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Chang Tao-ling or Chang Ling (2nd cent. CE). Founder of the Taoist school of wu-tou-mi tao, which emphasized the connection between sin and suffering, and which introduced repentance and healing ceremonies (see CHAI), for which were required payment of five pecks of rice—hence the name for the school. The movement was further organized and developed by Chang Hsiu and Chang Lu. After his death, he has continued to be revered as the Celestial Master (religiously as Chang Tʾien Shih) down to the present day.