laminitis (lăm´ənī´tĬs), also called founder, inflammation of the lamina, the innermost layer of the hoof wall in horses, ponies, and donkeys. Although the condition usually affects only the front feet, it may involve all four feet. Both acute and chronic forms occur. The laminae become inflamed because of congestion of blood and accumulation of toxins in the hoof region resulting from any of several causes, e.g., consumption of large quantities of grain; ingestion of large amounts of cold water by overheated horses; concussion during fast, hard road work; and toxemia following pneumonia or infection of the uterus. The signs of acute laminitis appear rapidly and include sweating, a rise in temperature to as high as 106°F (62°C), a pounding pulse in the digital artery to the involved hoof, an expression of anxiety, and a stance with the legs forward of their natural position so as to reduce the pain of weight bearing. Chronic laminitis is characterized by a shifting or rotation of the bone and other anatomical distortions in the hoof. The disease is treated by eliminating the causative factors, administering drugs for the acute form, and trimming hooves and fitting corrective horseshoes for the chronic form.
"laminitis." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 24, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/laminitis
"laminitis." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved May 24, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/laminitis
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.