Appendix I: Codes, Oaths, and Directives Related to Bioethics

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Kayhan Parsi

Neiswanger Institute for Bioethics and Health Policy
Stritch School of Medicine
Loyola University of Chicago



Carol Mason Spicer



Nature and Role of Codes and Other Ethics Directives

Introduction to the Codes, Oaths, and Directives

Section I. Directives on Health-Related Rights and Patient Responsibilities

Constitution of the World Health Organization [1948]

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, General Assembly of the United Nations [1948]

Declaration of the Rights of the Child, General Assembly of the United Nations [1959]

Declaration on the Rights of Mentally Retarded Persons, General Assembly of the United Nations [1971]

A Patient's Bill of Rights, American Hospital Association [1973, revised 1992]

Declaration of Lisbon on the Rights of the Patient, World Medical Association [1981, revised 1995]

Declaration on Physician Independence and Professional Freedom, World Medical Association [1986]

Fundamental Elements of the Patient–Physician Relationship, American Medical Association [1990, updated 1993]

Patient Responsibilities, American Medical Association [1993, revised 1998, 2000, 2001]

Patient Rights, Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations [1994]

Section II: Ethical Directives for the Practice of Medicine


Oath of Hippocrates [Fourth Century b.c.e.]

Oath of Initiation (Caraka Samhita) [First Century c.e.?]

Oath of Asaph [Third Century–Seventh Century c.e.?]

Advice to a Physician, Advice of Haly Abbas (Ahwazi) [Tenth Century c.e.]

The 17 Rules of Enjuin (For Disciples of Our School) [Sixteenth Century c.e.]

Five Commandments and Ten Requirements [1617]

A Physician's Ethical Duties from Kholasah al Hekmah [1770]

Daily Prayer of a Physician ("Prayer of Moses Maimonides") [1793?]

Code of Ethics, American Medical Association [1847]

Venezuelan Code of Medical Ethics, National Academy of Medicine [1918]

2. mid-twentieth century–2003

Declaration of Geneva, World Medical Association [1948, amended 1968, 1983, 1994]

International Code of Medical Ethics, World Medical Association [1949, amended 1968, 1983]

Principles of Medical Ethics (1957), American Medical Association [1957]

Principles of Medical Ethics (2001), American Medical Association [2001]

Current Opinions of the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs, American Medical Association [1994]

Declaration of Professional Responsibility: Medicine's Social Contract with Humanity(2001), American Medical Association [2001]

Charter on Medical Professionalism (2002), American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation, American College of Physicians—American Society of Internal Medicine Foundation, and European Foundation of Internal Medicine [2002]

The Moral and Technical Competence of the Ophthalmologist, American Academy of Ophthalmology [1995]

Code of Ethics, American Osteopathic Association [revised 1998]

Code of Ethics and Guide to the Ethical Behaviour of Physicians, Canadian Medical Association [revised 1996]

Code of Ethics and Guide to the Ethical Behaviour of Physicians, New Zealand Medical Association [1989, last amended 2002]

Code of Ethics of the Chilean Medical Association, Chilean Medical Association [1983]

Code of Medical Ethics, Brazil, Federal Council of Medicine [1988]

European Code of Medical Ethics, Conférence Internationale des Ordres et des Organismes d' Attributions Similaires [1987]

Code of Ethics for Doctors, Norwegian Medical Association [amended 2000]

Final Report Concerning Brain Death and Organ Transplantation, Japan Medical Association [1988]

Summary of the Report on Information from Doctors and Consent of Patients, Japan Medical Association [1991]

Oath of Soviet Physicians [1971]

Solemn Oath of a Physician of Russia [1992]

Regulations on Criteria for Medical Ethics and Their Implementation, Ministry of Health, People's Republic of China [1988]

Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Facilities, United States Catholic Conference [1971, revised 2001]

Health Care Ethics Guide, Catholic Health Association of Canada [2000]

The Oath of a Muslim Physician, Islamic Medical Association of North America [1977]

Islamic Code of Medical Ethics, Kuwait Document, Islamic Organization of Medical Sciences [1981]

Section III. Ethical Directives for Other Health-Care Professions

Code for Nurses, International Council of Nurses [1973, revised 2002]

Code for Nurses with Interpretive Statements, American Nurses' Association [1950, revised 1976, 1985, 2001]

Code of Ethics for Nursing, Canadian Nurses Association [1985, revised 1991]

Code of Ethics, American Chiropractic Association [1994–1995]

Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct with Advisory Opinions, American Dental Association [revised to June 2002]

Code of Ethics for the Profession of Dietetics, American Dietetic Association [1999]

Code of Ethics, American Association of Pastoral Counselors [last amended 1994]

Guidelines for the Chaplain's Role in Bioethics, College of Chaplains, American Protestant Health Association [1992]

Code of Ethics, American Pharmacists Association [1969, amended 1975, revised 1981, 1994]

Statement of Professional Standards: Code of Ethics for Pharmacists, Fédération Internationale Pharmaceutique [1997]

Code of Ethics and Guide for Professional Conduct, American Physical Therapy Association [1981, last amended 1991]

Occupational Therapy Code of Ethics, American Occupational Therapy Association [1988, revised 2000]

Code of Ethics of the Physician Assistant Profession, American Academy of Physician Assistants [1983, amended 1985, reaffirmed 1990]

Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, American Psychological Association [2002]

Code of Ethics, National Association of Social Workers [1979, revised 1999]

Code of Ethics, American College of Healthcare Executives [amended 1990]

Ethical Conduct for Health Care Institutions, American Hospital Association [1992]

Section IV. Ethical Directives for Human Research

German Guidelines on Human Experimentation [1931]

Nuremberg Code [1947]

Principles for Those in Research and Experimentation, World Medical Association [1954]

Article Seven, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, General Assembly of the United Nations [1958]

Declaration of Helsinki, World Medical Association [1964, revised 1975, 1983, 1989, 1996, 2000]

The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research, National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research [1979]

DHHS Regulations for the Protection of Human Subjects (45 CFR 46) [June 18, 1991]

Summary Report of the International Summit Conference on Bioethics [1987]

Recommendation No. R (90) 3 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States Concerning Medical Research on Human Beings, Council of Europe [1990]

International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) in collaboration with the World Health Organization [1993, revised 2002]

Section V. Ethical Directives Pertaining to the Welfare and Use of Animals

1. veterinary medicine

Veterinarian's Oath, American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) [1954, revised 1969, 1999]

Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics, American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) [revised 1993]

2. research involving animals

International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals, Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), World Health Organization [1984]

Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Education, U.S. Interagency Research Animal Committee [1985]

Ethics of Animal Investigation, Canadian Council on Animal Care [revised 1989]

Australian Code of Practice for the Care and Use of Animals for Scientific Purposes, National Health and Medical Research Council, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, and Australian Agricultural Council [revised 1997]

World Medical Association Statement on Animal Use in Biomedical Research, World Medical Association [1989]

Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Animals, American Psychological Association [1985, revised 1992]

Principles and Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Precollege Education, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council [1989]

Section VI. Ethical Directives Pertaining to the Environment

World Charter for Nature, General Assembly of the United Nations [1982]

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, United Nations Conference on Environment and Development [1992]

Conservation Policies of the Wildlife Society, The Wildlife Society [1988]

Code of Ethics for Members of the Society of American Foresters, Society of American Foresters [1976, amended 1986, 1992, 2000]

Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice for Environmental Professionals, National Association of Environmental Professionals [1979, revised 1994]

Code of Ethics, National Environmental Health Association [revised 1992]


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Appendix I: Codes, Oaths, and Directives Related to Bioethics

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