Heinlein, Robert A. 1907–1988
Heinlein, Robert A. 1907–1988
(Robert Anson Heinlein, Anson Macdonald, Lyle Monroe, John Riverside, Caleb Saunders, Simon York)
PERSONAL: Surname rhymes with "fine line"; born July 7, 1907, in Butler, MO; died of heart failure May 8, 1988, in Carmel, CA; son of Rex Ivar (an accountant) and Bam (Lyle) Heinlein; married Leslyn McDonald (divorced, 1947); married Virginia Doris Gerstenfeld, October 21, 1948. Education: Attended University of Missouri, 1925; U.S. Naval Academy, graduate, 1929; University of California—Los Angeles, graduate study (physics and mathematics), 1934.
CAREER: Writer, 1939–88. Owner of Shively & Sophie Lodes silver mine, Silver Plume, CO, 1934–35; candidate for California State Assembly, 1938; worked as a real estate agent c. 1930s; aviation engineer at Naval Air Experimental Station, Philadelphia, PA, 1942–45; guest commentator during Apollo 11 lunar landing, Columbia Broadcasting System, 1969; James V. Forrestal Lecturer, U.S. Naval Academy, 1973. Military service: U.S. Navy, commissioned ensign, 1929; became lieutenant, junior grade; retired due to physical disability, 1934.
AWARDS, HONORS: Guest of Honor, World Science Fiction Convention, 1941, 1961, 1976; Hugo Award, World Science Fiction Convention, 1956, for Double Star, 1960, for Starship Troopers, 1962, for Stranger in a Strange Land, and 1967, for The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress; Boys' Clubs of America Book Award, 1959; Sequoyah Children's Book Award, Oklahoma Library Association, 1961, for Have Space Suit—Will Travel; named best all-time author, Locus magazine readers' poll, 1973 and 1975; National Rare Blood Club Humanitarian Award, 1974; Nebula Award, Grand Master, Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, 1975; Council of Community Blood Centers Award, 1977; American Association of Blood Banks Award, 1977; Inkpot Award, 1977; L.H.D., Eastern Michigan University, 1977; Distinguished Public Service Medal, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 1988 (posthumously awarded), "in recognition of his meritorious service to the nation and mankind in advocating and promoting the exploration of space"; the Rhysling Award of the Science Fiction Poetry Association is named after a character in Heinlein's story "The Green Hills of Earth"; Tomorrow Starts Here Award, Delta Vee Society; numerous awards for work with blood drives.
SCIENCE FICTION NOVELS
Methuselah's Children (originally serialized in Astounding Science Fiction, July-September, 1941), Gnome Press (Hicksville, NY), 1958.
Beyond This Horizon (originally serialized under pseudonym Anson MacDonald in Astounding Science Fiction, April and May, 1942), Fantasy Press (Reading, PA), 1948, reprinted, Baen (Riverdale, NY), 2001.
Sixth Column, Gnome Press (Hicksville, NY), 1949, published as The Day after Tomorrow, New American Library (New York, NY), 1951.
Waldo [and] Magic, Inc. (also see below), Doubleday (New York, NY), 1950, published as Waldo: Genius in Orbit, Avon (New York, NY), 1958.
Universe, Dell (New York, NY), 1951, published as Orphans of the Sky, Gollancz (London, England), 1963.
The Puppet Masters (also see below; originally serialized in Galaxy Science Fiction, September-November, 1951), Doubleday (New York, NY), 1951.
Revolt in 2100, Shasta (Chicago, IL), 1953.
Double Star (originally serialized in Astounding Science Fiction, February-April, 1956), Doubleday (New York, NY), 1956.
The Door into Summer (originally serialized in Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, October-December, 1956), Doubleday (New York, NY), 1957.
Starship Troopers (originally serialized as "Starship Soldier" in Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, October and November, 1959), Putnam (New York, NY), 1959.
Stranger in a Strange Land, Putnam (New York, NY), 1961, revised and uncut edition with preface by wife Virginia Heinlein, 1990.
