Skip to main content


Nacogdoches (năk´ədō´chĬs), city (1990 pop. 30,872), seat of Nacogdoches co., E Tex., in a pine and hardwood forest area; settled 1779. Industries in the city include lumbering, livestock and poultry raising and processing, and the manufacture of feed, wood and electronic products, motor homes, and furniture. Tourism is also important; within the vicinity is the huge Sam Rayburn Reservoir and many lakes. A Spanish mission was founded there in 1716; permanent settlers did not arrive until 1779. The settlement was a Spanish bastion against the French in Louisiana. After the Louisiana Purchase it was twice (1812, 1819) seized by U.S. raiding expeditions. In 1820 about 100 American families were issued land grants there; such settlement led to the 1826 Fredonian Rebellion. The city was active in the Texas Revolution (1835–36). The state's first oil wells were drilled near the city in 1859. On the campus of Stephen F. Austin State Univ. is a Spanish presidio built in 1779. Sam Houston and Thomas J. Rusk lived there. Four signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence are buried in the Oak Grove Cemetery.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Nacogdoches." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 19 Dec. 2018 <>.

"Nacogdoches." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (December 19, 2018).

"Nacogdoches." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 19, 2018 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.