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Schleswig-Holstein

Schleswig-Holstein Federal state and historic region in nw Germany; the capital is Kiel. It occupies the s of the Jutland peninsula and extends from the River Elbe to the border with Denmark. The land is mainly flat and fertile. The Kiel Canal links the North Sea with the Baltic. The region's principal economic activities of shipping and fishing are concentrated along the Baltic coast and its excellent natural harbours. The River Eider forms the historic border between Schleswig and Holstein. In the early 12th century, the Duchy of Holstein was created as part of the Holy Roman Empire, while Schleswig was made a fiefdom independent of Danish control. They were twice united under the Danish monarchy, but not incorporated into the Danish state. In 1848, Frederick VII proclaimed the complete union of Schleswig with Denmark, the predominantly German population of both Duchies rebelled, and the German Confederation occupied the two Duchies. The 1852 Treaty of London re-established the Duchies' personal union with Denmark. In 1863, Denmark again tried to incorporate Schleswig into the state proper, and Prussia and Austria declared war. In 1865, Schleswig was administered by Prussia, and Holstein by Austria. The resulting tension led to the Austro-Prussian War (1866). Prussian victory created the state of Schleswig-Holstein. In 1920, following a plebiscite, the n part of Schleswig returned to Denmark. In 1937, the city of Lübeck was incorporated into the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. Area: 15,738sq km (6075sq mi). Pop. (1999 est. 2,777,275).

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Schleswig-Holstein

Schleswig-Holstein a state of NW Germany, occupying the southern part of the Jutland peninsula, comprising the former duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, annexed by Prussia in 1866. The complexity of the Schleswig-Holstein question was proverbial in 19th-century politics. The British Whig statesman Lord Palmerston (1784–1865) is said to have asserted that only three men in Europe had ever understood it, and of these the Prince Consort was dead, an unnamed Danish statesman was in an asylum, and he himself had forgotten it.

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