Glory Road (originally serialized in Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, July-September, 1963), Putnam (New York, NY), 1963, reprinted, Tor Books (New York, NY), 2004.
Farnham's Freehold (originally serialized in If, July, August, and October, 1964), Putnam (New York, NY), 1964.
Three by Heinlein (contains The Puppet Masters, Waldo, and Magic, Inc.), Doubleday (New York, NY), 1965, published as A Heinlein Triad, Gol-lancz (London, England), 1966.
The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress (originally serialized in If, December, 1965, January-April, 1966), Putnam (New York, NY), 1966, reprinted, Tor Books (New York, NY), 1996.
A Robert Heinlein Omnibus, Sidgwick & Jackson (London, England), 1966.
I Will Fear No Evil (originally serialized in Galaxy, July, August, October, and December, 1970), Putnam (New York, NY), 1971.
Time Enough for Love: The Lives of Lazarus Long, Putnam (New York, NY), 1973.
The Notebooks of Lazarus Long (excerpted from Time Enough for Love: The Lives of Lazarus Long), Putnam (New York, NY), 1978, illuminated by D.F. Vassallo, Pomegranate Artbooks (San Francisco, CA), 1995.
The Number of the Beast, Fawcett (New York, NY), 1980.
Friday, Holt (New York, NY), 1982, reprinted, Ballan-tine (New York, NY), 1997.
Job: A Comedy of Justice, Ballantine (New York, NY), 1984.
The Cat Who Walks through Walls: A Comedy of Manners, Putnam (New York, NY), 1985.
To Sail beyond the Sunset: The Life and Loves of Maureen Johnson, Being the Memoirs of a Somewhat Irregular Lady, Putnam (New York, NY), 1987.
For Us, the Living: A Comedy of Customs, Scribner (New York, NY), 2004.
SCIENCE FICTION NOVELS; FOR YOUNG ADULTS
Rocket Ship Galileo (also see below), Scribner (New York, NY), 1947.
Space Cadet (also see below), Scribner (New York, NY), 1948.
Red Planet, Scribner (New York, NY), 1949, expanded with previously unpublished passages, Del Rey (New York, NY), 1989.
Farmer in the Sky (originally serialized as "Satellite Scout" in Boy's Life, August-November, 1950), Scribner (New York, NY), 1950.
Between Planets (originally serialized as "Planets in Combat" in Blue Book, September and October, 1951), Scribner (New York, NY), 1951.
The Rolling Stones (originally serialized as "Tramp Space Ship" in Boy's Life, September-December, 1952), Scribner (New York, NY), 1952, published as Space Family Stone, Gollancz (London, England), 1969.
Starman Jones, Scribner (New York, NY), 1953.
Star Beast (originally serialized as "The Star Lummox" in Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, May-July, 1954), Scribner (New York, NY), 1954.
Tunnel in the Sky, Scribner (New York, NY), 1955, reprinted, Del Rey (New York, NY), 2003.
Time for the Stars, Scribner (New York, NY), 1956.
Citizen of the Galaxy (originally serialized in Astounding Science Fiction, September-December, 1957), Scribner (New York, NY), 1957.
Have Space Suit—Will Travel (originally serialized in Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, August-October, 1958), Scribner (New York, NY), 1958, reprinted, Ballantine (New York, NY), 2003.
Podkayne of Mars: Her Life and Times (originally serialized in Worlds of If, November, 1962, January and March, 1963), Putnam (New York, NY), 1963, published as Podkayne of Mars, Baen (Riverdale, NY), 1993.
The Man Who Sold the Moon, Shasta (Chicago, IL), 1950, 3rd edition, 1953.
The Green Hills of Earth, Shasta (Chicago, IL), 1951.
Assignment in Eternity, Fantasy Press (Reading, PA), 1953.
The Menace from Earth, Gnome Press (Hicksville, NY), 1959.
