called New York School assembled its own outsider identity from some of the same sources as the Beats: an urban male savvy, sometimes inflected with Jewish and gay sensibilities, and an openness to avant-garde work in other media," explained Christopher Benfey in New Republic. According to Benfey, Koch was "a conspicuous member of the New York School, often chronicling its exploits and mourning its losses." Dictionary of Literary Biography contributor Michael Adams observed that Koch "characterized the New York School style as 'anti-traditional, opposed to certain heavy uses of irony and symbolism.'" Adams also quoted Koch as saying, "I think we may have been more conscious than many poets of the surface of the poem, and what was going on while we were writing and how we were using words."
Like other poets of the New York School, Koch used stream-of-consciousness in his writing and stressed the importance of the present moment and the ordinary. In his essay in Comic Relief: Humor in Contemporary American Literature, John Vernon pointed out that Koch, "like most poets of the New York school,… often spices his poems with references to pop culture, deliberate clichés, archaisms, or both academic and romantic phrases and words." Pettingell, for one, concluded that these pop references and personal asides notwithstanding, Koch's work continues to stand the test of time quite well. "Today, Robert Lowell and Allen Ginsberg are looking pretty hoary to the students of Generation X, and Eliot seems as remote as the late Victorian authors," the critic maintained. "The joke is that those bards of the passing scene, Ashbery and Koch, continue to flourish. Indeed, today they appear to exemplify the tenets of postmodernism."
Koch's first book of poetry, titled simply Poems, first sparked the critical debate over the seriousness of his work. Finding the book "tasteless, futile, noisy and dull," Harry Roskolenko further contended in Poetry that "Koch writes lazy verse and is precious and puer-ile." This negative review prompted a rebuttal from writer Frank O'Hara, who asserted in Poetry that Koch "has the other poetic gift: vivacity and go, originality of perception and intoxication with life. Most important of all, he is not dull." Washington Post Book World contributor Michael Lally agreed, claiming that "Koch's work is always entertaining and usually enlightening." The poems in Koch's debut work cover a diversity of subjects; F.W. Dupee claimed in New York Review of Books that "Koch is fond of making poetry out of poetry-resistant stuff. Locks, lipsticks, business letterheads, walnuts, lunch and fudge attract him; so do examples of inept slang, silly sentiment, brutal behavior and stereotyped exotica and erotica." Employing the bizarre humor of surrealism and the techniques of abstract expressionism, Koch crafted poems that emphasize form and sound. The words Koch selects to present his subjects surge together "like an express train of exuberant sounds," observed Poetry contributor David Lehman, adding that "the poet takes a great deal of delight in the sounds of words and his consciousness of them; he splashes them like paint on a page with enthusiastic puns, internal rhymes, titles of books, names of friends … and seems surprised as we are at the often witty outcome."
Koch seemed to thrive on the intensity in writing a new poem, and many of his verses deal with the poetic imagination and the act of creation. Poetry contributor Paul Carroll explained: "Koch celebrates that splendid faculty with which men make poetry. His poems embody the poetic imagination as it rejoices in the ebullience of its health and freedom, its fecundity, its capacity for endless invention, its dear, outlandish ability to transform everyday, pragmatic reality into an Oz or a tea-party at the March Hare's house, its potency in, possibly, achieving a bit of immortality as a result of having brought forth some children of the soul." In the title poem in The Pleasures of Peace and Other Poems, Koch presents this theme of the creative mind at work through Giorgio Finogle and another poet. Both poets are writing a poem about the pleasures of peace, and thus find themselves competing against one another. This is but one example of the author's "celebration of the excitement of the imagination as it begins to create," according to Carroll.
