TOLEDO , city in Castile, central *Spain; capital of Castile until 1561.
Early Jewish Settlement and Visigothic Period
There is no substantive information available on the beginnings of the Jewish settlement in Toledo, which was only a small village in the period of Roman rule over Spain. According to a Jewish tradition dating from the period of Muslim rule, the Jewish settlement in Toledo was the most ancient in the Iberian peninsula. This tradition was accepted by Isaac *Abrabanel who states (in his commentary to the Book of Kings, at the end, and to Obadiah 20) that the first settlers were exiles from the tribes of Judah and Benjamin, who had arrived there after the destruction of the First Temple, and were associated with a legend concerning Pirus and Hispan who took part in the siege of Jerusalem. Hence the name "Tuletula" (Lat. Toletum = Toledo) has been explained as deriving from their wanderings (Heb. taltelah) when they were expelled from their land.
Jews probably established themselves there when the town became the capital of the Visigoths, or during the preceding fourth to fifth centuries c.e. The Jewish settlement was, however, inconsiderable, the Jews then being mainly concentrated in the towns on the east coast. Once the Visigoths became converted to Christianity, the *Church councils held in Toledo, particularly from the reign of Sisenand onward, directed many decrees against them, which the Visigothic kings strictly applied. The legislation indicates that there were Jewish settlements in Toledo and the vicinity mainly engaged in agriculture. When the danger of a Muslim invasion seemed imminent, the 17th Church Council, held in Toledo in 694, accused the Jews of plotting, in collaboration with their coreligionists living across the straits, to destroy the Christian kingdom. There is, however, no foundation to the accusation that the Jews delivered the town to the Muslims at the time of its capture (c. 712). Information on the conquest and the presence of Jews in the town is extant from a later period: during the 13th century, Ibn al-Adhari wrote that there had been only a few Jews in the town at the time of its conquest.
The Jewish Quarter
The first sources referring to the Jewish quarter of Toledo are from the 12th century. At that time its size was much smaller and was in the district of San Martín. The Jewish population of Toledo increased considerably and with it the size of the Jewish quarter, which expanded as far as San Tomé and later reached San Román. The Jewish quarter in Toledo was situated in the western part of the town, where it remained throughout the existence of the Jewish settlement. Its location has been always known in the city. The documents related to the Jews of Toledo published by León Tello make it possible to define with a great degree of precision the boundaries of the quarter. In this area, a number of streets bear names recalling the magnificent past of the community: Samuel ha-Levi, Travesía de la Judería. The quarter spread as far as the gate known today as Cambrón, formerly named "Gate of the Jews." The principal artery of the Jewish quarter, at present known as Calle del Angel, was formerly named Calle de la Judería. This street led to a spacious square which was presumably the center of the quarter. The wall which surrounded the quarter was built as early as 820. There was also a fortress in the quarter for the protection of the Jewish population. Because of the form of its construction, the quarter constituted a kind of independent town which could provide support and assistance to the king when necessary. The Jewish quarter reached the peak of its development and size in the middle of the 14th century. A mistaken reading of one of the sources misled some scholars into thinking that there was a second, smaller quarter near the Cathedral.
The Jewish quarter of Toledo was not exclusively inhabited by Jews. Several well-known Christian noblemen had houses in the precincts of the Jewish quarter. The size of the Jewish population of Toledo cannot be estimated from the area of the Jewish quarter. Baer estimates that the community consisted of 350 families during the 14th century, including those who lived in villages in the vicinity. The historian Ayala concluded that 1,200 Jewish men, women, and children of Toledo died in the persecutions of 1355, in the Alcana quarter only, though Baer does not consider that there were so many Jews living here. In 1368, during the siege of Henry of Trastamara against the town, 8,000 Jews including adults and children died in Toledo, showing the magnitude of their numbers at that time. The community of Toledo was one of the largest in the Iberian peninsula, and at the height of its prosperity the Jews probably formed one third of the city's population, which was then over 40,000.
Jewish Edifices and Ancient Remnants
Toledo is one of the few towns of Spain where remnants of Jewish edifices have been preserved. Toward the close of the 15th century the sources (see Cantera, in bibliography) mention ten synagogues and a further five battei midrash. The synagogues included the Great Synagogue situated in the old quarter, which was destroyed by fire in 1250; the Old Synagogue, renovated in 1107, an event which Judah Halevi immortalized in a poem; the Ben-Ziza Synagogue, and many others, some of whose names have not been recorded. In addition, there was a synagogue founded by Joseph Abu 'Omar *Ibn Shoshan in 1203, converted into a church named Santa Maria la Blanca in 1411 by Vicente *Ferrer (see below). Another synagogue was built by Don Samuel Halevi in c. 1357; transferred to the Order of the Knights of Calatrava in 1494, it later belonged to the priory of San Benito and is at present named El Transito. These two synagogues, still standing, are built in pronounced Mudéjar style and are distinguished for the beauty of their arches and general appearance. They were evidently built by Moorish craftsmen, and underwent structural alterations to adapt them to church requirements. Both were declared national monuments toward the middle of the 19th century. Repairs have been carried out in the Samuel Halevi Synagogue, and the women's gallery and other parts have been restored. In 1964 it was decided to transform the synagogue into the Sephardi Museum. The museum contains very important Jewish tombstones and various articles of great historical value. The synagogue is decorated with passages from the Psalms and beautiful dedicatory inscriptions to the benefactor and builder of the synagogue and King Pedro, during whose reign it was erected. The house of Samuel Halevi, still standing, was for a while inhabited by the painter El Greco.
Toledo also has many remnants of Jewish tombstones, some of which are preserved in the archaeological museum of the town and others in the Sephardi Museum. Copying of the inscriptions on these tombstones was begun from the end of the 16th century; many of the tombstones have since been lost. During the 19th century these reproductions were seen by S.D. *Luzzatto, who published them (Avnei Zikkaron). A scholarly edition of these inscriptions was published by Cantera and Míllas with the addition of inscriptions and findings discovered after Luzzatto's publication. Of the tombstones whose inscriptions were published, noteworthy are those of Joseph Abu 'Omar ibn Shoshan (builder of the synagogue mentioned above) who died in 1205; several members of the *Abulafia family; *Jonah b. Abraham of Gerona (d. 1264); David b. Gedaliah ibn Yaḥya of Portugal (d. 1325); *Jacob b. Asher, author of the Turim (d. 1340), son of *Asher b. Jehiel (see below); his brother, *Judah b. Asher, and members of his family who died in the Black Death in 1349; the woman Sitbona (a unique tombstone preserved in the archaeological museum of Toledo); and R. Menahem b. Zerah author of Ẓeidah la-Derekh (d. 1385).
Other findings include a pillar with the inscription "Blessed be thy coming and blessed be thy going," with an Arabic version of a blessing, which belonged to one of the synagogues of the town; its architectural form indicates that it dates from the late 12th or early 13th century. The bath house of the Jews of the town was handed over to the San Clemente monastery in 1131 by Alfonso vii but its location is unknown. This abundance of findings is exceptional in Spain, where few Jewish remains have been preserved. All the efforts in looking for a mikveh or ritual bath have led to no concrete or certain results. Of special interest is a fresco in one of the exits of the Cathedral describing the blood libel leveled against the Jews, accused of murdering a child of La Guardia.
[Haim Beinart /
Yom Tov Assis (2nd ed.)]
Period of Muslim Rule
During the 11th century, when Toledo was ruled by the Berber Ibn Danun dynasty, it had a large Jewish population of about 4,000, divided into separate communities generally according to place of origin (e.g., the Cordobans, Barcelonese, etc.), and a group to which was attributed *Khazar descent. Toledo was also the center of the *Karaites in Spain. Jewish occupations included textile manufacture, tanning, and dyeing, military professions, and commerce. Jews in the villages near Toledo were known for their skill in agriculture and viticulture. A wealthy class of Jewish merchants, bankers, and agents for foreign Christian rulers lived in Toledo. Toledo became a center of Jewish scholarship, translation, and science; the astronomer Zarkal (Abu Ishaq Ibrahim b. Yaḥya) lived there for a time in the mid-11th century, and the biblical commentator Judah b. Samuel *Ibn Bal'am was born and educated in Toledo in this period.