The Unpleasant Profession of Jonathan Hoag, Gnome Press (Hicksville, NY), 1959, published as 6 x H, Pyramid Publications (New York, NY), 1962.
The Worlds of Robert A. Heinlein, Ace Books (New York, NY), 1966.
The Past through Tomorrow: Future History Stories, Putnam (New York, NY), 1967.
The Best of Robert Heinlein, 1939–1959, two volumes, edited by Angus Wells, Sidgwick & Jackson (London, England), 1973.
Destination Moon, Gregg (Boston, MA), 1979.
Expanded Universe: The New Worlds of Robert A. Heinlein, Ace Books (New York, NY), 1980, reprinted, Baen (Riverdale, NY), 2004.
Requiem: New Collected Works by Robert A. Heinlein and Tributes to the Grand Master, edited by Yoji Kondo, Tom Doherty Associates (New York, NY), 1992.
The Fantasies of Robert A. Heinlein, Tor (New York, NY), 1999.
(With Rip Van Ronkel and James O' Hanlon) Destination Moon (based on Rocket Ship Galileo; produced and directed by George Pal/Eagle Lion, 1950), edited by David G. Hartwell, Gregg, 1979.
(With Jack Seaman) Project Moonbase, Galaxy Pictures/Lippert Productions, 1953.
(Editor) Tomorrow, the Stars, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1952.
Grumbles from the Grave (collected correspondence), edited by Virginia Heinlein, Ballantine (New York, NY), 1989.
Take Back Your Government: A Practical Handbook for the Private Citizen Who Wants Democracy to Work (political commentary), with introduction by Jerry Pournelle, Baen (Riverdale, NY), 1992.
Tramp Royale (autobiographical fiction), Ace Books (New York, NY), 1992.
Also author of engineering report, Test Procedures for Plastic Materials Intended for Structural and Semi-Structural Aircraft Uses, 1944. Contributor to books, including Of Worlds Beyond: The Science of Science Fiction, edited by Lloyd Arthur Eshbach, Fantasy Press, 1947. Also contributor to anthologies and to the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Contributor of numerous short stories and articles, sometimes under pseudonyms Lyle Monroe, John Riverside, Caleb Saunders, and Simon York, to Saturday Evening Post, Analog, Galaxy, Astounding Science Fiction, and other publications.
ADAPTATIONS: The television series Tom Corbett: Space Cadet, which aired from 1951–56, was based on Heinlein's novel Space Cadet; a military simulation board game was created based on Starship Troopers; Starship Troopers was released as an animated feature in Japan; Red Planet was adapted as a three-part cartoon miniseries, released as Robert A. Heinlein's Red Planet; The Puppet Masters was filmed in 1994, released as Robert A. Heinlein's The Puppet Masters, starring Donald Sutherland; Starship Troopers was filmed in 1996, directed by Paul Verhoeven; television, radio, and film rights to many of Heinlein's works have been sold.
SIDELIGHTS: "The one author who has raised science fiction from the gutter of pulp space opera … to the altitude of original and breathtaking concepts," Alfred Bester once wrote in Publishers Weekly, "is Robert A. Heinlein." Heinlein's influence in his field was so great that Alexei Panshin stated in his Heinlein in Dimension: A Critical Analysis that "the last twenty-five years of science fiction may even be taken in large part as an exploration by many writers of the possibilities inherent in Heinlein's techniques." Some critics compared Heinlein's influence on the genre to that of H.G. Wells. Writer Robert Silverberg, for example, wrote in a Locus obituary of Heinlein that like "no one else but H.G. Wells, he gave science fiction its definition," adding that Heinlein "utterly transformed our notions of how to tell a science fiction story, and the transformation has been a permanent and irreversible one."
Having been forced to abandon a military career because he suffered from tuberculosis, Heinlein began writing in the late 1930s as a way to make money to pay off a mortgage. He wrote his first novel, a time-travel tale called For Us, the Living: A Comedy of Customs in 1939, but it did not see publication until 2004. Still, he did begin to make a living from selling stories to science fiction magazines, and he not only paid off the mortgage but found his life's work.
