German-American biochemist whose research helped to reveal the structural components of the virus. In a series of experiments with the tobacco mosaic virus, he was able to disassemble the virus into its infectious and noninfectious parts and reveal how the infectious process functions in the cell. He received his medical degree in 1934 and his Ph.D. in biochemistry in 1936 from the University of Edinburgh. After becoming a U.S. citizen, he joined the faculty at University of California at Berkeley in 1958.
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