1. Fourth Century B.C.E.–Early Twentieth Century C.E.

Updated About encyclopedia.com content Print Article Share Article
views updated

1. Fourth Century B.C.E.–Early Twentieth Century C.E.

The ethical directives for the practice of medicine included in this section are organized in two primary groups: (1) codes, oaths, prayers, and other directives from the fourth century b.c.e. through the early-twentieth century; and (2) directives from the mid-twentieth century through 2003. Documents in the first group are arranged in chronological order; those in the second group are arranged chronologically within thematic clusters, for example, by issuing body, area of the world, and philosophical or religious tradition.

Some of the documents in this section address not only physicians but also healthcare institutions and the health professions in general; they are included in this section because many medical ethics codes historically have applied not only to physicians but also to the practice of health care more generally. Ethical directives for medical specialties generally have not been included in this Appendix, due to space constraints.