Skip to main content

Toledo Manrique, Alejandro

Alejandro Toledo Manrique, 1946–, Peruvian political leader, president of Peru (2001–6). Toledo, who has indigenous Andean roots, was born into poverty in rural Peru and grew up in the port city of Chimbote. Industrious, ambitious, and charming, he won scholarships to the Univ. of San Francisco, Harvard, and Stanford, where he obtained a Ph.D. A business-school professor and an official at the World Bank, Toledo became involved in Peruvian politics as an opponent of the authoritarian policies of President Alberto Fujimori. Although Toledo had never before held or run for elective office, he formed a coalition consisting of the urban lower middle class, rural Indians, and Lima's elite, and forced Fujimori into a runoff in 2000. Fearing fraud, Toledo withdrew from the runoff, but after Fujimori fled Peru and resigned (2000), Toledo defeated former president Alan García in the 2001 presidential elections. Toledo promised to fight corruption, guarantee judicial independence, and cut military spending, but subsequent scandals and ineffectual government made him extremely unpopular. Although Peru's economy improved during his presidency, the nation's poor did not benefit. In 2006 Toledo was accused of forgery and falsifying signatures in registering his party for the 2000 elections; the former president denounced the charges as political persecution. In the 2011 presidential elections he placed fourth in the first round.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Toledo Manrique, Alejandro." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 21 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Toledo Manrique, Alejandro." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (April 21, 2019).

"Toledo Manrique, Alejandro." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 21, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.