Toledo under Christian Rule
The situation of the Jews in Toledo remained unchanged after the town was conquered by Alfonso vi in 1085. During the 12th century it continued as a center of learning and Jews and apostates were among those who translated works of mathematics, astronomy, and other subjects from Arabic into the spoken vernacular and from that language into Latin. The capitulation terms of the town show that Alfonso promised the Muslims that they could retain their mosques and would only transfer to him the fortified places. There is, however, no information available on the terms affecting the Jews although the fortress situated in their quarter remained in their possession. At this time and throughout the reign of Alfonso, Don Joseph *Ferrizuel (Cidellus) held office in the royal court and was particularly active in favor of his coreligionists.
From then on, the community developed until it became the most prominent in the Kingdom of Castile and one of the most important in Spain. In 1101 Alfonso granted the Arabized Christian population a privilege establishing that the fines they might pay should amount to only one-fifth of those paid by others, excepting in the case of murder or robbery of a Jew or Moor. When Alfonso vi died in 1109, the inhabitants of the town rebelled and attacked the Jews. Alfonso vii, the crown prince, reached a compromise with the townsmen and issued a series of laws discriminating against the Jews, and laid down that lawsuits between Jews and Christians were to be brought before a Christian judge. In 1118 he actually reintroduced the Visigothic law of the fourth council of Toledo in 633, which excluded "those of Jewish origin" from all public positions.
During this period some of the most distinguished personalities of their time lived in Toledo: Isaac *Ibn Ezra who apparently left the town in 1119; Moses *Ibn Ezra who stayed there; and Joseph ibn Kamaniel, the physician, one of the wealthiest members of the community who was entrusted with an important diplomatic mission to the king of Portugal. There were also the families of Shoshan, Al-Fakhar, Halevi, Abulafia, Zadok (who were given land in a village near Toledo in 1132), and Ferrizuel. Because of their importance, the last regarded themselves as descendants of the House of David and as being of noble birth: they assumed the title of nasi and thus became a kind of oligarchy within the Jewish community. This family produced the leading tax lessees in the city, in the surrounding area, and in the whole kingdom, as well as other courtiers almost throughout the community's existence. During the reign of Sancho iii (1157–58), the position of almoxarife in Toledo was held by Judah Joseph ibn Ezra (referred to as Bonjuda in documents); the king granted him lands and exempted him from the payment of tithes on these estates and taxes. R. Judah is known for his energetic activity to remove Karaism from Castile. During the reign of Alfonso viii (1158–1214), when Toledo was again threatened by the *Almohads, the Christian soldiers maltreated the Jews, although these had actively participated in the defense of the town. Joseph Al-Fakhar and his son Abraham, originally from Granada, then acted as almoxarifes in Toledo, as did also members of the Ibn Ezra family and Joseph Abu Omar ibn Shoshan.
The language spoken by the Jews of Toledo and employed in their documents during the 11th to 13th centuries was partly Arabic; they customarily wrote their documents in Arabic with Hebrew characters. These sources reveal a well-developed economic life. Jews of Toledo are recorded as having sold or purchased land, as lenders and borrowers, and are also found in partnerships with Christians in real estate transactions and in commerce. The documents show that the Jews of Toledo did not turn to the non-Jewish tribunals, as was customary in other communities, in matters which involved both Christians and Jews. The Jews owned fields and vineyards and occasionally leased land and pastures in partnership with Christians; they maintained slaves, owned shops, and engaged in every kind of craft. In conjunction with Christians they even occasionally leased the revenues of churches and monasteries. The documents also indicate the status of several of their signatories within the framework of the community. Some of them bear the title of sofer or ḥazzan, as well as honorifics such as al-ḥakim and al-vazir. Apparently until the close of the 12th century, the community's style of life resembled that of a Jewish community under Muslim rule. It was only in the course of the 13th century that the prevailing Arab titles lost their luster. By the beginning of the 14th century, use of Arabic in deeds and documents was abandoned.
The administrative organization of the community does not appear to have changed throughout its existence. There is no information on the administrative organization during Muslim rule, but a responsum attributed to R. Joseph ibn Migash mentions the existence, in the early 12th century, of an organization headed by seven notables and elders and a bet din. During that period there were also administrative leaders in the community. Gonzalez Palencia has shown that these positions were held by members of distinguished families. From the 13th century the community was administered by ten *muqaddimūn. Under the influence of Don Joseph ibn Wakar, changes were introduced into the procedure for the election of the community leaders: two arbitrators were elected to choose the muqaddimūn. After the expulsion of the Jews from Spain the regulations of Toledo became a model for the organization of the communities of Spanish refugees who settled in North Africa and throughout the territories of the Ottoman Empire.
The decisions of the Fourth *Lateran Council of 1215 influenced the relationship between the Church and the Jews of the town. Rodrigo, the archbishop of Toledo, reached an agreement with the Jews of the archdiocese according to which every Jew aged over 20 would pay one sixth of a gold coin to him as an annual tax; it was laid down that doubtful cases were to be decided by four elders, the muqaddimūn of the community, and two Jews chosen by the archbishop; the Jews of Toledo would be exempted from all tithe payments as decided by the Lateran Council, and any property sold by a Jew to a Christian throughout the archdiocese would be exempted from tithe payment. The archbishop undertook to protect the Jews, and the elders of the community were responsible for observance of the agreement by the Jews. Ferdinand iii ratified this agreement.
In the 13th century, under the auspices of Alfonso x, the Wise, Jews were involved in translating scientific, philosophical, and medical works from Arabic into Castilian. Out of the 12 translators engaged in the program 5 were Jewish, and they translated 40 percent of all the works.
A period of crisis occurred at the time of the revolt of Crown Prince Sancho against his father (1280–81). A contemporary author relates that the community of Toledo was shaken "as Sodom and Gomorrah." Alfonso x ordered the imprisonment of the Jews in their synagogues, from which they were not to be released until the community paid him a special tax. Notables of the community remained in prison for many months. Attempts were even made there to convert them and several were executed. The distinguished poet Todros b. Judah Ha-Levi was among the prisoners, who after some self-examination decided to repent. He called on the community to amend its evil ways in transactions and commerce, and to separate from non-Jewish women, among other practices. The community accepted his appeal, and a ḥerem ("ban") was proclaimed in the synagogue against anyone committing these offenses. This was an act of repentance on the part of a whole community. One of the scholars of Toledo, Jacob b. Crisp, turned to Solomon b. Abraham *Adret (Rashba) and requested his opinion and sanction for the administration of "this province and the penalization of offenders." The latter advised that the same rule could not be applied to everyone: at first a gentle manner should be adopted, but if this proved of no avail, then the strict letter of the law was to be applied.
The same conditions prevailed within the community of Toledo during the reigns of Alfonso and Sancho. The main figure among the Jewish courtiers was Don Abraham El Barchillon, a native of Toledo, first mentioned in state documents as having leased the minting of coins in the kingdom. Others included Don Abraham ibn Shoshan who had already risen to importance during the reign of Alfonso x, and was the almoxarife of the queen. The poet Todros ha-Levi Abulafia also resumed his public activities and for a period headed a group of personalities who leased the state revenues: the port customs duties, payments to the royal office, and others.
