Mendelssohn, (Jakob Ludwig) (Felix

views updated May 14 2018

Mendelssohn, (Jakob Ludwig) [Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy] (b Hamburg, 1809; d Leipzig, 1847). Ger. composer, pianist, organist, and conductor. Grandson of Moses Mendelssohn, philosopher, and son of banker Abraham who added Bartholdy to his surname when he became Protestant Christian. Felix was 2nd of 4 children, eldest being Fanny Mendelssohn, almost as good a pianist as her brother. His first pf. lessons were from his mother and in Berlin he was taught harmony by Karl Zelter. Boy prodigy as pianist, making public début at 9. In 1819 his setting of Ps. 19 was sung by Berlin Singakademie. In 1821 Zelter took him to Weimar to visit Goethe, a warm friendship developing between the 72-year-old poet and the boy of 12, who was already a prolific composer. His comic opera, Die Hochzeit des Camacho was completed 1825 and produced 1827. In 1826, at age 17, he comp. the ov. to A Midsummer Night's Dream, adding the remainder of the incidental mus. 16 years later. Attended Berlin Univ. 1826–9, and finally determined upon mus. as a profession. In Mar. 1829, he cond. Bach's St Matthew Passion at the Singakademie (its f.p. since Bach's death in 1750), one of his many services to the Bach revival. Visited Eng. 1829, giving one of there of Beethoven's ‘Emperor’ conc. From the outset he received adulation from Eng. public. Before leaving, toured Scotland and was inspired by scenery to write Hebrides ov. Toured Ger., Austria, and It. in next 2 years, composing 2 syms. and publishing first book of Lieder ohne Worte. Further visits to London 1832 and 1833 (when he cond. f.p. of his Italian Sym.).

Appointed cond., Lower Rhine Mus. Fest., Düsseldorf 1833–6 and cond. of Leipzig Gewandhaus Orch. 1835–46. Married 1837 and in next few years wrote several of his finest works, incl. Lobgesang, the Variations Sérieuses, and vn. conc. Organized new cons. of mus. at Leipzig, becoming dir. when it opened in 1843 as well as teaching pf. and comp., with Schumann as associate. Made 8th visit to Britain 1844, and returned in 1846 to cond. f.p. of oratorio Elijah at Birmingham Fest. Last (10th) visit was in 1847, when he conducted Elijah in London, Manchester, and Birmingham, and played for Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Severe overwork, combined with the shock of his sister Fanny's sudden death in May 1847, led to his own death in Nov. of that year.