During the 1940s Heinlein's work for science fiction magazines began building his reputation as a talented author. His influence began with this period and, as Panshin pointed out, derived from his "insistence in talking clearly, knowledgeably, and dramatically about the real world [which] destroyed forever the sweet, pure, wonderful innocence that science fiction once had…. In a sense, Heinlein may be said to have offered science fiction a road to adulthood." Speaking of this early work, Daniel Dickinson wrote in Modern Fiction Studies that Heinlein possessed "a vast knowledge of science, military affairs, and politics" which enabled him to write "stories that shimmered gemlike amid the vast mass of middling, amateurish tales that choked the pulp SF journals. Heinlein's influence was enormous; dozens of young writers strove to imitate his style, and editors refashioned their publications to reflect the new sense of sophistication Heinlein and a few others were bringing to the field." In a poll taken by Astounding Science Fiction magazine in 1953, eighteen top science fiction writers of the time cited Heinlein as the major influence on their work.
After working as an engineer during World War II, Hei-nlein returned to writing in the late 1940s. It was during this time that he moved from the genre magazines in which he had made his reputation to more mainstream periodicals, particularly the Saturday Evening Post. As Dictionary of Literary Biography contributor Joseph Patrouch wrote, "Heinlein was the first major science-fiction writer to break out of category and reach the larger general-fiction market, and therefore he was the first to start breaking down the walls that had isolated science fiction for so long."
Heinlein also began to publish novels for young people in the late 1940s. Dickinson called this work "a series of well-crafted novels that continue to attract readers both young and old." Theodore Sturgeon of the Los Angeles Times Book Review believed that Heinlein's "series of 'juveniles' had a great deal to do with raising that category from childish to what is now called YA—'Young adult.'" Several reviewers deemed Heinlein's ostensibly "juvenile" books to be better than much of what is marketed as adult science fiction. H.H. Holmes, for example, wrote in the New York Herald Tribune Book Review that "the nominally 'teen-age' science-fiction novels of Robert A. Heinlein stand so far apart from even their best competitors as to deserve a separate classification. These are no easy, adventurous, first-steps-to-space boys' books, but mature and complex novels, far above the level of most adult science fiction both in characterization and in scientific thought." "A Heinlein book," Villiers Gerson observed in the New York Times Book Review, "is still better than ninety-nine per cent of the science-fiction adventures produced every year." Heinlein's novels of this time have been reprinted and marketed to adult readers since their initial appearances.
In the 1950s Heinlein entered the field of television and motion pictures. His novel Space Cadet was adapted as the television program Tom Corbett: Space Cadet. He wrote the screenplay and served as technical advisor for the film Destination Moon. Heinlein also wrote an original television pilot, "Ring around the Moon," which was expanded without his approval by Jack Seaman into the screenplay for the film Project Moonbase. The 1956 movie The Brain Eaters was based on Heinlein's The Puppet Masters, also without his knowledge or approval, and in an out-of-court settlement, Heinlein received compensation and the right to demand that certain material be removed from the film.
In the late 1950s Heinlein turned away from his juvenile fiction and published the first of what became a string of controversial novels. Starship Troopers, the first of Heinlein's books to speculate not on future scientific changes, but on future societal changes, postulates a world run by military veterans. The novel's protagonist is an army infantryman. Military law takes precedent over civil law in this world, and military discipline is the norm. As Heinlein explained to Curt Suplee of the Washington Post, the society depicted in the novel is "a democracy in which the poll tax is putting in a term of voluntary service—which could be as a garbage collector." While some critics have seen Star-ship Troopers as having fascistic and militaristic tendencies, Dennis E. Showalter, assessing the book in Extrapolation, thought that while the pervasive military presence in the hypothetical society would "chill the heart of the civil libertarian," the novel is "neither militaristic nor fascist in the scholarly sense of these concepts." Despite the controversy, Starship Troopers became one of Heinlein's most popular novels. It won a Hugo Award and has remained in print for more than three decades.