During his own lifetime, Maimonides was challenged in Toledo by a notable adversary, Meir b. Todros ha-Levi Abulafia, whose opinions were shared by the physician Judah b. Joseph al-Fakhar, and Joseph b. Todros Ha-Levi, the brother of R. Meir. They regarded the writings of Maimonides to be dangerous in that they could undermine faith. The controversy over the study of the writings of Maimonides (see *Maimonidean controversy) received particular impetus in Toledo in 1304–05, at the time of the publication of the correspondence between Solomon b. Adret and Abba Mari *Astruc on the subject of the ḥerem issued against the study of the Guide of the Perplexed. The correspondence was published by Samson b. Meir, who went to Toledo to obtain the signatures of the community leaders to this ḥerem and the support of R. Asher b. Jehiel (Rosh), who from the beginning of the 14th century occupied the rabbinical seat in Toledo. During his lifetime and that of his son R. Judah, Torah learning flourished in Toledo; another of his sons, R. *Jacob b. Asher, wrote the Turim there. Israel b. Joseph *al-Nakawa, author of Menorat ha-Ma'or, was also active there.
At the beginning of the 14th century, an attempt was made by the clergy in Toledo to compel the Jews to cease from engaging in moneylending; they also compelled the Jews to return the interest which they had taken and to cancel the obligations of payment which Christians had undertaken. Ferdinand iv notified the clergy that he would bring them to account if they continued to impose a boycott on the Jews or sought to prosecute them before the Church tribunals. Nevertheless in a number of cases the king accepted the arguments of the clergy, and Jewish moneylenders of Toledo were arrested, tried before Christian judges, and condemned to lengthy terms of imprisonment. During that period there were wealthy Jews who earned their livelihood by renting houses to other Jews, a practice until then unknown. Toledo was also one of the rare places where Jews owned Muslim slaves. The reign of Alfonso xi (1312–50) was favorable to the community. Don Joseph ha-Levi b. Ephraim (identified with Don Yuçaf de Ecija) and Samuel ibn Wakar, the king's physician who in 1320 leased the minting of coins in the kingdom, were then active at court. They competed for influence there and for the leasing of the revenues of the kingdom. Don Moses *Abzardiel (or Zardiel) was a third personality of importance; as dayyan in Toledo and scribe of the king, his signature in Latin is found on deeds and documents concerning taxes and financial affairs, and on privileges issued to bishops, monasteries, noblemen, and towns during the 1330s.
The *Black Death (1348) took a heavy toll among the community of Toledo. During the reign of Pedro the Cruel (1350–60), Don Samuel b. Meir ha-Levi *Abulafia acted as chief agent and treasurer of the king. It was presumably he who built the synagogue in 1357 which bears his name (see above). In 1358 he left for Portugal to negotiate a political agreement, and he was signatory to several royal edicts. He was suddenly arrested in 1360 (or 1361) upon the order of King Pedro, and removed to Seville, where he died at the hands of his torturers. Other Jews after him were lessees and courtiers, more particularly members of the ha-Levi and *Benveniste families of Burgos.
In 1355, when the king entered Toledo, Christians and Muslims attacked the Jewish quarters. The Alcana quarter, near the cathedral, suffered heavily. During the civil war between Pedro and Henry (1366–69), the town changed hands several times; when Pedro once more besieged the city, in 1368–69, 8,000 Jews perished. In June 1369 he ordered that the Jews of Toledo and their belongings be sold to raise 1,000,000 gold coins. The community was ruined, and every object which could find a buyer was sold. By 1367, however, the Christian congregations had already complained that they had sunk into debts to the Jews and called for a moratorium on their debts and reduction to half of their value. Henry had remitted their debts for two years and reduced them to one third.
The Persecutions of 1391
While the Toledo community was still endeavoring to recover from the effects of the civil war, it was overtaken by the persecutions which swept Spain in 1391 and brought down upon it ruin and destruction. The riots against the Jews in Toledo broke out on 17 Tammuz (June 20) or, according to Christian sources, on August 5. Among the many who were martyred were the grandchildren of R. Asher, his disciples, and numerous distinguished members of the community. Almost all the synagogues were destroyed or set on fire, and the battei midrash became mounds of ruins. Many abandoned Judaism at that time, and Toledo became filled with Conversos (see below). The impoverishment of the community is also evident from the order of Henry iii, according to which certain incomes totaling 48,400 maravedis were handed over to the New Kings Church of Toledo in 1397 instead of the income provided for it by his father and grandfather from the annual tax of the Jews, which could not be collected as a result of the destruction of the community. During that year Jewish houses were also auctioned. There were, however, still Jews of Toledo who held important leases. In 1395 the archbishop of Toledo appointed his physician Pedro, who was an apostate, chief justice of the communities of his archdiocese. This was a unique case in which an apostate became a judge to dispense Jewish law. Don Abraham ibn Shoshan protested to the crown against this appointment.
The community of Toledo did not recover throughout the 15th century. In 1408 John ii transferred several revenues to the chief adelantado of the kingdom of Castile to replace his revenues formerly derived from the communities of Toledo, Madrid, and Alcalá de Henares which had been destroyed and were so impoverished that all income from them had disappeared. Vicente Ferrer visited Toledo in 1411. He entered the Jewish quarter with an armed escort and converted the Ibn Shoshan Synagogue into a church. There is reason to believe that a number of Jews converted to Christianity as a result of the sermons he delivered. The annual taxes of Jewish Toledo amounted to only 7,000 maravedis in 1439. There were, however, still a number of Jews who held leases in the town and outside it, survivors of the old families: Don Isaac Abudraham in the archdeaconry of Alcaraz near Toledo (1439); Don Ephraim ibn Shoshan who leased taxes in Toledo in 1442 and continued to do so after the attacks on the Conversos in 1452 and 1454. When Isabella ascended the throne and the country became united with the kingdom of Aragon, Jews of Toledo again held important positions in the kingdom as lessees and courtiers. Don David Abudraham leased the tax on meat and fish in Toledo between 1481 and 1484. Don Moses ibn Shoshan leased the taxes of Molina. During that year Don Abraham *Seneor of Segovia leased the taxes of Toledo. While in Toledo in 1480, the Catholic monarchs *Ferdinand and Isabella decided on their anti-Jewish policy and the Cortes convened there adopted a series of decrees.
The Jews of Toledo were expelled with the other Jews of Spain in 1492, and the last exiles left Toledo on the seventh of Av. They left behind them the debts owed to them by Christians, and the government determined the procedure for their collection. Luis de Alcalá and Fernando Nuñez (Abraham Seneor) Coronel were entrusted with this task. At that time 40 houses in their ancient quarter were owned by Jews, who apparently were not sufficiently numerous to occupy all of them so that some were inhabited by Christians. No information is available about the destinations of the exiles, but as the regulations of the Toledo community are found in Fez and other places in North Africa they obviously settled there. Jews from Toledo settled in Turkey and also reestablished communities in Ereẓ Israel. In Toledo in 1494 Rodrigo de Marcado, the king's representative, proclaimed that the property of the community would be transferred to the crown. This included communal property, the debts owed to Jews, real estate, butchers' shops, and the lands and consecrated properties which the Jews of the town had entrusted to the municipal council or handed over to several of its citizens.
The Conversos of Toledo
Jews were living in Toledo as forced converts (see also *Anusim) during two periods. The first was under the Visigoths, and the second period of religious persecution and forced apostasy was from the end of the 14th century. The Conversos of Toledo continued to live in the quarters they had formerly occupied as Jews, until the 1480s, when the residential area of the Jewish quarter was greatly reduced, while the Conversos were dispersed among the Christian parishes of the town.
The revolt of Pedro *Sarmiento against John ii in 1449, and the attempt by the crown to have taxes collected from the inhabitants of the town by Conversos, resulted in attacks on the latter. These were followed by a trial of 12 Conversos which gave impetus to the publication in Castile of a widespread literature on the subject, as part of a public campaign both for and against the Conversos, concerning their place within Christian society. Many pamphlets of satire which ridiculed the Conversos were composed, while forged letters were circulated of a supposed correspondence between Chamorro, the "head" of the community of Toledo, with Yusuf, the "head" of the Jews of Constantinople, concerning a project to destroy Christianity.