Mendelssohn's gifts were phenomenal. He was a good painter, had wide literary knowledge, and wrote brilliantly. He was a superb pianist, a good violist, an exceptional organist, and an inspiring cond. He had an amazing mus. memory. He was generous to other musicians, and keen to raise standards of popular taste. His genius as a composer led Bülow to describe him as the most complete master of form after Mozart. In him, a classical upbringing was combined with romantic inclination, imparting to his work a poetic elegance which has caused it to be regarded as superficial because of its lack of impassioned features. The popularity of his work in the 19th cent. was followed by a severe reaction, partly caused by a puritanical feeling that his life had been too comfortably easy, but the pendulum has swung again and the best qualities of his music, its craftsmanship, restraint, poetry, inventive orchestration, and melodic freshness are now highly valued. Prin. works:THEATRE: Die Hochzeit des Camacho, Op.10, comic opera (1825); incidental mus. to A Midsummer Night's Dream, Op.61 (1842); Son and Stranger (Die Heimkehr aus der Fremde), operetta, Op.89 (1829); Lorelei, unfinished opera (1847).ORCH.: 13 early syms. for str.; syms.: No.1 in C minor, Op.11 (1824), No.2 (Lobgesang) in B♭, Op.52 (1840), No.3 in A minor, Op.56 (Scotch) (1830–42), No.4 in A, Op.90 (Italian) (1830–1, 1833); No.5 in D minor, Op.107 (Reformation) (1830–2); ov. Ruy Blas, Op.95 (1839), ov. A Midsummer Night's Dream, Op.21 (1826), ov. Hebrides (Fingal's Cave (Fingals Höhle)), Op.26 (1830, rev. 1832); Meeresstille und Glückliche Fahrt (Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage), Op.27 (1832); Die schöne Melusine (Fair Melusina), Op.32 (1833).CONCERTOS, etc: pf.: No.1 in G minor, Op.25 (1832), No.2 in D minor, Op.40 (1837); Capriccio brillant in B minor, Op.22 (1832), Rondo brillant in E♭, Op.29 (1834), Serenade and Allegro giocoso in B minor, Op.43 (1838); vn., in E minor, Op.64 (1844); conc. in A minor, pf., str. (op. posth.) (1822); conc. in D minor, vn., str. (op. posth.) (1822); conc. in E, 2 pf., orch. (op. posth.) (1823); conc. in A♭, 2 pf., orch. (1824).CHORAL: Die erste Walpurgisnacht (The First Walpurgis Night), Op.60 (1831, rev. 1842); oratorios: St Paul, Op.36 (1834–6); Elijah, Op.70 (1846, rev. 1846–7); Christus, Op.97, unfinished (1847); Lobgesang (Hymn of Praise, sym. No.2 in B♭), Op.52 (1840); Lauda Sion, Op.73 (1846); Hear My Prayer (1844); 9 settings of Psalms.CHAMBER MUSIC: str. qts.: No.1 in E♭, Op.12 (1829), No.2 in A minor, Op.13 (1827), No.3 in D, No.4 in E minor, No.5 in E♭, Op.44 Nos. 1, 2 and 3 (1837–8), No.6 in F minor, Op.80 (1847); str. qt. in E♭ (1823); 4 Pieces, str. qt., Op.81: Andante in E major (1847), Scherzo in A minor (1847), Capriccio in E minor (1843), Fugue in E♭ (1827); pf. qts.: No.1 in C minor, Op.1 (1822), No.2 in F minor, Op.2 (1823), No.3 in B minor, Op.3 (1824–5); va. sonata in C minor (1824); cl. sonata in E♭ (1824); vn. sonata in F minor, Op.4 (1825); Variations concertantes, pf., vc., Op.17 (1829); str. quintets: No.1 in A, Op.18 (1831), No.2 in E♭, Op.87 (1845); Octet in E♭, str., Op.20 (1825); scherzo from Octet arr. for orch.; vc. sonatas: No.1 in B♭, Op.45 (1838), No.2 in D, Op.58 (1843); pf. trios: No.1 in D minor, Op.49 (1839), No.2 in C minor, Op.66 (1845); Lied ohne Worte in D, vc., pf., Op.109 (1845); sextet in D, Op.110 (1824); Concertstück, No.1 in F minor, cl., corno di bassetto, pf., Op.113 (1833), No.2 in D minor, Op.114 (1833).PIANO: Capriccio in F♯ minor, Op.5 (1825); sonatas: E major, Op.6 (1826), G minor, Op.105 (1821), B♭, Op.106 (1827); 7 Characteristic Pieces, Op.7 (1827); Rondo capriccioso, Op.14; Lieder ohne Worte, Book 1, Op.19 (1829–30), II, Op.30 (1835), III, Op.38 (1837), IV, Op.53 (1841), V, Op.62, VI, Op.67 (1843–5), VII, Op.85 (1842), VIII, Op.102 (1842–5); Fantasy, Op.28 (1833); 3 Capriccios, Op.33 (1833–5); Variations sérieuses in D minor, Op.54 (1841); Variations, Op.82 (1841), Op.83 (1841); Allegro brillant, pf. duet, Op.92 (1841); 3 Preludes and Studies, Op.104 (1836–8); Capriccio in E, Op.118 (1837).VOICE & PIANO: 12 Songs, Op.8 (1830); 12 Songs, Op.9 (1829); 6 Songs, Op.19a (1830); 6 Songs, Op.34 (1834–7); 6 Songs, Op.47 (1839); 6 Songs, Op.57 (1839–42); 6 Songs, Op.71 (1845–7); 3 Songs, Op.84 (1831–9); 6 Songs, Op.86 (1826–47); 6 Songs, Op.99 (1841–5); 2 Sacred Songs, Op.112 (1835).PART-SONGS: 6 for SATB, Op.41 (1834); 6 SATB, Op.48 (1839); 6 TB, Op.50 (1837–40); 6 SATB, Op.59 (1837–43); 6 2-part songs, Op.63 (1836–44); 4 TB, Op.75 (1837–44); 4 TB, Op.76 (1840–7); 3 2-part songs, Op.77 (1836–47); 6 SATB, Op.88 (1839–47); 4 TB, Op.100 (1839–44); 4 TB, Op.120 (1837–47); these are settings mainly of Heine, Goethe, Eichendorff, Fallersleben, Uhland, and Scott; Festgesang, male vv. and brass (1840).ORGAN: 3 Preludes and Fugues, Op.37 (1833–7); 6 Sonatas, Op.65 (1839–44); Andante and Variations in D (1844).

Uhland, Ludwig (1787-1862)

views updated May 23 2018

Uhland, Ludwig (1787-1862)

Famous German poet who figured posthumously in an interesting lawsuit in Berlin over ownership of a holograph parchment apport obtained in a séance with Else Arnheim in 1920. The medium, in trance, described the presence of Ludwig Uhland. There appeared in her hands, which were tightly clasped by a well-known German author, a yellowed piece of parchment with two short verses scrawled on it, signed: "Uh-land, 1920."

The handwriting was pronounced identical to that of Uhland's, the parchment was of his era, and the verses were in genuine Uhland style. A clairvoyant, to whom Uhland's handwriting and the parchment were shown, declared after touching both papers that they were written by the same hand but that a long interval had elapsed between the writing of them.

The German author whose hand had encircled the medium's when the parchment appeared claimed the paper. Since witnesses stated that it had been thrust into the medium's hand, the court decided that the parchment belonged to the medium.