In The Art of Love, Koch's "voice is unperturbed, offering serene and careless advice on the arts of love and poetry for those who have ears and can hear," explained Paul Wilner in Village Voice. Writing in Poetry, J.D. McClatchy referred to the book as an "erotic romp," and Wilner further described it as "updating Ovid by reinventing the alphabet of emotion." Zweig added that Koch's "humor has an edge of satire; his ebullient absurdity slides into an original form of social and cultural criticism, as in 'The Artist' and 'Fresh Air,' both enormously funny epics about the impossibility of art." In the poem "The Art of Love," Koch parodies several advice-giving documents and tries to "enable both poet and reader to distance feelings, ideas, experiences, so as to perceive them strangely, freshly, as if they were rare or even alien curiosities, objets d'art, perhaps, in some great Bloomingdale's of the imagination," asserted Sandra M. Gilbert in Poetry. The drawback to this form of presentation is that detachment can filter in. Shenan-doah contributor Conrad Hilberry observed, for instance, that Koch's verse, "like pop art, present great simplicity but maintain so much ironic distance that they make the ordinary reader uneasy." However, Aram Saroyan maintained in New York Times Book Review that the poems in The Art of Love embody "the ability to move the reader, plain but beautiful language that should appeal to a wide audience, a general gracious-ness of spirit that has long been an unremarked-on hallmark of Koch's writing, and last but not least, outright wisdom."
"Every book of poems by … Koch seems to be a new beginning, a starting over, a trying-out of new voices, styles and idioms," observed John Boening in his World Literature Today review of Days and Nights. This collection contains a wide variety of poems, in which, explained Mark Hillringhouse in American Book Review, "Koch has paid more attention to physical detail and places his emotions directly and concretely into the poem." The poems encompass such subjects as love, aging, loneliness, the past, and the future. One of the pieces, "To Janice," is "moving, intimate, smiling, tender, touching and inventive," according to Boening, who added that it alone "is worth the price of the book." And the title poem, "Days and Nights," is phrased in such a way so as to evoke "a whole spectrum of emotions; from lost time to old friends, to travels and defeats to fears of writing itself," asserted Hillringhouse. "Koch sets out to explore a new landscape that is honest to the act of writing and to the process of the imagination."
On the Edge consists of two lengthy poems, "Impressions of Africa" and "On the Edge," the second being "more ambitious, ranging widely over the facts and fiction of … Koch's life," in the words of New York Times Book Review correspondent John Ash. The poem moves back and forth between past and present, according to Denis Donoghue in Commonweal, with "memories and currencies of sentiment jostling one another within the strong propriety of the cadence." Washington Post Book World contributor Peter Davison viewed the allusions the poem relies on as "calculated to exclude outsiders, to make the non-belonger feel stupid, to make the reader ransack for a footnote." Ash, however, viewed the book as taking "great risks," and claimed that "we cannot do better" than appraise the work according to Koch's "own demanding criteria, set out in his 'Art of Poetry.' Does it astonish? Is it sufficiently modern? Is it written in his own voice? Is it devoid of 'literary, "kiss-me-I'm-poetical" junk'? Is it 'serious without being solemn, fresh without being cold'? The answer, in all cases, must be affirmative."
The poem "Seasons on Earth" and two of Koch's previously published comic epics, "Ko; or, A Season on Earth" and "The Duplications," comprise Seasons on Earth. The book provides readers with "a poetic memoir that glances back at the time during which he wrote the earlier poems, a genre at which Koch's discursive talents have proved particularly masterful," explained Gary Lenhart in American Book Review. Lenhart added that the title poem continues the mastery of the narrative, "but new urgencies threaten to move the poet away from the strict adherence to form characteristic of the earlier poems." Adams described Ko; or A Season on Earth as "a comic epic modeled partially after Byron's Don Juan and Ariosto's Orlando Furioso" that "details the misadventures of a group of outlandish characters who flit about from continent to continent, reality to unreality." Among other things, the poem relates the story of Ko, a Japanese college student who comes to the United States to play baseball. Lenhart says that the poem "is bursting with the exuberance of a sensuous young poet impatient with the literary world."