Attempts to conduct inquiries in Toledo against suspected heresy, in *Inquisition style, were inspired by the monk *Alfonso de Espina during the 1460s. *Alfonso de Oropesa, head of the Order of St. Jerome, was appointed by the archbishop to investigate heresy in Toledo. During a whole year he interrogated Conversos and penalized them, but the overwhelming majority evidently returned to the fold of the Church. On July 19, 1467 riots again broke out against the Conversos in the Magdalena quarter, and there was again an open conflict between Conversos and Christians in various quarters of the town. When the Christians gained the upper hand, many Conversos hid in the houses of the Jews. Several of the Converso leaders were arrested and executed.
In 1485 the rabbis of Toledo were ordered to proclaim a ḥerem against Jews who refused to testify before the Inquisition if they knew of Conversos who observed the Jewish precepts. In 1486 and the beginning of 1487, 4,000 of the inhabitants of the town and the vicinity were involved in five autos-da-fé; some of them returned to the fold of the Church and others were burned at the stake on the site known as Sucodovar. However, the files of only 85 executions are extant for the period between 1485 and the 1660s. The Conversos sentenced in Toledo belonged to two categories: the cultured persons, holders of public office, and the ordinary craftsmen. Among the intellectuals sentenced were Alvaro de Montalbán, father-in-law of the poet Fernando de Rojas, author of the Celestina; and Martín de Lucena, to whom R. Solomon ibn Verga refers as a scholar. His son Juan de Lucena was one of the first in Spain to print Hebrew works and diffuse them outside the country. Juan de Pineda, a commander of the Order of Santiago and the delegate of the Order at the papal court, was also among those tried. Craftsmen tried by the Inquisition included cobblers, shoemakers, tailors, and blacksmiths. Many merchants and women were also executed. Attempts were also made to implicate the Conversos of Toledo in the *La Guardia blood libel.
general: Baer, Spain, index; A.M. Gamero, Historia de la Ciudad de Toledo (1862); J. Amador de los Ríos, Historia… de los Judíos de España y Portugal, 3 vols. (1876), passim; Neuman, Spain, index. add. bibliography: A.M. López Álvarez, Catálogo del Museo Sefardí, Toledo (1986); J. Blázquez Miguel, Toledot: Historia del Toledo judío (1989). early jewish community and the visigothic period: S. Katz, Jews in the Visigothic and Frankish Kingdoms of Spain and Gaul (1937), passim; C.G. Goldaraz, El códice Lucense (1954); H. Beinart, in: Estudios, 3 (1961), 1–32 (includes bibliography). jewish quarter: Ashtor, Korot, 1 (1960), 211ff.; A. González Palencia, Los mozárabes de Toledo en los siglos xii y xii, estudio preliminar (1930), 72f.; L. Torres Balbas, in: Al-Andalus, 12 (1947), 164–98; F. Cantera, in: Sefarad, 7 (1947), 442–3; M. Reisz, Europe's Jewish Quarters (1991), 24–37. jewish landmarks: C. Roth, in: jqr, 39 (1948), 123ff.; idem, in: Sefarad, 8 (1948), 3–22; F. Cantera, ibid., 26 (1966), 305–14; idem, Sinagogas españolas (1955), 33–150; F. Cantera and J.M. Míllas, Inscripciones hebraicas de España (1956), 36–180, 332–9, 367–8 (incl. bibl.). add. bibliography: S. Palomera Plaza, A.M. López Alvarez, and Y. Alvarez Delgado, in: Jewish Art, 18 (1992), 48–57; E.W. Goldman, in: ibid., 58–70. muslim period: Y. Baer, in: Tarbiz, 5 (1934), 186ff.; S.D. Goitein, ibid., 24 (1955), 21ff., 134ff.; 25 (1956), 393ff.; E. Ashtor, in: Zion, 28 (1963), 39–40; Ashtor, Korot; A. González Palencia, Los mozárabes de Toledo en los siglos xii y xii, estudio preliminar (1930), 149–51; Baer, Urkunden, index. christian period: N. Round, in: Archivum, 16 (1966), 385–446; B. Netanyahu, in: paajr, 44 (1977), 93–125; P. León Tello, Judíos de Toledo (1979), 2 vols.; J.M. Nieto Soria, in: Sefarad, 41 (1981), 301–19; 42 (1982), 79–102; J. Porres Martín-Cleto, in: Anales toledanos, 16 (1983), 37–61; N. Roth, in: ajsr, 11 (1986), 189–220; J. Aguado Villalba, in: Arqueología medieval española, ii Congreso (1987), 247–57; L. Cardaillac (ed.), Tolède, xiie-xiiie: musulmans, chrétiens et juifs; le savoir et la tolérance (1991). conversos: A.Z. Aescoly, in: Zion, 10 (1945), 136ff.; H. Beinart, ibid., 20 (1955), 1ff.; idem, in: Tarbiz, 26 (1957), 86–71; idem, Anusim be-Din ha-Inkviziẓyah (1965), index; H.C. Lea, A History of the Inquisition of Spain, 4 vols. (1906), index; A. de Cartagena, Defensonium unitatis christianae, ed. by M. Alonso (1943); A.A. Sicroff, Les controverses de statuts de "pureté de sang" en Espagne… (1960); E. Benito Ruano, Toledo en el siglo xv (1961); Suárez Fernández, Documentos, index; F. Cantera, Judaizantes del arzobispado de Toledo (1969); idem, El poeta Rodrigo Cota y su familia de judíos Conversos (1970). add. bibliography: L. Martz, in: Sefarad, 48 (1988), 117–96; J-P. Dedieu, L'administration de la foi: l'Inquisition de Tolède, xvie–xviiie siècle (1989).
TOLEDO. Toledo was an important city of Spain for much of the early modern period. Symbolic of this prominence are the large fortress (alcázar) built by the monarchs, the vast and richly decorated cathedral, and the impressive archdiocesan palace built by the prelates of Toledo, primates of the Spanish church.
Toledo's importance owes much to its geographic location. Security from outside attacks was enhanced by the deep, fast-flowing Tagus (Tajo) River, which offered a natural protective border on two-thirds of the city's perimeter and amplified the resistance offered by sturdy city walls and the heights of the interior space. Also, Toledo was at the center of the Iberian Peninsula, so it was a natural stopping-off point for travelers and merchandise, whether from Lisbon to the west or on the north-south routes in the crown of Castile. Within the region of New Castile, Toledo was the largest city and dominated the economy for much of the sixteenth century. This changed after Philip II (1527–1598) settled his court in the nearby city of Madrid in 1561. By the 1580s the two cities were competing for grain in local villages, and in the 1630s they competed over rights to plant vines and sell wine.
The population of Toledo expanded during the first three-quarters of the sixteenth century. According to the first census of 1528, some 30,000 people (5,898 households) lived in Toledo, and this figure doubled to approximately 62,000 people (12,412 households) by 1571. This appears to be the high point of the city's demographic expansion, as in 1597 only 54,665 people (10,953 households) were recorded. Baptismal records indicate a decreasing number of births in the first decade of the seventeenth century, when the city was struck by plague and then a subsistence crisis in 1605–1606. Population was also lost through emigration, especially to Madrid. Finally, among the city's wealthy families, fewer marriages were celebrated, in part because the crown's chaotic monetary policies ruined many and in part because numerous individuals of both sexes preferred celibacy and a church career. By 1632 the population had contracted to only 22,686 inhabitants, fewer that those recorded in the first census of 1528.
The oligarchy that governed Toledo consisted of a council of regidores and another council of jurados, both of which were supervised by a crown-appointed corregidor. The jurados did not vote on issues, but they could protest to the crown about injustices. They formed part of the small committees that did much of the actual work for the city, and they were entitled to supply one of the two deputies who attended the Castilian Cortes, the representative assembly. The regidores were divided into two benches, citizens and the more prestigious nobles, and into two factions according to the side on which they sat, the Silva on the right and the Ayala on the left. Frictions between the two benches and the two factions were constant, although after the Comuneros Revolt, which took a heavy toll on the Ayala faction, the battles were largely verbal and legal rather than physical. The crown added yet another division among the regidores in 1566, when a pure-blood statute was imposed on the citizens' bench. This ruling was directed against conversos, Jews who had converted to Christianity, whose bloodlines were seen as impure. Many citizen regidores were conversos, and a few openly protested to the crown about the new ruling, but to no avail. By 1639, however, the citizens bench was abolished, thus eliminating two of the three divisions that had previously divided the regidores.
