Legendary football coach Tom Landry (1924-2000) was the founding coach of the Dallas Cowboys who brought the team from a winless first season into a dominating force in the National Football League (NFL). Over 29 seasons, Landry guided the Cowboys to 20 consecutive winning seasons, 19 NFL playoff appearances, 13 division titles, five Super Bowl appearances, and two Super Bowl victories. His overall record was 271-180-6. "From the late 1960s through the 1970s and into the 1980s," contended Washington Post staff writer Bart Barnes, "the Cow boys under Landry were a perennial power in the NFL, with a mystique that transcended the sports community and Texas."
Landry also helped restore the image of Dallas, dubbed the City of Hate after the 1963 assassination of President John F. Kennedy, into a city known for its winning all-American football team. The coach's strong work ethic and Christian belief fueled the success of his team and earned the Cowboys the nickname "America's Team." Landry is the third-winningest coach in NFL history, behind Don Shula and George Halas. Yet the coach is equally well known for his style. Standing on the sidelines with folded arms and a stoic expression, Landry wore his signature fedora hat, sports coat, and tie to games. A bronze statue, unveiled in October 2001, captured this pose and is displayed outside the Dallas Cowboy's home stadium in Texas. Landry remains a national icon of control and loyalty.
Excelled in Classroom and Football Field
Tom Landry was born Thomas Wade Landry in Mission, Texas, on September 11, 1924. He was the son of Ron Landry, who worked as an auto mechanic, served as the town's fire chief, and supervised Sunday school at First Methodist Church in Mission, Texas. At Mission High School, Landry was an A-student, president of his class, and a member of the National Honor Society. He also excelled on the football field, playing all-regional fullback on a team that outscored its opponents 322-0 during his senior year. A devout Christian, Landry took part in the Fellowship of Christian Athletes.
Landry served in the Army Air Forces in World War II, participating in 30 B-17 combat missions over Europe and even surviving a crash landing. In 1945 Landry was discharged as a first lieutenant and enrolled in the University of Texas, where he resumed playing fullback and some quarterback and defensive back for the Longhorns football team. During his junior year he made the all-Southwestern Conference second team, and in his senior year, he served as co-captain. In 1948, Texas won the Sugar Bowl, and in 1949 his team won the Orange Bowl. In 1949, Landry graduated with a degree in business administration from the University of Texas and later earned a degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Houston.
Began Career in New York
Landry began his professional football career playing cornerback for the New York Yankees in the All-American Football Conference. After the 1949 season, the team merged with the New York Giants, where he continued to play cornerback for the next six seasons, making the All-Pro defensive team in 1954. When Jim Lee Howell became head coach of the Giants, Landry became a player-coach under him for the 1954 season. He left the field permanently as a player in 1955 when he took a position as the team's defensive coordinator. From 1956 to 1959, he worked as assistant coach alongside offensive coordinator Vince Lombardi, who later rose to fame as coach the Green Bay Packers.
During his time with the Giants, Landry developed his famous 4-3 defense that became the NFL standard, later evolving that into the Flex. The strategy replaced the "umbrella defense—a six-man line with a roving line-backer—with a four-man line and three linebackers." Landry said "My industrial engineering degree shaped my coaching," reported Keith Whitmire in the Chicago Tribune. "The whole coordinated defense, the Flex defense came out of that idea, of putting everybody together with certain responsibilities. It was a very technical approach to football." In Landry's four years as defensive coach, the Giants earned a record of 33-14-1, with two Eastern Conference division titles and one NFL championship, in 1956.
Headed to Dallas
Landry left New York in 1960 to take a job as head coach of the Dallas Cowboys expansion team. A Dallas group headed by owner Clint Murchison Jr. and General manager Tex Schramm recruited Landry for the top job, signing him on for 5 years at $34,000 a season. Landry ran an insurance business in Dallas during the off-season and the offer gave him a chance to move closer to home.
In his first season as head coach, Landry failed to win a single game. The team posted a 0-11-1 record. Landry offset the team's lack of talent with an innovative offensive strategy that called for multiple formations based on the strengths and weaknesses of his own players and those of his opponents. A 1968 NFL press release described Landry's offense as using "10 or 11 formations a game, with up to six variations of each. This is several times as much offense as the NFL average … the Landry defense, on the other hand, is a one-formation machine. It is as complex as a computer, and its individual parts are coordinated like the works of a clock." "He was renowned in the NFL for his ability to think ahead," noted Washington Post staff writer Bart Barnes. "not just for the next down but to the next series of downs."
