United States Trust CO. v. New Jersey 431 U.S. 1 (1977)
UNITED STATES TRUST CO. v. NEW JERSEY 431 U.S. 1 (1977)
This decision marked the beginning of the modern revitalization of the contract clause as a limitation on state legislative power. New York and New Jersey had promised, on issuing bonds to support their Port Authority, to limit severely their use of Authority revenues to subsidize rail passenger transportation. Twelve years later the states sought to divert commuters from automobiles to railroads; they raised bridge and tunnel tolls and, repealing their earlier promise, authorized use of the increased revenues to subsidize commuter railroads. The Supreme Court, 4–3, held the repeal unconstitutional as an impairment of the obligation of contract.
The dissenters, led by Justice william j. brennan, accurately described the decision as the first in nearly forty years to invalidate economic legislation under the contract clause and argued vigorously for maintaining judicial deference to legislative power. For the majority, Justice harry a. blackmun commented that the outright repeal had deprived bondholders of an important security interest and could be justified only if it were both "reasonable and necessary to serve an important public purpose." The repeal failed this heightened standard of review, because alternative means of diverting commuters to railroads were available: taxing parking or gasoline, for example.
Kenneth L. Karst
(see also: Allied Structural Steel Company v. Spannaus.)
"United States Trust CO. v. New Jersey 431 U.S. 1 (1977)." Encyclopedia of the American Constitution. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.
"United States Trust CO. v. New Jersey 431 U.S. 1 (1977)." Encyclopedia of the American Constitution. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/politics/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/united-states-trust-co-v-new-jersey-431-us-1-1977
"United States Trust CO. v. New Jersey 431 U.S. 1 (1977)." Encyclopedia of the American Constitution. . Retrieved September 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/politics/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/united-states-trust-co-v-new-jersey-431-us-1-1977
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.