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Kiel

Kiel (kēl), city (1994 pop. 248,930), capital of Schleswig-Holstein, N central Germany, on Kiel Bay, an arm of the Baltic Sea. Situated at the head of the Kiel Canal, the city was Germany's chief naval base from 1871 to 1945, when the naval installations were dismantled. Kiel is now a shipping and industrial center; the major industries are shipbuilding and engineering. There are large shipyards and factories that manufacture textiles, metal products, and printed materials. It is the largest and economically the most important city in Schleswig-Holstein. Chartered in 1242, Kiel joined the Hanseatic League in 1284. It became the residence of the dukes of Holstein. Kiel passed to Denmark in 1773; with Holstein it was annexed by Prussia in 1866. The sailors' mutiny that began at Kiel at the end of World War I touched off a socialist revolution in Germany. In World War II the city suffered severe damage from Allied air attacks. The city is the seat of a university (founded 1665) and several museums, including the oldest art gallery and botanical gardens in Germany. The sailing and yachting events of the 1972 Olympic summer games were held there. The city holds a yearly regatta that draws visitors from around the world.

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Kiel

Kiel City and seaport in n Germany, at the head of the Kiel Canal linking the North Sea and the Baltic Sea; capital of Schleswig-Holstein state. Today, Kiel is a yachting centre. Industries: shipbuilding, textiles, precision instruments, printed matter. Pop. (1999) 235,500.

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Kiel

Kielallele, anele, anneal, appeal, Bastille, Beale, Castile, chenille, cochineal, cockatiel, conceal, congeal, creel, deal, eel, Emile, feel, freewheel, genteel, Guayaquil, heal, heel, he'll, keel, Kiel, kneel, leal, Lille, Lucille, manchineel, meal, misdeal, Neil, O'Neill, ordeal, peal, peel, reel, schlemiel, seal, seel, she'll, spiel, squeal, steal, steel, Steele, teal, underseal, veal, weal, we'll, wheel, zeal •airmobile • Dormobile • snowmobile •Popemobile • bookmobile •automobile • piecemeal •sweetmeal, wheatmeal •fishmeal • inchmeal • cornmeal •wholemeal • bonemeal • oatmeal •kriegspiel • bonspiel • Glockenspiel •newsreel • imbecile • Jugendstil •cartwheel • treadwheel • millwheel •pinwheel • flywheel • gearwheel •waterwheel

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Kiel

KIEL

KIEL , city in *Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. In the 17th century, Jews went to Kiel for the annual fair (Kieler Umschlag). Permission to settle in the city was given in 1690 to the Sephardi Court Jew Jacob Musaphia, followed in 1728 by Samson Lewin, another Court Jew. Together they laid the foundations for the small Jewish community. In 1766 Kiel had six Jewish families engaged in small businesses and moneylending. Although Schleswig-Holstein was annexed by Denmark in 1733, the legal status of the Jews in the duchy was not ameliorated. The community had a prayer hall and buried their dead at Rendsburg. In 1803 Jewish students were admitted to the University of Kiel. There were then 29 Jews in the city; the numbers grew to 75 in 1845 and 156 in 1855. A cemetery was consecrated in 1852; the community was officially organized in 1867 and two years later a synagogue was erected, to be replaced by a new one in 1910. In 1900 the community numbered 338 persons, 526 in 1910, 600 in 1925, and 522 in 1933. Kiel rabbis included Emil *Cohn (1907–12) and A. Posner (1912–33). On the Nazi rise to power, the community was exposed to severe repression and persecution: Jewish professors were dismissed from the university and the works of 28 Jewish authors – mainly lecturers in Kiel University – were removed from the library of the university. Anti-Jewish boycott meetings were held all over the city. As all Jewish children were removed from the city's public school system, the community opened its own grade school. A total of 586 Jews left the city during the Nazi era. Of those who remained 85 were deportees and 12 committed suicide. On Nov. 10, 1938, the synagogue was burned down and Jewish homes and stores were looted. After the war 11 Jews returned to Kiel; the bombed Jewish cemetery was later restored.

bibliography:

M. Stern, Die israelitische Bevoelkerung der deutschen Staedte, 2 (1892); W. Victor, Die Emanzipation der Juden in Schleswig-Holstein (1913); A. Posner, in: MGWJ, 72 (1928), 287–91; 76 (1932), 229–39; Fuehrer durch die juedische Gemeindeverwaltung (1932–33), 122; H. Kellenbenz, Sephardim an der unteren Elbe (1958), index; EJ, 9. s.v.

[Chasia Turtel]

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