Toledo had an active converso population that was especially visible in certain occupations. They accounted for two-thirds of the public notaries, probably a majority of the city's jurados, and certainly a majority of the local merchants and tax farmers. They built up the textile industries, most prominently silk and wool, of their native city. Many merchants kept a flock of sheep, and wool was sold to Toledo weavers, including cap makers, whose products were sold locally and were exported. Some merchants traveled to local fairs to buy wool cloth woven by villagers, which they took to Toledo to be finished. But Toledo is best known for the manufacture of silk products. Toledo families farmed the royal tax levied on Granada silk, and this post afforded Toledo merchants the opportunity to obtain the best silk of the Iberian Peninsula, although silk was also bought in Murcia and Valencia. In 1562 the master silk weavers of Toledo numbered 423. Unfortunately Toledo's textile industries followed the same downward path as the population.
See also Conversos ; Madrid ; Spain .
Brown, Jonathan. El Greco of Toledo. Boston, 1982.
Martz, Linda. A Network of Converso Families in Early Modern Toledo: Assimilating a Minority. Ann Arbor, Mich., 2003.
——. Poverty and Welfare in Habsburg Spain: The Example of Toledo. New York, 1983.
Montemayor, Julian. Tolède entre fortune et déclin (1530– 1640). Limoges, France, 1996.
Ringrose, David R. Madrid and the Spanish Economy, 1560– 1850. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1983.
French, British Settle Maumee Valley
As early as 1615 Etienne Brule, Samuel de Champlain's French-Canadian scout, discovered the Erie tribe of Native Americans living at the mouth of the Maumee River, the largest river that flows into the Great Lakes. Robert Cavelier, sieur de La Salle, claimed the territory in the name of France's King Louis XIV in 1689, and French trading posts were subsequently established in the Maumee Valley. A century later the British built Fort Miami there. Following the French and Indian War in 1763, France ceded all claims in the territory to Britain, who annexed the region to the Canadian Province of Quebec in 1774. At the end of the American Revolution, the region became part of the United States and was designated as part of the Northwest Territory in 1787. Renegade agents incited Native American warriors to attack settlers in the area; when American military forces were sent there in 1790, the native tribes prevailed. Four years later, General Anthony Wayne defeated 2,000 Native Americans at the Battle of Fallen Timbers southwest of present-day Toledo. General Wayne then directed the building of several forts, of which one was Fort Industry, constructed at the present site of Toledo.
At the outbreak of the War of 1812 the few settlers in the vicinity fled. In January, 1813, General William Henry Harrison, later President of the United States, erected Fort Meigs, a massive fortification enclosing 9 acres, which became known as the "Gibraltar of the Northwest." In the Battle of Lake Erie, off Put-In-Bay, the U. S. Navy's young Commodore Perry defeated the British naval force, followed by Harrison's defeat of General Proctor at the Battle of the Thames. These victories re-secured the Northwest Territory for the United States. After the war, a permanent settlement was formed on the northwest side of the Maumee River near the mouth of Swan Creek. In 1817 an Indian treaty conveyed most of the remaining land in the area to the federal government. The village of Port Lawrence near Fort Industry was formed by a Cincinnati syndicate in 1817, but it failed in 1820 and was then revived. Port Lawrence voted in 1835 to consolidate with the settlement of Vistula, one mile away, and the two were incorporated as Toledo in 1837.
The choice of the name of Toledo for the new city is shrouded in local legend. Popular versions give credit to a merchant who suggested Toledo because it "is easy to pronounce, is pleasant in sound, and there is no other city of that name on the American continent." Whatever the source, friendly relations with the city of Toledo, Spain, have resulted. The Hispanic government awarded The Blade, the city's oldest newspaper, the royal coat of arms, and the University of Toledo has permission to use the arms of Spain's Ferdinand and Isabella as its motif.
Border Dispute Precedes Industrial Growth
The "Toledo War" of 1835-36 between Ohio and Michigan over their common boundary did not involve bloodshed but it did result in federal intervention to resolve the dispute. Governor Robert Lucas of Ohio led a force of 1,000 soldiers to Perrysburg in March 1835, with the intent of driving Michigan militia from Toledo, but emissaries sent by President Andrew Jackson arranged a truce. Governor Lucas held a special session of the legislature in June, creating Lucas County out of the land in Wood County involved in the dispute. The new county held court in Toledo on the first Monday of September, which proved it had exercised jurisdiction over the disputed territory by holding a Court of Common Pleas in due form of law. Finally, Congress settled the issue by stipulating that the condition of Michigan's entrance into the Union would award Ohio the contested land and Michigan, in compensation, would receive what is now the state's Upper Peninsula.
Toledo in the mid-nineteenth century benefitted from the opening of new canals, the establishment of businesses along the river bank to accommodate trade and new shipping industries, and the arrival of the railroad. Prosperity continued during the Civil War, and by the end of the century the city became a major rail center in the United States. During the 1880s Toledo's industrial base, spurred by the discovery of inexpensive fuel, attracted glass-making entrepreneurs. Edward Libbey established a glassworks in Toledo, and then hired Michael Owens to supervise the new plant. The two pioneers revolutionized the glass business with inventions that eliminated child labor and streamlined production. Edward Ford arrived in the Toledo region in 1896 to found the model industrial town of Rossford and one of the largest plate-glass operations of its time.
Two politicians stand out in the history of Toledo. Samuel M. "Gold Rule" Jones was elected mayor on a nonpartisan ticket and emerged as a national figure. His reform efforts in city government introduced one of the first municipal utilities, the eight-hour workday for city employees, and the first free kindergartens, public playgrounds, and band concerts. Mayor Brand Whitlock continued Jones's reforms by securing a state law for the nonpartisan election of judges and Ohio's initiative and referendum law in 1912.
John Willys moved his Overland automobile factory from Indianapolis to Toledo in 1908, and, in time, automotive-parts manufacture flourished in the area; the industry was firmly established by such firms as Champion Spark Plug and Warner Manufacturing Company, maker of automobile gears. A strike by Auto-Lite workers in 1934 was marred by violence and prompted the intervention of U.S. troops and the Federal Department of Labor; the resolution of this strike, which received national attention, helped contribute to the unionization of the automotive industries. The Toledo Industrial Peace Board, set up in 1935 to resolve labor disputes by round-table discussion, served as a model for similar entities in other cities.
An All-American City
Toledo today boasts amenities and points of interest including the University of Toledo, the Medical College of Ohio at Toledo, a symphony, ballet and opera company, the Toledo Museum of Art, the Toledo Zoo, and the Anthony Wayne suspension bridge (1931). The site of the battle of Fallen Timbers, a national historic landmark, is in a nearby state park. Toledo's commitment to arts and culture is evident, as is its focus on neighborhood revitalization. A renewed vitality, even in the face of diminishing central-city residents, has city planners looking toward the future.
Historical Information: Toledo-Lucas County Public Library, History-Travel-Biography Department, 325 Michigan Street, Toledo, OH 43624; telephone (419)259-5207
Fort Meigs, located near Toledo along the southern bank of the Maumee River west of Perrysburg, was the largest walled fortification in North America. Built in 1813 under the direction of General William Henry Harrison (who later became president of the United States), Fort Meigs is an impressive structure of earthworks and timber. Toledo's Old West End, covering 25 blocks, is one of the largest collections of late-Victorian architecture in the country; Frank Lloyd Wright studied the Old West End in preparing his plans for Oak Park, Illinois.