In Washington Post Book World, Terence Winch regarded "The Duplications" as "something of a nonsense epic whose seriousness lies more in the demonstration of Koch's impressive technical skill than in the narrative itself." There are many "duplications" in the poem, maintained Winch, but the most important ones are the rhymes. And although the poem is a narrative, Winch also suggested that the way in which Koch's mind works and the language he uses deserve more attention than the actual story. His "work is important for its singularity as for its exuberant invention, inspired fluency, and histrionic imagination," concluded Lenhart.
Koch's mature works increasingly demonstrated the poet's willingness to experiment in a variety of forms. In 1994 he released two poetry collections, following his 1993 volume of short-short stories. All three books earned significant critical response, with the poetry collections cited as factors in awarding Koch the Bollingen Prize. In a review of Koch's work in Chicago's Tribune Books Paul Hoover hailed the poet as "an extravagant improviser, natural formalist and borscht-belt comedian. His poems have daring, ease and sprezzatura; they are formally accomplished without pomposity." Hoover cited the collection On the Great Atlantic Rainway for displaying Koch as "a poet of intimacy and size, lyricism and intelligence. Because his work is light-hearted, it has been accused of triviality. Yet in poems like his hilarious polemic, 'Fresh Air,' Koch shows the fiercely moral nature of the true satirist."
In Straights Koch contributes not only poems but prose and even a fugue; still, the poems on themes of aging, seasonal change and "the loss of the sacred in everyday life" most accurately characterize the volume. Straits was viewed as a somewhat mixed bag, according to Poetry reviewer Ben Howard, although Koch's most successful entries feature a "sophisticated wit and stylistic panache," both of which "illuminate their subjects." Noting an autobiographical bent in the collection, a Publishers Weekly contributor remarked upon perceiving "glimpses of the man behind the curtain" in the collection.
Koch reaches even deeper into his own life for the stuff of New Addresses and A Possible World. Autobiographical in focus, the two collections would prove to be Koch's last gift to readers; he was by now engaged in the battle against leukemia that would ultimately end his life in July of 2002. A Publishers Weekly reviewer, praising New Addresses as the poet's finest work to date, discussed with Koch its autobiographical elements. "One poem led to another," Koch explained. Examining his life as it revealed itself in the poems of New Addresses, the poet also came to terms with a pivotal moment in his life: his military service during World War II. "I'd never really been able to write [about the war] because it's like being psychotic to be in a war. You're walking around with a gun … and they shoot you!" However, from a distanced perspective, the mature poet found that treating the war as a character, like any other person, "enabled me to get some of the feelings back, like the crazy idea that I couldn't be killed because I had to write." Containing "Bel Canto," "Variations on Home and Abroad," and "A Memoir," as well as a number of short verses expressing the author's love of travel, A Possible World "displays Koch's verve and light touch," according to a Publishers Weekly contributor, although the overall mood of the collection "is unmistakably colored by requiem."
Koch also wrote many short plays that critics have praised for equal measures of parody, satire, and irony. As Koch once commented in his interview with Davis, "I like plays that are astounding in some way—that make convincing what is unusual and even, seemingly, impossible." Denis Donoghue suggested in a New York Review of Books essay that in Bertha and Other Plays, "Koch implies in his smiling way that nothing is too silly to be said or sung, provided we know exactly how silly it is." In New York Review of Books, Stephen Spender described the plays in A Change of Hearts: Plays, Films, and Other Dramatic Works, 1951–1971 as being "written in a variety of styles, parodying other styles." Koch is extremely inventive, concluded Spender, "and has the funniness which comes out of exuberant vitality."
Koch's One Thousand Avant-garde Plays described as "a pure act of poetic invention" by David Lehman in Washington Post Book World. The cast of characters in these plays includes Lord Byron, Bozo, Olive Oyl, a Chinese cook, Little Red Riding Hood, Watteau, and hippopotami. "These brief plays are not fragments but full-blown dramas distilled to the action at the heart of each," asserted Lehman, concluding that "one can only applaud [Koch's] insistence on making plays that are at once intelligent and entertaining."
