Toland, Gregg Wesley
Gregg Wesley Toland, 1904–48, American cinematographer, b. Charleston, Ill. One of Hollywood's most accomplished and influential cinematographers, Toland worked for Samuel Goldwyn from 1929, first serving as primary cameraman in 1931. Five years later he began working with William Wyler, making These Three (1936), Dead End (1937), Wuthering Heights (1939), which earned Toland an Academy Award, The Little Foxes (1941), and The Best Years of Our Lives (1946; Academy Award, best picture). Perhaps Toland's most famous cinematography was for Orson Welles's masterpiece Citizen Kane (1941). Toland exhibited a unique continuity of vision; he shot actors and scenes from imaginative angles, exploited the artistic and mood-evoking possibilities of black and white and light and shadow, and employed the "deep focus" technique for which he became famous. Some other highlights of his career are Intermezzo (1939), John Ford's The Grapes of Wrath and The Long Voyage Home (both: 1940), and Song of the South (1946).
"Toland, Gregg Wesley." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 21, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/toland-gregg-wesley
"Toland, Gregg Wesley." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved March 21, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/toland-gregg-wesley
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.