The freighter SS Willis was first launched in 1911 and served for many years on the Great Lakes as the largest ship of its type. Now restored, it is docked at International Park and open for tours. The Sauder Farm and Craft Village, a living-history museum in nearby Archbold, recaptures life in northwest Ohio in the 1830s. Wolcott House Museum in Maumee depicts life in the Maumee Valley from 1840 to 1860.
The Toledo Zoo, one of the nation's highest rated zoological parks, offers state-of-the-art exhibits, together with historical architecture, fully integrated to provide more than 4,000 animals with the best possible environment and offer visitors an exciting experience. An innovative exhibition called Africa! opened in May of 2004.
Toledo Center of Science & Industry (COSI) is located at the corner of Summit and Adams streets on the riverfront. With eight Exhibition Learning Worlds, a restaurant, and a retail store, COSI also offers exciting firsthand science learning and fun for visitors of all ages. There are opportunities to ride the high wire cycle, play virtual volleyball, or experience the full-motion simulator theater.
Located in a firehouse that dates from around 1920, the Toledo Firefighters Museum preserves 150 years of fire fighting in the city. Thousands of items are on exhibit, including many of large pieces of vintage fire fighting equipment. The Toledo Botanical Garden cultivates herbs, roses, azalea, rhododendron, and wildflowers; artists' studios and galleries are maintained on the grounds.
Toledo boasts 144 parks covering 2,367 acres. The Metroparks of the Toledo Area preserves 8,000 acres of parks in Lucas County. The nine metroparks of the Toledo area preserve sand dunes, tall grass prairies, upland woody swamp forests, and oak savannahs. The parks offer elevated views of the Maumee River Valley. From May through October, the Miami and Erie Canal Restoration at Providence Metropark features a mule-drawn canal boat that carries passengers along a one and one-fourth mile stretch of the original canal, through a working canal lock, and past the Isaac Ludwig Mill, which features heritage crafts and water-powered milling demonstrations. Oak Openings Preserve protects threatened and endangered plant species, while Pearson Preserve protects one of the few remnants of the Great Black Swamp. The metroparks present many free nature and history programs and capture a sense of the natural beauty of the area at the time it was first settled.
Arts and Culture
The Toledo Museum of Art was founded in 1912 when Edward Libbey made a contribution of money and land to help initiate the museum's first stage of construction. Today the museum's permanent collection represents holdings from diverse cultures and periods, including ancient Egyptian tombs, a medieval cloister, a French chateau, glass, furniture, silver, tapestries, and paintings by world masters.
Without a doubt, the cultural highlight of Toledo's downtown revitalization efforts is the Valentine Theatre. When it originally opened in 1895, the Valentine was the finest theatrical venue between New York and Chicago. The Valentine Theatre is also home of the Toledo Symphony and the Toledo Ballet. The intimate and acoustically superior 901-seat, $28 million theater allows for excellent viewing of the stage and projected English titles when necessary.
The Toledo Symphony Orchestra presents a full season of concerts in Peristyle Hall at the Toledo Museum of Art. Stranahan Theater hosts performances by the Toledo Opera Association and touring Broadway shows. Two community theater groups, Toledo Repertoire Theatre and the Village Players, stage several productions annually, while Junior Theatre Guild stages four annual professional family-oriented shows. The Toledo Ballet Association presents local and guest performers, sometimes in collaboration with the opera and symphony. Both the University of Toledo and Bowling Green State University schedule plays and other cultural events, many featuring well-known performing artists and speakers.
Festivals and Holidays
Many festivals celebrate Toledo's history and its ethnic diversity. The festival season starts Memorial Day weekend with the Rock, Rhythm 'n Blues Festival in downtown Toledo. Through the summer, Rallies by the River offer music and refreshments at Promenade Park on Friday evenings. In June, the Old West End Festival opens restored Victorian homes to the public. The Crosby Festival of the Arts is held in late June at the Toledo Botanical Garden. The annual fireworks display takes place downtown on the river. Also in July, the Lucas County Fair is held at the fairgrounds. The Northwest Ohio Rib-Off takes place in August at Promenade Park.
Sports for the Spectator
The Toledo Mud Hens, the Triple A farm team for professional baseball's Detroit Tigers, compete in the International League with home games at Fifth Third Field. The Toledo Storm, East Coast Hockey League affiliates for the National Hockey League's Detroit Red Wings, entertain fans at Toledo Sports Arena. Raceway Park presents harness racing on a spiral-banked five-eighths mile track from March to December. Stock car racing is on view at Toledo Speedway. The University of Toledo Rockets and the Bowling Green State University Falcons field teams in Mid-American Conference sports.
Sports for the Participant
Toledo, the largest port on Lake Erie, offers some of the best fishing in the world. Walleye season runs from May to August, followed by perch in the fall; white and smallmouth bass are other popular catches. Ice fishing is available in January and February. Toledo maintains one of Ohio's best park systems, with more than 140 areas for sports and relaxation. The Lucas County Recreation Department provides facilities for swimming, tennis, track, handball, and softball. Toledo Area Metroparks offer boating, cycling, hiking, jogging, water and field sports, and fitness trails on over 6,600 acres. Toledo boasts some of the finest golf courses in the country. The Toledo Roadrunners Club has been holding the Glass City Marathon for more than 29 years; runners race along country roads and through neighboring communities and downtown Toledo. The race pays tribute to the memory of Sy Mah, a Toledo runner who once held the Guinness World Book record for running 524 marathons in his lifetime.
Shopping and Dining
Unique shopping opportunities in Toledo and environs include glass factory outlet stores, featuring all types and styles of glassware; flea markets; the Erie Street Market; and art galleries. Four major shopping centers are located in the area.
Among Toledo's hundreds of restaurants is Tony Packo's Cafe, celebrated by Corporal Klinger, a character on the television program "M*A*S*H." Featuring an extensive Tiffany lamp collection, the restaurant serves a distinctive hot dog, Hungarian hamburgers, and a vegetable soup with Hungarian dumplings. The Docks on the Maumee River offer a variety of interesting restaurants; these include Gumbo's, Real Seafood Co., Zia's Italian, Tango's Mexican Cantina, and Cousino's Navy Bistro.
Visitor Information: The Greater Toledo Convention and Visitors Bureau, 401 Jefferson Avenue, Toledo, OH 43604; telephone (419)321-6404; toll-free (800)243-4667
Major Industries and Commercial Activity
Manufacturing comprises about one-fifth of Toledo's economic base. Nearly 1,000 manufacturing facilities are located in the metropolitan area. Such manufacturing facilities include automotive assembly and parts production, glass, plastic, and metal parts. Toledo is home to the headquarters of such corporations as The Andersons, Dana Corporation, Libbey, Inc., Libbey-Owens-Ford Company, Owens Corning, Owens-Illinois, and Seaway Food Town. Major employers include DaimlerChrysler, General Motors/Powertrain, ProMedica Health Systems, and Toledo Public Schools. With 10 major financial institutions, Toledo is also a banking and finance center for northwestern Ohio.
Medical and technologically-oriented businesses are a major force in the local economy; Lucas County ranks among the 50 counties in the United States that account for 50 percent of medical industry production. Several private testing laboratories and manufacturers of medical instruments and allied products are located in the Toledo area. In addition, more than 400 plastics, metalworking, and electronics companies adapt engineering and production capabilities to the medical device and instrument industries. With its many nearby universities and large public school system, education is also an economic pillar. The Medical College of Ohio is the eighth largest employer in Toledo, and contributes nearly $500 million to the economy per year.
Items and goods produced: automotive and truck components, health care products, glass products, fiberglass, packaged foods, plastic and paper products, building materials, furniture, metal products
Incentive Programs—New and Existing Companies
The Regional Growth Partnership, Inc. (RGP) is the principal agency for facilitating business expansion and location in the Toledo metropolitan area. Created as a non-profit public/private partnership, the RGP is charged with the mission of creating employment and capital investment needed to generate economic growth in greater Toledo and northwest Ohio. The RGP works closely with all public and private economic development organizations. The RGP provides customized services to fit the individual needs of each business client. Services include customized location proposals and sales presentations, comprehensive site and facility searches, project financial and incentive packaging, labor market information, other market and community data, regional evaluation tours, and leadership networking. A number of tax incentives, technology, and training assistance programs are available at the state and local level.
