Chang Hsüeh-liang or Zhang Xueliang (jäng´ shüĕ´-lyäng´), 1898–2001, Chinese warlord, son of Chang Tso-lin. On the death (1928) of his father, he succeeded as military governor of Manchuria. He was then known as Chang Hsiao-liang but later changed his name. Chang supported Chiang Kai-shek against a rebellious northern army in 1929–30 and was made vice commander in chief of all Chinese forces and a member of the central political council. Ousted (1931) by the Japanese from Manchuria, he suffered a loss of prestige. In 1936, with the help of Chinese Communists, he had Chiang kidnapped at Xi'an, to compel cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communists and to force a declaration of war against Japan. Chiang Kai-shek was released unconditionally a few weeks later. Chang, who then surrendered to Chiang, was tried and sentenced for his part in the affair; he was pardoned but kept in custody until 1962. He was taken to Taiwan when the Nationalist regime fled there in 1949.
"Chang Hsüeh-liang." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chang-hsueh-liang
"Chang Hsüeh-liang." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved June 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chang-hsueh-liang
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.