Skip to main content


Santalum (sandalwood; family Santalaceae) A genus of semi-parasitic shrubs and small trees, with opposite, simple leaves which are often linear, and roots that attach to the roots of other plants. The small flowers are held in cymes or panicles, and are green or white in colour. The perianth is 4-lobed, and there are 4 stamens. The fruit is a globular drupe with an outer, succulent, brightly coloured cover over the hard, woody shell that protects the seed. The succulent part of the fruit is edible. S. spicatum is one of the fragrant sandalwoods used for incense. S. album gives sandalwood oil and is extensively cultivated, especially in India, although it appears not to be native there. The oil is distilled from the wood. There are 8–9 species which are found from south-eastern Asia to the south-western Pacific region and Hawaii.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Santalum." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . 18 Mar. 2019 <>.

"Santalum." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . (March 18, 2019).

"Santalum." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Retrieved March 18, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.