Despite a sub-par record, Landry had won the confidence of Cowboys owner Clint Murchison. In 1964, Murchison signed Landry for an additional 10 years as head coach of the Cowboys. This marked an unprecedented show of support for a coach with only a 13-38-3 record. But the gamble paid off. By 1965, the team won as many games as they lost. And in 1966, the Cowboys made the playoffs for the first time after posting a 10-3-1 season. That year Landry was named the NFL's Coach of the Year. In 1967 the team won the Eastern Division title. After the 1970 season, the Cowboys advanced to the Super Bowl for the first time, but lost the championship game to the Baltimore Colts. The Cowboys eventually made it to the Super Bowl five times, winning in 1972 and 1978 and losing in 1971, 1976, and 1979. Throughout his career, Landry earned a record of 250-162-6 in the regular season and 20-16 in the playoffs.
Achieved Celebrity Status
In the 1970s, the team gained national popularity and was dubbed "America's Team." Football became the most-watched professional sport in the United States. Super Bowl VI, in which the Tom Landry's Dallas Cowboys beat Don Shula's Miami Dolphins 24-3, marked a turning point for the team. They shed forever their image as lovable losers and became a dominating force in the NFL. "The title validated Landry's status and the Cowboys' claim as one of the league's elite teams," wrote David Moore in the Chicago Tribune. "It forever altered the perception of the franchise."
Landry and his players became national celebrities. Moore recounted the defining events of the Dallas Cowboy's celebrity era. In 1975, the Dirty Dozen referred to the 12 rookies who made the team. The 50-yard Hail Mary pass from Roger Staubach to Drew Pearson climaxed a 17-14 playoff victory over Minnesota later that season. Troubled running back Duane Thomas called Landry "a plastic man, no man at all."
The Dallas Cowboy's cheerleading squad had a certain cachet. Former Cowboys wide receiver Pete Gent wrote a best-selling novel, North Dallas Forty based on his time with the team. The book, which was made into a movie starring Nick Nolte, portrayed the organization in a negative light, characterizing the owners as more concerned with the bottom line than with the welfare of the players.
Landry also revolutionized the college draft system by introducing the computer to organize the annual selection process. The coach became an iconic figure, known for wearing a fedora hat and pacing the sidelines with a stoic expression. Admirers saw a caring, warm, and devoutly religious man. But his aloofness also drew criticism. Landry was called "plastic man" and "computer face," and even referred to cynically as Pope Landry I by some of his players. Moreover, Peter Golenbock in the Wall Street Journal suggested that Landry also exhibited racist tendencies. His black players, especially Bob Hayes, Duane Thomas, and Thomas Henderson, "felt they never got the same respect or recognition from either the coach or the city as his favorite white players: Bobby Lilly, Lee Roy Jordan, and Roger Staubach," according to Golenbock.
Became Corporate Symbol
In 1983, Landry appeared in a national commercial for the American Express corporation. By that time, the Cowboys-Redskins rivalry had become legendary. The advertisement showed Landry walking into a tavern filled with large men in burgundy and gold Redskins football uniforms. Golenbock asserted that Landry became a symbol of corporate America. "His national fame grew around the same time this country was enjoying dizzying economic growth. His coaching philosophy centered on sacrifice for the good of the organization and working like a dog for victory at the cost of everything else. Corporate workers were expected to do the same."
By the early 1980s, the Cowboys had begun to fade. The owner sold them to a consortium, and they never seemed to regain strength. Landry's last season with the team was 1988. In 1989, the Cowboy's new owner Jerry Jones fired long-time coach Tom Landry and longtime general manager Tex Schramm. At his firing, he shed public tears, according to Time magazine, which "shocked an America that saw him as the faultlessly tailored, taciturn but brilliant sideline tactician." "The great irony was that in the end Coach Landry became a victim of the same corporate culture he had championed," contended Golenbock.
After his coaching career ended, Landry and his son became partners in an investment firm, and he also served as a goodwill ambassador for the Fellowship of Christian Athletes. He was elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1990 and was inducted into the Dallas Cowboys Ring of Honor in 1993.
In May 1999, Landry began undergoing treatment for acute myelogenous leukemia and died at Baylor University Medical Center in Texas the following February at age 75. He married Alicia Wiggs, whom he met in college, in 1949, and she survives him along with their children, Tom Landry, Jr. and Kitty Phillips. The couple also had another daughter, Lisa Childress, who died of liver cancer in 1995.
The city of Dallas commemorated Landry by renaming one of its main highways. In addition, it commissioned a nine-foot-two bronze likeness of the coach. On October 15, 2001, the statue was unveiled at halftime of the game between the Dallas Cowboys and the Washington Redskins. It shows the coach on the sidelines wearing his trademark fedora and carrying a game plan placard from a 1983 game against the New York Giants. The statue stands on a star-shaped pedestal at Texas Stadium.
