Section V. Ethical Directives Pertaining to the Welfare and Use of Animals

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SECTION V. ETHICAL DIRECTIVES PERTAINING TO THE WELFARE AND USE OF ANIMALS

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1. Veterinary Medicine

Veterinarian's Oath, American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) [1954, revised 1969, 1999]

Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics, American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) [revised 1993]

2. Research Involving Animals

International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals, Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), World Health Organization [1984]

Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Education, U.S. Interagency Research Animal Committee [1985]

Ethics of Animal Investigation, Canadian Council on Animal Care [revised 1989]

Australian Code of Practice for the Care and Use of Animals for Scientific Purposes, National Health and Medical Research Council, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, and Australian Agricultural Council [revised 1989,1997]

World Medical Association Statement on Animal Use in Biomedical Research, World Medical Association [1989]

Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Animals, American Psychological Association [1985, revised 1992]

Principles and Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Precollege Education, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council [1989]

Concern for the humane treatment of animals was expressed in the nineteenth century in both the United Kingdom and the United States through societies organized for the prevention of cruelty to animals. The Cruelty to Animals Act, enacted by the British Parliament in 1876, was among the earliest and most comprehensive laws for the protection of animals. Antivivisection proposals were made to the New York State legislature in the nineteenth century, but it was not until 1966 that the United States government enacted the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq.), which, with accompanying regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), is the most comprehensive code for the promotion of animal welfare in the United States.