Heinlein followed Starship Troopers with another controversial novel, this one quite different in its speculations about the future. Stranger in a Strange Land tells the story of Valentine Michael Smith, a Martian with psi powers who establishes a religious movement on Earth. Members of his Church of All Worlds practice group sex and live in small communes. Stranger in a Strange Land is perhaps Heinlein's best-known work. It has sold millions of copies, won a Hugo Award, created an intense cult following, and even inspired a real-life Church of All Worlds, founded by some devoted readers of the book.
Stranger in a Strange Land is, David N. Samuelson wrote in Critical Encounters: Writers and Themes in Science Fiction, "in some ways emblematic of the Sixties…. It fit the iconoclastic mood of the time, at-tacking human folly under several guises, especially in the person or persons of the Establishment: government, the military, organized religion. By many of its readers, too, it was taken to advocate a religion of love, and of incalculable power, which could revolutionize human affairs and bring about an apocalyptic change, presumably for the better." Robert Scholes and Eric S. Rabkin wrote in their Science Fiction: History, Science, Vision that "the values of the sixties could hardly have found a more congenial expression."
Heinlein once told Chicago Tribune interviewer R.A. Jelliffe that in Stranger in a Strange Land he intended to "examine every major axiom of the western culture, to question each axiom, throw doubt on it—and, if possible, to make the anti-thesis of each axiom appear a possible and perhaps desirable thing—rather than unthinkable." This ambitious attack caused a major upheaval in science fiction. Stranger in a Strange Land, Patrouch explained, "forced a reevaluation of what science fiction could be and do. As he had done immediately before World War II, Heinlein helped to reshape the genre and make it more significant and valuable than it had been."
In subsequent novels Heinlein continued to speculate on social changes of the future, dealing with such controversial subjects as group marriage and incest. In The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress lunar colonists practice a variety of marriage forms because of the shortage of women on the moon. Variations on group marriage are necessary. In I Will Fear No Evil an elderly, dying businessman has his brain transplanted into the body of a young woman. He then impregnates himself with his own sperm, previously stored in a sperm bank. Time Enough for Love: The Lives of Lazarus Long explores varieties of future incest through the immortal character Lazarus Long. Long rescues a young girl from a fire, raises her as his daughter, then marries her and has children. He also creates two female clones of himself with whom he has sex. In another episode, Lazarus travels back in time 2,000 years and has intercourse with his own mother. In these novels of the 1960s and 1970s, Extrapolation contributor Diane Parkin-Speer wrote, "a defense of unconventional sexual love is [Heinlein's] central theme…. The ideal sexual love relationship, first presented in Stranger in a Strange Land, is heterosexual, non-monogamous, and patriarchal, with an emphasis on procreation. The protagonists of the novels and their various sexual partners express unorthodox sexual views and have no inhibitions or guilt."
Beginning with his novel Friday, published in 1982, Heinlein tempered his social speculations by presenting them in the context of a science fiction adventure. The novel tells the story of Friday, a female "artificial person"—a genetically designed human—working for a government spy agency of the next century. In her interplanetary travels as a courier of secret documents, Friday enjoys sexual exploits with both men and women. But as an artificial person, she is insecure about herself and uneasy about the role she must play to pass in human society. When assassinations and terrorism rock the Earth, Friday must fight her way back home across several foreign countries. This journey becomes a symbolic quest for her own identity. Many critics welcomed the change in Heinlein's writing. Dickinson called it a "paean to tolerance that Heinlein sings through the Friday persona…. With this book, Heinlein once again pulled the rug out from under those who had him pegged." Sturgeon found Friday a "remarkable and most welcome book" that is "as joyous to read as it is provocative."