Economic Development Information: Regional Growth Partnership, 300 Madison Avenue, Suite 270, Toledo, OH 43604; telephone (419)252-2700; fax (419)252-2724
The economy continues to thrive in Toledo. Production of Jeep Liberty began in April of 2001 at the new Jeep assembly plant. Major university projects include the Toledo Science and Technology Center, a program to stimulate economic development by creating jobs and assisting local businesses. Downtown Toledo, Inc. is an ongoing public-private partnership made up of local business leaders, property owners, and citizens. It was created to enhance the quality of life and economy of the downtown Toledo area.
Significant investment has been made at the University of Toledo and Owens Community College. The Medical College of Ohio Cancer Center Institute opened in January of 2000.
Toledo is situated at the center of a major market area; located within 500 miles of the city are 43 percent and 47 percent, respectively, of U.S. and Canadian industrial markets. A commercial transportation network, consisting of a Great Lakes port, railroads, interstate highways, and two international airports, provides access to this market area as well as points throughout the nation and the world.
Toledo is served by both Toledo Express in Toledo and Detroit Metropolitan Airport in nearby Detroit, Michigan. Toledo Express, served by seven airlines, carries passengers and is a major air freight center. Named one of the five best small airports in the Midwest, Toledo Express is the international hub for Burlington Air Express. It has recently begun a 4-year, $22 million renovation project. Detroit Metropolitan Airport is within a 50-minute drive.
The Port of Toledo, on the Maumee River, is a 150-acre domestic and international shipping facility that includes a general cargo center, mobile cargo handling gear, and covered storage space. In 2004 the port handled 122,514 tons of cargo. Designated as a Foreign Trade Zone, the complex affords shippers deferred duty payments and tax savings on foreign goods.
Toledo is served by four railroad systems, which provide direct and interline shipping; Norfolk/Southern maintains piggyback terminal facilities in the city. More than 90 truck firms link Toledo with all major metropolitan areas in the United States and points throughout Canada.
Labor Force and Employment Outlook
Farming, industrial production, and agriculture contribute to the area's growing economy. Manufacturing accounts for about 18 percent of the jobs in metropolitan Toledo. The Toledo area has a strong automotive industry base and is one of the top three machine tooling centers in the United States. The area has experienced strong growth in the steel, metals, and plastic industries. Retail and service businesses continue to expand.
Businesses in Toledo have access to graduates from at least 20 higher educational institutions within a one-hour drive of the city.
The following is a summary of data regarding the Toledo metropolitan area labor force, 2004 annual averages:
Size of nonagricultural labor force: 329,600
Number of workers employed in . . .
construction and mining: 15,800
trade, transportation and utilities: 64,800
financial activities: 13,200
professional and business services: 34,600
educational and health services: 46,700
leisure and hospitality: 32,900
other services: 15,400
Average hourly earnings of production workers employed in manufacturing: $21.87
Unemployment rate: 7.4% (March 2005)
|Largest manufacturing/utility employers||Number of employees|
|GM Corp./Powertrain Div. Corp.||3,860|
Cost of Living
The following is a summary of data regarding several key cost of living factors in the Toledo area.
2004 (3rd Quarter) ACCRA Average House Price: $212,283
2004 (3rd Quarter) ACCRA Cost of Living Index: 95.4 (U.S. average = 100.0)
State income tax rate: 2.25%
State sales tax rate: 6.0% (food and prescription drugs are exempt)
Local income tax rate: 2.25%
Local sales tax rate: 1.25% (county)
Property tax rate: 60.65 mills (2002)
Economic Information: Regional Growth Partnership, 300 Madison Avenue, Suite 270, Toledo, OH 43604; telephone (419)252-2700
TOLEDO , city in Ohio, U.S. The estimated population (2005) was 315,000, with the Jewish population somewhat less than 4,000 (5,900 in the metropolitan area), approximately 6,000 fewer than cited in the 1972 Encyclopaedia Judaica. Local legend has it that the name of the city, borrowed from the Spanish city, was suggested by the Jewish citizens as it derives from the Hebrew toledot which connotes history and continuity.
The history of the development of the Toledo Jewish community began with a handful of German and Dutch Jews who arrived via Cincinnati. They were joined by several Hungarian Jews. In 1837 when the city was chartered there were several Jewish families. Toledo and Cincinnati were connected by a series of canals and the local Jews were largely in commerce with goods that were ferried from Cincinnati. Happily, there was no need for a Jewish cemetery until 1867 when the Hebrew Benevolent and Cemetery Association was founded. The first cemetery was interdenominational. Since then, the three congregations have created separate burial grounds for their members. There is a ḥevra kaddisha that serves all the Jews of the community.
Among the first Jewish families were the Marx brothers. Emil, Guido, and Joseph published the Ohio Staatszeitung intended for the largely German-speaking population of the area. Emil was an early volunteer at the beginning of the Civil War. Joseph was appointed U.S. consul to Amsterdam by President Abraham Lincoln in 1864.
The first settlers were staunchly individualistic free thinking or atheistic Jews who were bound to the community through a network of family business and shared capital. Attempts to form synagogues were spasmodic and short lived.
The first mention of the observance of High Holidays was in 1865 but it wasn't until 1867 that Congregation B'nai Israel, now affiliated with the Conservative movement, was founded. It has been served by Rabbis Halper, Glazer, Herowitz, Epstein, Lichtenstein, Goldberg, Perlmutter, Bienstock, Ungar, Kaiman, and Leff.
Eight years later Reform Congregation Shomer Emunim ("keeper of faithfulness"; Isaiah 26:2) was founded. The name was suggested by Isaac Mayer Wise, the initiator and organizer of the then incipient Reform movement in the United States. It was assumed that a Jewish community in such a remote section of the mid-west United States deserved a name affirming its faithfulness. It appears to be the only synagogal congregation in the world with that name. The rabbis of the congregation have been Schanfarber, Meier, Freund, Alexander, Coffee, Harris, Kornfeld, Feuer, Sokobin, and Weinstein.
Congregation Etz Chaim was founded by the merger of smaller Orthodox congregations. Its rabbis have been Katz and Garsek.
Several of the rabbis of Toledo have had contributory positions in Toledo to the nation and national Jewish organizations. Following World War ii when Israel was struggling to create its independence Rabbi Leon *Feuer was the chief lobbyist in Washington seeking American political support for the establishment of a Jewish State. He later became president of the Central Conference of American Rabbis. Rabbi Morton Goldberg served as both president of the Toledo Public School System and the Toledo Library system. Rabbi J.S. *Kornfeld was ambassador to Persia and Rabbi Alan Sokobin was chair of studies of the educational system as well as the court and justice systems of the City of Toledo. Both Rabbi Feuer and Rabbi Sokobin taught at the University of Toledo.
In response to the large number of Jews arriving in Toledo the need to organize led to the establishment of the Toledo Federation of Jewish Charities in 1907. The Jewish Banner Boys Club had previously been organized to assist 12 and 13 year olds integrate into the community. A Banner Club for girls was formed and the boys and girls met together on a weekly basis for a discussion group. The many social and cultural activities thrived and the need for a building was becoming apparent. In 1911 the Council of Jewish Women was given permission to solicit funds for a building. In 1912 a building was erected by the Jewish Educational League for the programs directed at children and newcomers to the area. The purpose of the league had the lofty goal "to develop and maintain a high standard of American citizenship among the Jewish Residents of Toledo."
