Mpumalanga, province (2011 pop. 4,039,939), 29,535 sq mi (76,495 sq km), E South Africa. In 1994, under South Africa's post-apartheid constitution, Mpumalanga was created from the eastern portion of the former province of Transvaal. Until 1995 it was called Eastern Transvaal. The province is bounded on the north by Limpopo, on the east by Mozambique and Swaziland, on the southeast by KwaZulu-Natal, on the southwest by Free State, and on the west by Gauteng.
Mbombela (formerly called Nelspruit) is the capital and most populous municipality. Situated mainly on the high plateau grasslands of the highveld, the land rises in the northeast to mountain peaks and the high escarpment of the Drakensberg Range, then plunges in places to low-lying areas of the lowveld.
There is a large petrochemical industry in the highveld region, as well as manufacturing. Gold, platinum, and coal are important mineral resources. Corn, wheat, and other grains are grown in the cooler highveld areas, while sugar, citrus and a variety of subtropical fruits are common crops in the subtropical lowveld. There is also sheep farming and forestry. Tourism is important, with Kruger National Park a popular destination. The principal languages are Swati (Swazi) and Zulu.