Section II. Ethical Directives for the Practice of Medicine

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1. Fourth century B.C.E.–Early twentieth century C.E.

Oath of Hippocrates (Fourth Century b.c.e.)

Oath of Initiation (Caraka Samhita) (First Century c.e.?)

Oath of Asaph (Third Century-Seventh Century c.e.?)

Advice to a Physician, Advice of Haly Abbas (Ahwazi) (Tenth Century c.e.)

The 17 Rules of Enjuin (For Disciples of Our School) (Sixteenth Century c.e.)

Five Commandments and Ten Requirements (1617)

A Physician's Ethical Duties from Kholasah alHekmah (1770)

Daily Prayer of a Physician ("Prayer of Moses Maimonides") (1793?)

Code of Ethics, American Medical Association (1847)

Venezuelan Code of Medical Ethics, National Academy of Medicine (1918)

2. Mid-twentieth century—2003

Declaration of Geneva, World Medical Association (1948, amended 1968, 1983, 1994)

International Code of Medical Ethics, World Medical Association (1949, amended 1968,1983) )

Principles of Medical Ethics (1957), American Medical Association

Principles of Medical Ethics (2001), American Medical Association

Current Opinions of the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs, American Medical Association (2002)

Declaration of Professional Responsibility: Medicine's Social Contract with Humanity (2001), American Medical Association [2001]

Charter on Medical Professionalism (2002), American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation, Amercian College of Physicians—American Society of Internal Medicine Foundation, and European Foundation of Internal Medicine [2002]

The Moral and Technical Competence of the Ophthalmologist, American Academy of Ophthalmology (1995)

Code of Ethics, American Osteopathic Association (1998)

Code of Ethics and Guide to the Ethical Behaviour of Physicians, Canadian Medical Association (1996)

Code of Ethics and Guide to the Ethical Behaviour of Physicians, New Zealand Medical Association (2002)

Code of Ethics of the Chilean Medical Association, Chilean Medical Association (1983)

Code of Medical Ethics, Brazil, Federal Council of Medicine (1988)

European Code of Medical Ethics, Conférence Internationale des Ordres et des Organismes d' Attributions Similaires (1987)

Code of Ethics for Doctors, Norwegian Medical Association (amended 2000)

Final Report Concerning Brain Death and Organ Transplantation, Japan Medical Association (1988)

Summary of the Report on Information from Doctors and Consent of Patients, Japan Medical Association (1991)

Oath of Soviet Physicians (1971)

Solemn Oath of a Physician of Russia (1992)

Regulations on Criteria for Medical Ethics and Their Implementation, Ministry of Health, People's Republic of China (1988)

Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Facilities, United States Catholic Conference (1971, revised 2001)

Health Care Ethics Guide, Catholic Health Association of Canada (1991)

The Oath of a Muslim Physician, Islamic Medical Association of North America (1977)

Islamic Code of Medical Ethics, Kuwait Document, Islamic Organization for Medical Sciences (1981)

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