In 1936 the Jewish Educational League, the Jewish Family Service, and the Transient Service became a part of the Jewish Community Center. Since that time the Jewish community of Toledo has been exceedingly well represented in national Jewish organizations. There are active chapters of Hadassah, ort, and B'nai B'rith as well as chapters of Young Judea and Synagogue Youth. The United Jewish Council is the governance body for the Toledo Board of Jewish Education that maintains a Jewish day school as well as an afternoon Hebrew program serving the Orthodox and Conservative congregations. In 2004 the athletic programs of the Jewish Community Center were combined with those of the Toledo ymca.
Jews have become an integral part of the general Toledo community. There are Jews who have been elected to important judicial as well as legislative posts. While the community began largely with merchants, today the majority of Toledo Jewry is engaged in the professions. Like many Ohio communities, elderly Jews have migrated toward the sunbelt and younger Jews have left for college and not returned home.
[Alan Sokobin (2nd ed.)]
Toledo: Education and Research
Toledo: Education and Research
Elementary and Secondary Schools
Public elementary and secondary schools in Toledo are administered by the Toledo Public Schools system, the fourth largest public school system in the state of Ohio, with just over 35,000 students. Five partisan board of education members select a superintendent. Washington Local Schools serve much of the northwest area of the city.
The following is a summary of data regarding Toledo public schools as of the 2002–2003 school year.
Total enrollment: 35,533
Number of facilities elementary schools: 47
junior high schools: 7
senior high schools: 8
Student/teacher ratio: 23–25:1
Funding per pupil: $7,838
The Catholic Diocese of Toledo operates an extensive parochial school system in the city and surrounding area. Other private and church-related schools also offer educational alternatives.
Public Schools Information: Toledo Public Schools, 420 East Manhattan, Toledo, OH 43608; telephone (419)729-8200
Colleges and Universities
The University of Toledo's eight colleges enroll nearly 21,000 students and offer degrees in undergraduate and graduate fields, including engineering and pharmacy. The Medical College of Ohio (MCO) grants a medical degree as well as graduate degrees in medical science and industrial hygiene; MCO conducts joint educational programs and collaborative research with area businesses and educational institutions. Owens Community College offers two-year programs in biomedical equipment, computer-integrated manufacturing, and glass engineering, among others.
Libraries and Research Centers
Toledo is home to about two dozen libraries operated by public agencies, private organizations, and corporations. The Toledo—Lucas County Public Library houses about 2.3 million books and has an annual circulation of over 6 million; the library system includes 18 branches and two bookmobiles located throughout the city and the county. The University of Toledo, the Medical College of Ohio at Toledo, and Owens Community College maintain campus libraries. Other libraries are associated with the Toledo Museum of Art, companies such as Libbey-Owens-Ford, law firms, hospitals, and churches and synagogues.
The Medical College of Ohio (MCO) in Toledo is active in medical research and development. MCO has created the Health Technology Park to house college facilities and the Northwest Ohio Health Technology Center (NOHTC), which serves as a research and development incubator for private companies and academic institutions.
Research and development is also conducted at the University of Toledo's Polymer and Thin Films Institute and Eitel Institute for Silicate Research as well as at Edison Industrial Systems Center. The federally-funded National Center for Tooling and Precision Products research is housed at the University of Toledo. The National Drosophilia Species Resource Center, affiliated with nearby Bowling Green State University, is internationally known for fruit-fly research.
Public Library Information: Toledo-Lucas County Public Library, 325 Michigan Street, Toledo, OH 43624-1332; telephone (419)259-5207; fax (419)255-1332
TOLEDO, the fourth largest city in Ohio in the early twenty-first century, began in 1680 as a French trading post. Ceded to the British in 1763, it became part of the U.S. Northwest Territory in 1787. Canals and railroads helped establish Toledo as a major inland port and center of industry. During the Progressive Era, Toledo won national recognition for urban reform. Historically, Toledo has been a major producer of glass and automotive products, but these industries declined, and from 1970 to 2000 employment in the Toledo metropolitan area decreased markedly. During this same period, population declined from 383,062 to 313,619, although city leaders question the accuracy of the 2000 federal census. Toledo has experienced other problems. A 1967 race riot caused extensive property damage, injuries, and arrests. Public schools were closed for several weeks in 1976 and 1978 because of teacher strikes. In July 1979 a bitter dispute between the city government and police and firemen led to a two-day general strike and costly arson fires. In the 1980s and 1990s, Toledo sought to emphasize its strong medical, cultural, and higher educational institutions. New downtown buildings and the Portside festival marketplace along the Maumee River were indicative of business leaders' commitment to the city.
Jones, Marnie. Holy Toledo: Religion and Politics in the Life of "Golden Rule" Jones. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1998.
Korth, Philip A., and Margaret R. Beegle. I Remember Like Today: The Auto-Lite Strike of 1934. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1988.
McGucken, William. Lake Erie Rehabilitated: Controlling Cultural Eutrophication, 1960s–1990s. Akron, Ohio: University of Akron Press, 2000.
John B.Weaver/a. e.
Toledo: Population Profile
Toledo: Population Profile
Metropolitan Area Residents
Percent change, 1990–2000: -0.7%
U.S. rank in 1980: 55th
U.S. rank in 1990: Not reported
U.S. rank in 2000: 69th
2003 estimate: 298,242
Percent change, 1990–2000: -5.8%
U.S. rank in 1980: 40th
U.S. rank in 1990: Not reported
U.S. rank in 2000: 66th
Density: 3,890 people per square mile (2000)
Racial and ethnic characteristics (2000)
Black or African American: 73,854
American Indian and Alaska Native: 970
Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 76
Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 313,619
Percent of residents born in state: 77.4 % (2000)
Age characteristics (2000)
Population under 5 years old: 22,849
Population 5 to 9 years old: 23,879
Population 10 to 14 years old: 22,737
Population 15 to 19 years old: 22,343
Population 20 to 24 years old: 24,977
Population 25 to 34 years old: 47,580
Population 35 to 44 years old: 45,816
Population 45 to 54 years old: 38,256
Population 55 to 59 years old: 12,993
Population 60 to 64 years old: 10,989
Population 65 to 74 years old: 20,799
Population 75 to 84 years old: 15,374
Population 85 years and older: 5,027
Median age: 33.2 years
Total number: 6,075
Total number: 4,601
Money income (1999)
Per capita income: $17,388
Median household income: $32,546
Total households: 128,925
Number of households with income of . . .
less than $10,000: 18,198
$10,000 to $14,999: 11,090
$15,000 to $24,999: 20,117
$25,000 to $34,999: 18,859
$35,000 to $49,999: 20,942
$50,000 to $74,999: 23,201
$75,000 to $99,999: 9,798
$100,000 to $149,999: 5,035
$150,000 to $199,999: 908
$200,000 or more: 694
Percent of families below poverty level: 14.2% (58.1% of which were female householder families with related children under 5 years)
2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 26,717
Toledo: Geography and Climate
Toledo: Population Profile
Toledo: Municipal Government
Toledo: Education and Research
Toledo: Health Care
Toledo: Convention Facilities
The City in Brief
Founded: 1817 (incorporated 1837)
Head Official: Mayor Jack Ford (since 2001)
2003 estimate: 298,242
Percent change, 1990–2000: -5.8%
U.S. rank in 1980: 40th
U.S. rank in 1990: Not reported
U.S. rank in 2000: 66th
Metropolitan Area Population
Percent change, 1990–2000: -0.7%
U.S. rank in 1980: 55th
U.S. rank in 1990: Not reported
U.S. rank in 2000: 69th
Area: 81 square miles (2000)
Elevation: 615 feet above sea level
Average Annual Temperature: 48.5° F
Average Annual Precipitation: 33 inches
Major Economic Sectors: Services, wholesale and retail trade, manufacturing, government
Unemployment Rate: 7.4% (March 2005)
Per Capita Income: $17,388 (1999)
2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 26,717
Major Colleges and Universities: University of Toledo;
Davis College; Stautzenberger College; Medical College of Ohio; Owens Community College
Daily Newspaper: The Toledo Blade