Landry explained his coaching philosophy this way: "The players are basically in my hands—whether they start, whether they play, what they do," according to Whitmire in the Chicago Tribune. "That's an awesome responsibility when you come down to it. Therefore, my feeling is you must have some distance from the players in order for them to do the things they have to do. Once you get close to a player, you give them an out."
Newsmakers, Gale Group, 2000.
Associated Press, October 16, 2001; October 30, 2001.
Chicago Tribune, February 13, 2000; February 20, 2000, p. C3.
Dallas Morning News, October 11, 2001.
Los Angeles Times, February 13, 2000.
New York Times, February 14, 2000.
Time, February 21, 2000.
Wall Street Journal, February 16, 2000.
Washington Post, February 13, 2000. □
"Tom Landry." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/tom-landry
"Tom Landry." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Retrieved February 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/tom-landry
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
American football coach
Every football Sunday for twenty-nine years, Tom Landry stood expressionless on the sidelines as coach of the Dallas Cowboys in the National Football League (NFL). Whether winning or losing, Landry, in his suit and trademark fedora, always remained calm. His stoic demeanor and aura of control demanded respect from both his opponents and his players. He possessed a superior football mind and was recognized for his innovations even as a young man. As a player-coach with the New York Giants, Landry created the 4-3 defense, a staple of pro football, featuring four linemen and three linebackers. In Dallas, he was the first to use computers for scouting and game preparation. Landry's continuing influence on the game is carried forward by former staff members and players still active in the league.
The Early Years
Born Thomas Wade Landry on September 11, 1924 in Mission, Texas, he was the son Ron Landry, an auto mechanic. As a child, he shared an attic bedroom with his two older siblings and was nearly killed when he was struck in a car accident. Somewhat shy, he was an A student, class president and football standout in high school. During Landry's senior year his team went undefeated and he was offered a football scholarship to the University of Texas. After just one semester, Landry left to serve in the Army Air Corps during World War II, flying 30 missions as a B-17 pilot and surviving a crash landing in the French countryside.
As an All-Pro halfback for the New York Giants, Landry was an extremely emotional player. In 1954, Landry intercepted three passes against Philadelphia and was voted All-Pro for the first time. The following year
he went to the Pro-Bowl. It was 1956, when Landry became a defensive assistant, after two years as a player-coach for the Giants. His coaching career had officially started and Landry wasted no time bringing his ideas to the table. In addition to creating the 4-3 defense, he was the first coach to call defensive audibles with signals from the sidelines. Although Landry always insisted he had no interest in coaching after his playing career was over, his knowledge of the game and innovative ideas would keep him at the helm for years to come. The head coach of the Giants, Jim Lee Howell, called Landry "the greatest football coach in the game today."
It was an offer from the expansion Dallas football franchise, awarded in 1960, that convinced Landry to continue his coaching career. A native Texan, who ran an insurance business in Dallas during the off-season, Landry accepted the offer to become the team's first head coach. Although the expansion Cowboys didn't win a game in their inaugural season and didn't show much improvement during the following two seasons, Cowboys owner Clint Murchison Jr. signed Landry to a ten year contract as a show of support. Landry's original plan, to coach for a few seasons and then go into business full-time, had changed once and for all.
While Landry enjoyed the respect and admiration of his players and colleagues later in his career, during the first six years in Dallas he lacked patience and his players lacked faith. Players privately referred to him as Pope Landry I or Ol' Stone Face. It wasn't until 1966 that the Dallas Cowboys had their first winning season. Few could have predicted that it would be twenty more seasons before the Dallas Cowboys would have another losing season.
The list of Landry's innovations is long and impressive and what he considered most important to his legacy. In Dallas, he created the umbrella-like flex defense, began using computers, reintroduced the shotgun formation and popularized situational substitutions. His command of the X's and O's of the game was matched only by his ability to keep a cool distance from his players. Landry's philosophy was that a coach shouldn't get too close to his players because then he would no longer be able to command the respect and authority needed to be successful. As a result, his players regarded him as something like a father figure and tried hard not to disappoint him. His need for control was so overwhelming that he refused to stay off the field one particular Monday night, when told there was a gunman in the stands that had threatened his life.
