Titus of Bostra

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Fourth-century bishop of Bostra, Arabia; fl. c. 362 to 378. Titus is known mainly from a letter of julian the apostate (362; Ep. 52) urging the people to expel their bishop from Bostra; he signed the homoousian formula in the Synod of Antioch under Meletius in 363. Jerome says he died during the reign of Valens (363378; De vir.ill. 102) and praises his four books Against the Manichees (Jerome, Ep. 70), a work that is mentioned by Theodoret of Cyr (Patrologia Graeca, 83:381) and has been preserved in Syriac with portions in Greek (ed. Lagarde, 2d ed. Hanover 1926; Patrologia Graeca, 18:10591256).

Titus argues against the Manichean dualistic teaching (bk. 1) and refutes the notion of an eternal existence for matter and the devil by a consideration of divine providence (bk. 2); defends the Old Testament (bk. 3); and explains the meaning of the New Law (bk. 4). Utilizing the Scripture, and implicitly Plato and the Stoics, Titus attempts an interesting synthesis of Hellenism and Christianity, which he opposes to Oriental dualism. The texts he quotes from Mani, however, are more likely from Mani's disciple Adda, according to Heraclian of Chalcedon (Photius, Bibl. cod. 85). Titus's ideas on the Trinity and Incarnation are worthy of consideration. Of his exegesis, only fragments are known through the catenae, and remains of a Homily on Luke indicate an early Antiochene leaning toward literal interpretation. Syriac fragments of an On the Epiphany seem to be his; but the Homily on Palm Sunday (Patrologia Graeca, 18:126378) and the Parable of the Unjust Judge (ed. Fronto du Duc, 1624) are not authentic.

Bibliography: j. sickenberger, Titus von Bostra: Studien zu dessert Lukashomilien (TU new ser. 6.1; 1901); Biblische Zeitschrift 1 (1903) 182193. r. p. casey, Paulys Realenzyklopädie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft, ed. g. wissowa et al. (Stuttgart 1893) 6A.2 (1937) 158691. j. quasten, Patrology (Westminster MD 1950) 3:359362. b. altaner, Patrology (New York 1960) 360361.

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