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STETTIN (Szczecin ), city in Pomerania, N.W. Poland. Jews are first mentioned there in 1261 in a charter granted by Duke Barnim I which extended *Magdeburg law to the city. In all probability, however, they had been living there for some time. The charter was renewed in 1371 by dukes Casimir iv and Swantibor iii. All Jews were expelled from *Pomerania in 1492/93 and they did not return until the 17th century. Jews were occasionally employed at the Prussian mint in Stettin; in 1753 the medalist Jacob Abraham of Strelitz worked there as a die cutter, while at the same time Moses Isaak and Daniel *Itzig supplied the mint with silver. Permanent residence was denied to the Jews throughout the 18th century. The modern community grew up from 1812. In 1818 it numbered 18, including the Hebrew grammarian Ḥayyim b. Naphtali Coeslin (J.H. Borchard), and by 1840 had increased to 381. The first synagogue was built in 1834/35. The community grew through emigration from Posen (Poznan) and West Prussia, reaching 1,823 in 1871; in 1875 a new synagogue was dedicated; an organ was introduced in 1910. From 1867 the community also had an Orthodox prayer room. During the course of the 19th century, Jewish books were printed in the city. The community maintained a religious school from 1850; the cemetery was opened in 1821. The Jewish population increased to 2,757 in 1910, then declined to 2,703 in 1930 and 2,365 in 1933. The following rabbis officiated in Stettin: W.A. Meisel (1843–59); Abraham Treuenfels (1860–79); Heinemann *Vogelstein (1880–1911); Max *Wiener (1912–26); Max Elk (1926–35); K. Richter (1936–38); and H. Finkelscherer, who served from 1938 until the deportation in 1940; he perished with the other deportees. On the eve of the Nazi accession to power, the community maintained an orphanage and an old-age home, as well as numerous charitable organizations.

During the night of Feb. 11/12, 1940, the Jews of Stettin were deported together with other Pomeranian Jews to Belzyce, Glusk, and Piaski. After the so-called population transfers of a few Jews, the remainder were murdered in Belzyce on Oct. 28, 1942. Only a very few survived. Following the departure of the last "non-Aryans" (partners of mixed marriages) after World War ii, Jews from Poland settled in Stettin, which had become part of Poland. A new community was organized, numbering 1,050 in 1959. In 1962 two Jewish producers' cooperatives were active, and the community maintained a school and a synagogue. The majority of Jews left after the Six-Day War.


U. Grotefend, Geschichte und rechtliche Stellung der Juden in Pommern (1930); fjw, 73–75; I. Bialostocki, in: bŻih, no. 71/72 (1969), 83–105; J. Peiser, Die Geschichte der Synagogen-Gemeinde zu Stettin (19652); Lebenszeichen aus Piaski. Briefe Deportierter aus dem Distrikt Lublin 194043 (1968); Germ Jud, 2 (1968), 795–6; E. Taeubler, Mitteilungen des Gesamtarchivs der deutschen Juden, 1 (1909), 37–41.

[Bernhard Brilling]

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