Chang, Garma Chen-Chi (1920-)

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Chang, Garma Chen-Chi (1920-)

An authority on Buddhist philosophy, born in China and educated at Kong-ka Monastery, eastern Tibet. Chang came to the United States after World War II and was a research fellow at the Bollingen Foundation in New York from 1955 onward.

He wrote a number of books, including The Practice of Zen (1959), The Hundred Thousand Songs of Milarepa (1962), and The Essential Teachings of the Tibetan Mysticism (1963). He also wrote an important review of the book The Third Eye (1958), by Lop-sang Rampa, published in Tomorrow magazine as part of an exposé of the author. Chang showed that Rampa's knowledge of Buddhism and Tibetan occultism was "inaccurate and superficial" and characterized the book as "interesting and highly imaginative fiction." This review appeared alongside a second article, which noted that "Lopsang Rampa" had been born Cyril Henry Hoskins, son of a British plumber.


Chang, Garma Chen-Chi. Esoteric Teachings of the Tibetan Tantra. Lausanne, Switzerland: Falcon's Wing Press, 1961.

. Teachings of Tibetan Yoga. New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1963.

. "Tibetan Phantasies." Tomorrow 6, 2 (Spring 1958): 13-16.

Chang, Garma Chen-Chi, ed. The Hundred Thousand Songs of Milarepa. New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1962. Re-print, Boulder, Colo.: Shambhala, 1977.