In an online interview with John Tranter for Jacket, Koch once praised "the genius in contemporary theatre. Most of the genius … seems to be in the directors. I'm not sure I can tell genius in an actor; there seems to be some there too. But the texts of contemporary plays I've seen have not seemed to me to be of the same quality—most of them—as that of the work of the best directors."
Aside from writing poetry, Koch also devoted his time to teaching poetry to children and to the elderly. In 1968 he began his experiment with children at P.S. 61, a New York City elementary school. His Wishes, Lies, and Dreams: Teaching Children to Write Poetry describes how writing became exciting for these students and includes some of the student poetry that resulted from Koch's instruction. Saturday Review contributor Herbert Kohl considered the work "perhaps the best book I have read portraying the joy and excitement young people experience when writing in a happy place where people care about their work."
Although the students in Koch's class wrote some exceptional poetry, Koch didn't stop there. As John Gardner explained in New York Times Book Review that because "the children themselves felt a need for something more. Koch's response was to shift the experiment to 'teaching great poetry to children,' thus broadening the tradition available to them." The record of this experiment and its tremendous results is Rose, Where Did You Get That Red?: Teaching Great Poetry to Children. Koch also worked with the residents of Manhattan's American Nursing Home, and I Never Told Anybody: Teaching Poetry Writing in a Nursing Home was the result. As well as collecting his students' poems, the book presents what a Time reviewer described as a "highly readable account of how he coaxed his students along." At first unresponsive, the elderly and infirm students learned "to summon and repeat words joyfully, to exaggerate enthusiastically, to celebrate contrasts, to become immersed in nature, to imagine all sorts of places, to put themselves into many different kinds of shoes," wrote Robert Coles in New York Times Book Review.
"I seem to go on being influenced, and encouraged, by what I read," Koch once noted of his work as a poet. For his part, Koch also served as an influence to the writers who have followed in his wake. "Koch's poetry remains an underrated treasure, arousing discipleship and high ardor wherever the spirit of the New York school is strong and ignored wherever not," Lehman noted in his book. Bernard F. Dick in World Literature Today observed that the author's body of work depicts "a poet's progress, beginning with self-conscious experimentation in the usual way of finding a voice and ending with a voice as distinctive and resonant as the ones that echo through the poetry." Dick added that Koch's poems "attest to a creative power and its gradual refinement, as life and art, the playful and the profound."
BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:
Berke, Roberta, Bounds out of Bounds: A Compass for Recent American and British Poetry, Oxford University Press (Oxford, England), 1981.
Chevalier, Tracy, editor, Contemporary Poets, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1991.
Cohen, Sarah Blacher, editor, Comic Relief: Humor in Contemporary American Literature, University of Illinois Press (Champaign, IL), 1978.
Contemporary Dramatists, 6th edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1999.
Contemporary Literary Criticism, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), Volume 5, 1976, Volume 8, 1978, Volume 44, 1987.
Contemporary Poets, 7th edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 2001.
Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 5: American Poets since World War II, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), 1980.
Diggory, Terence, and Stephen Paul Miller, The Scene of My Selves: New Work on New York School Poets, National Poetry Foundation, 2001.
Dupee, F. W., "The King of Cats" and Other Remarks on Writers and Writing, Farrar, Straus (New York, NY), 1965.
Howard, Richard, Alone with America: Essays on the Art of Poetry in the United States, Atheneum (New York, NY), 1969.
John Ashbery and Kenneth Koch: A Conversation, Interview Press, 1965.
Koch, Kenneth, The Art of Love, Random House (New York, NY), 1975.
Koch, Kenneth, New Addresses: Poems, Knopf (New York, NY), 2000.
Lehman, David, The Last Avant-garde, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1998.
