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Tiwinza is a twenty-square-kilometer jungle area within territory claimed by Peru in the Cordillera del Cóndor region near the Ecuador-Peru frontier. Occupied by Ecuadorian troops during the 1995 border war, Tiwinza was subject to some of the fiercest fighting in the conflict, during which Peruvian forces were unable to dislodge them. Under the provisions of the October 1998 treaty ratified by both governments, Peru gained sovereignty over the disputed Cordillera del Cóndor territory, but with a provision that one square kilometer of Tiwinza be private property where Ecuador could conduct commemorative ceremonies in perpetuity.

See alsoEcuador-Peru Boundary Disputes .


Marcella, Gabriel, and Richard Downes, eds. Security Cooperation in the Western Hemisphere: Resolving the Ecuador-Peru Conflict. Coral Gables, FL: North-South Center Press, University of Miami, 1999.

                                  David Scott Palmer

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