In Job: A Comedy of Justice and The Cat Who Walks through Walls: A Comedy of Manners, Heinlein continued to combine serious subject matter with rollicking interplanetary adventure. Job is a science fiction cover of the biblical story of a man who is tested by God. In this novel, Alex Hergensheimer shifts between alternate worlds without warning. These jarring disruptions force him to continually reassess himself and adapt his behavior to new and sometimes dangerous conditions. Gerald Jonas of the New York Times Book Review, while finding Job not as fine as earlier, "classic Heinlein," still described the book as "an exhilarating romp through the author's mental universe (or rather universes), with special emphasis on cultural relativism, dogmatic religion (treated with surprising sympathy) and the philosophical conundrum of solipsism…. Heinlein has chosen to confront head on the question posed by the original story: why do bad things happen to good people?" Although Sue Martin of the Los Angeles Times Book Review called Job "another dreadful wallow in the muddy fringe of a once-great, if not the greatest, SF imagination," Kelvin Johnston of the London Observer commented that Heinlein is a "veteran raconteur who couldn't bore you if he tried."
Evaluations of Heinlein's career often point out the polarized critical reaction to his work. Though Heinlein "set the tone for much of modern science fiction," as Jonas reported, and Sturgeon believed "his influence on science fiction has been immense," there are critics who have characterized him as right-wing or even fascist and, based on their reaction to his politics, denigrate the value of Heinlein's work. Heinlein's belief in self-reliance, liberty, individualism, and patriotism make him appear, Joseph D. Olander and Martin Harry Green-berg noted in their Robert A. Heinlein, "to adopt positions favored by the American political right." Writing in the Detroit News, Bud Foote defined Heinlein's political thought, which Foote saw as having stayed consistent since the 1950s, in this way: "The greatest thing to which a human can aspire is living free. Enslaving one's fellow-human physically, mentally or spiritually is the unforgivable sin; allowing oneself so to be enslaved is nearly as bad. Honorable people meet their obligations; there's no such thing as a free lunch. All systems are suspect; all forms of government are terrible, with rule by the majority low on the list." Suplee saw much of Heinlein's fiction as concerned with "how freedom of will and libertarian self-reliance can coexist with devotion to authority and love of country." Olander and Greenberg thought Heinlein's best work deals with "some of the perennial concerns of philosophy, such as the best form of government, whether and to what extent political utopias are possible, and the dimensions of power, liberty, equality, justice, and order."
Central to Heinlein's vision is the strong and independent hero found in much of his fiction. The Heinlein hero, Olander and Greenberg explained, "is always tough, just, relatively fearless when it counts, and endowed with extraordinary skills and physical prowess." Johnston described the typical Heinlein protagonist as a "lone male genius on the Last Frontier who prevails against any organized authority that dares to restrict his potential." Writing in his study The Classic Years of Robert A. Heinlein, George Edgar Slusser characterized Heinlein's protagonists as "elite" men born with inherently superior traits. "Heinlein's elite are not known by physical signs, nor do they bear the traditional hero's stamp," Slusser wrote. They possess "a common mental disposition: they believe in individual freedom, and are willing to band together to fight entangling bureaucracy and mass strictures."
"His was a fiction of ideas," commented a National Review contributor in an appreciation of Heinlein written shortly after the writer's death. John Christie, in an obituary of Heinlein for London's Guardian, observed that the author "used his work unhesitatingly as a vehicle for strongly-held values of American, libertarian individualism." Whether one might think these values, in expressing them through his work, Christie added, Heinlein became and remained "the pre-eminent figure of his generation" in science fiction. Christie predicted that Heinlein would have "successors, but few peers."
BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:
Aldiss, Brian W., Billion Year Spree: The True History of Science Fiction, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1973.
Atheling, William, Jr., The Issue at Hand, Advent, 1964.
Atheling, William, Jr., More Issues at Hand, Advent, 1970.
Contemporary Literary Criticism, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), Volume 1, 1973, Volume 3, 1975, Volume 8, 1978, Volume 14, 1980, Volume 26, 1983, Volume 55, 1989.
Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 8: Twentieth Century American Science Fiction Writers, Thomson Gale (Detroit, MI), 1981.
Downing, Nancy Bailey, A Robert A. Heinlein Cyclopedia: A Complete Guide to the People, Places, and Things in the Fiction of Robert A. Heinlein, Borgo Press (San Bernardino, CA), 1996.
Olander, Joseph D., and Martin Harry Greenberg, editors, Robert A. Heinlein, Taplinger (New York, NY), 1978.
Panshin, Alexei, Heinlein in Dimension: A Critical Analysis, Advent, 1968.
Riley, Dick, editor, Critical Encounters: Writers and Themes in Science Fiction, Ungar (New York, NY), 1978.
Scholes, Robert, and Eric S. Rabkin, Science Fiction: History, Science, Vision, Oxford University Press, 1977.
Slusser, George Edgar, The Classic Years of Robert A. Heinlein, Borgo Press (San Bernardino, CA), 1977.
Slusser, George Edgar, and Robert Reginald, editors, Yesterday or Tomorrow?: Questions of Vision in the Fiction of Robert A. Heinlein: A Festschrift in Memory of Pilgrim Award Winner, Dr. Thomas Dean Clareson (1926–1993), Borgo Press (San Bernardino, CA), 1996.
Stephens, C. P., A Checklist of Robert A. Heinlein, Ultramarine Publishing Company, 1994.
Usher, Robin, Self-Begetting, Self-Devouring: Jungian Archetypes in the Fiction of Robert A. Heinlein, Borgo Press (San Bernardino, CA), 1996.
Analog, May, 1954; September, 1964.
Chicago Tribune, August 6, 1961.
Chicago Tribune Book World, August 17, 1980; January 7, 1984.
Christian Science Monitor, November 7, 1957.
Detroit News, July 25, 1982.
Entertainment Weekly, November 4, 1994, p. 49.
Extrapolation, December, 1970; May, 1975; spring, 1979; fall, 1979; fall, 1982; fall, 1990, p. 287.
Locus, May, 1989, p. 46; November, 1989, p. 23; January, 1991, p. 43.
Los Angeles Times, December 19, 1985.
Los Angeles Times Book Review, June 20, 1982; October 21, 1984; December 16, 1990, p. 10; December 23, 1990, p. 7; December 30, 1990, p. 10.
Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, June, 1956; November, 1961; March, 1971; October, 1980.
Modern Fiction Studies, spring, 1986.
National Observer, November 16, 1970.
National Review, March 26, 1963; November 16, 1970; December 12, 1980.
New Statesman, July 30, 1965.
New Yorker, July 1, 1974.
New York Herald Tribune Book Review, November 28, 1954; November 13, 1955; November 18, 1956; May 12, 1962.
New York Times, March 3, 1957; August 22, 1973.
New York Times Book Review, October 23, 1949; November 14, 1954; December 29, 1957; December 14, 1958; January 31, 1960; March 23, 1975; August 24, 1980; September 14, 1980; July 4, 1982; November 11, 1984; December 22, 1985; December 9, 1990, p. 13.
Observer (London, England), December 23, 1984.
Publishers Weekly, July 2, 1973; June 28, 1993, p. 72; October 10, 1994, p. 13.
Punch, August 25, 1965; November 22, 1967.
Saturday Review, November 1, 1958.
Science Fiction Chronicle, September, 1988, p. 45.
Science Fiction Review, November, 1970.
SF Commentary, May, 1976.
Spectator, June 3, 1966; July 30, 1977.
Speculation, August, 1969.
Times Literary Supplement, October 16, 1969; December 11, 1970; April 2, 1971; June 14, 1974.
Washington Post, September 5, 1984.
Washington Post Book World, May 11, 1975; June 27, 1982; December 31, 1989, p. 4; December 30, 1990.
Guardian (London, England), May 12, 1988.
National Review, June 10, 1988, p. 21.
Washington Post, May 10, 1988, p. B6.