|1924||Born September 11 in Mission, Texas|
|1941||Wins regional championship at Mission High School|
|1943||Inducted into the Army Air Corps|
|1946||Enrolls at University of Texas|
|1947||Starts at fullback for Sugar Bowl winning University of Texas team|
|1949||Rushes for 117 yards in Orange Bowl victory|
|1950||Joins the New York Giants|
|1954||Plays in NFL All-Star game|
|1954||Named player-coach for the New York Giants|
|1956||Hired as assistant coach for New York Giants|
|1960||Hired as first head coach of the Dallas Cowboys|
|1961||Gets first win as head coach of the Cowboys|
|1964||Signs ten-year contract extension with the Cowboys|
|1966||Wins first conference title|
|1966||Named NFL coach of the year|
|1967||Loses first championship game|
|1971||Loses in first Super Bowl appearance|
|1972||Wins first Super Bowl against Miami|
|1973||Wins 100th game|
|1976||Third Super Bowl appearance|
|1978||Wins second Super Bowl against Denver|
|1979||Loses fifth Super Bowl appearance to Pittsburgh|
|1980||Becomes third head coach to record 200 victories|
|1988||Fired by Jerry Jones|
|1990||Inducted into Pro Football Hall of Fame|
|1993||Becomes the eighth member of Cowboys Ring of Honor|
|2000||Dies at age 75 of leukemia|
Landry's Cowboys' rise to the top culminated in their first trip to the Super Bowl in 1971. With their loss to the Baltimore Colts, the fans didn't take long to place blame squarely on Landry. Noting his lack of emotion on the sidelines and the Cowboy's recent record of coming up short in big games, the fans lashed out at Landry for his apparent inability to win. Dallas returned to the Super Bowl the following year, and after beating Miami, the memories of previous disappointments vanished. It was a rare occasion when Landry let his happiness show as he was carried off the field by his victorious team with a smile on his face
Landry's teams during the 1970s seemed to be perennial winners and that, along with his growing celebrity, resulted in the tag, "America's Team." After losing the Super Bowl in 1975, the Cowboys were back again in 1977 beating Denver 27-10. They returned once more the following year but lost to the Pittsburgh Steelers. The Cowboys then spent the next three seasons knocking on the door but falling one game short of the Super Bowl.
Awards and Retirement
Landry's status as icon and legend never changed, but the NFL did and in 1989, after three consecutive losing seasons, he was unceremoniously fired by Dallas' new owner, Jerry Jones. Although most onlookers felt it was the wrong choice at the time, Landry never expressed public bitterness. In 1990, he entered the Pro Football Hall of Fame alongside five of his former players. He made a rare appearance at Texas Stadium, in 1993, to be inducted into the Dallas Cowboys' Ring of Honor.
In retirement, Landry remained active in business with his son and various Christian organizations. He indulged his love of flying and became a successful motivational speaker. His death from Leukemia at the age of 75 was marked by many tributes and the unveiling of a statue of his likeness, fedora and all, in Texas Stadium.
Awards and Accomplishments
|Landry retired with a career coaching record of 270 wins, 178 losses, and 6 ties.|
|1955||Played in first Pro Bowl|
|1966||Won first conference title|
|1966||Named NFL coach of the year|
|1971||Won first NFC title|
|1972||Won first Super Bowl|
|1973||Won 100th game|
|1977||Won second Super Bowl|
|1982||Won 200th game|
|1990||Inducted into Pro Football Hall of Fame|
|1993||Inducted into Dallas Cowboys' Ring of Honor|
A Chapter Closed
The great stone face flinched and the flinty blue eyes went glassy when Tom Landry heard the verdict: He had been summarily removed as coach of the Dallas Cowboys, after 29 years. There was no appeal, no recourse, no room for negotiation. Landry, 64, gazed in shock at the two men who had brought him the terrible news. He said in disbelief, "You've taken my team away from me." …
Thus it was that America's Team came up with a new owner (only its third in 29 years), a new coach (only its second), a new high in the gross price paid for a U.S. sports enterprise (next best: the reported $110 million paid for the New England Patriots and their stadium in 1988) and a new low in insulting a living legend ….
Source: William Oscar Johnson. Sports Illustrated, March 6, 1989, p. 22.
Tom Landry's influence on the game and the city of Dallas is difficult to measure. His coaching statistics are surpassed by few and his loyalty to one team is a NFL record. As years go by, the memory of his iconic figure pacing the sidelines may fade but his influence on the game will remain. Many of Landry's former assistants have gone on to successful coaching careers of their own, including Mike Ditka and Dan Reeves, and it is in their teaching that Landry's influence will ultimately be measured.
Sports Illustrated (March 6, 1989).
New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/ (October 23, 2002).
Sporting News. http://www.sportingnews.com/ (October 23, 2002).
Sports Illustrated/CNN. http://www.sportsillustrated.cnn.com/ (October 23, 2002).
Tom Landry 1924-2000. Dallas News. http://www.dallasnews.com/ (October 23, 2002).
Sketch by Aric Karpinski
"Landry, Tom." Notable Sports Figures. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/sports/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/landry-tom
"Landry, Tom." Notable Sports Figures. . Retrieved February 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/sports/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/landry-tom