American Book Review, May, 1984, Mark Hillring-house, review of Days and Nights; November-December, 1986; May, 1989, Gary Lenhart, review of Seasons on Earth; February, 1994, pp. 12, 19.
American Poetry Review, November-December, 1995, review of On the Great Atlantic Rainway and One Train.
Booklist, May 15, 1993, p. 1674; October 1, 2002, Donna Seaman, "A Poet's Fond Farewell," p. 296.
Commonweal, November 29, 1985, Dennis Donoghue, review of On the Edge.
Comparative Literature Studies, June, 1980.
Georgia Review, fall, 1985, Peter Stitt.
New Leader, January 30, 1995, Phoebe Pettingell, pp. 14-15.
New Republic, August 2, 1969; March 13, 1995, Christopher Benfey, pp. 39-42.
Newsweek, September 16, 1985, David Lehman.
New York Review of Books, May, 1963, F.W. Dupee, review of Poems; October 20, 1966, Denis Dono-ghue, review of Bertha and Other Plays; September 20, 1973, Stephen Spender, review of A Change of Hearts; August 14, 1980; April 8, 1993, p. 36; January 16, 2003, Charles Simic, review of Sun Out: Selected Poems, 1952–1954, p. 13.
New York Times, November 21, 1970; April 10, 1977; January 19, 1978; January 12, 1979; February 7, 1995.
New York Times Book Review, February 11, 1968; December 23, 1973, John Gardner, review of Rose, Where Did You Get So Red?; September 28, 1975, Aram Saroyan, review of The Art of Love; April 10, 1977, Robert Coles, review of I Never Told Anybody; April 20, 1986, John Ash, review of On the Edge; June 4, 2000, Ken Tucker, "You Talking to Me?"
Poetry, March, 1955, Harry Roskolenko, review of Poems; June, 1955, Frank O'Hara, review of Poems; September, 1969; November, 1971; August, 1976, J.D. McClatchy, The Art of Love; August, 1978; April, 2000, Ben Howard, review of Straits, p. 32.
Publishers Weekly, April 5, 1993, p. 71; May 30, 1994, p. 45; April 27, 1998, review of Straits, p. 17; March 27, 2000, review of New Addresses, p. 71; September 23, 2002, review of A Possible World and Sun Out, p. 68.
Review of Contemporary Fiction, fall, 1993, pp. 221-22.
Sagetrieb, spring, 1993, p. 131.
Salmagundi, spring-summer, 1973.
Saturday Review, March 20, 1971, Herbert Kohl, review of Wishes, Lies, and Dreams.
Shenandoah, spring, 1978, Conrad Hilberry, review of The Art of Love.
Studies in Short Fiction, winter, 1995, pp. 102-105.
Time, April 4, 1977, review of I Never Told Anybody.
Times Literary Supplement, February 20, 1987.
Tribune Books (Chicago, IL), July 9, 1995, Paul Hoover, p. 6.
Village Voice, May 18, 1972; December 20, 1973; November 24, 1975, Paul Wilner, review of The Art of Love.
Washington Post Book World, August 3, 1975; April 17, 1977; January 12, 1986; April 13, 1986; August 28, 1988, Terence Winch, review of Seasons on Earth; January 1, 1995, David Lehman, review of One Thousand Avant-garde Plays, p. 8.
World Literature Today, winter, 1984, John Boening, review of Days and Nights; winter, 1994, Bernard F. Dick, review of Hotel Lambosa and Other Stories, p. 142; autumn, 1995, pp. 800-801.
Yale Review, July, 1985.
Jacket Online, http://www.jacket.zip.com/ (March 17, 1989), John Tranter, "Very Rapid Acceleration: An Interview with Kenneth Koch."
Los Angeles Times, July 9, 2002, p. B10.
New York Times, July 8, 2002, p. A16.
Times (London, England), July 29, 2002.
International Herald Tribune Online, http://www.iht.com/ (July 9, 2002).