Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu
Le Fanu, Joseph Sheridan
BORN: 1814, Dublin, Ireland
DIED: 1873, Dublin, Ireland
GENRE: Fiction, poetry
The House by the Churchyard (1863)
Wylder's Hand (1864)
Uncle Silas: A Tale of Bartram-Haugh (1864)
Guy Deverell (1865)
In a Glass Darkly (1871)
Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu is a major figure among Victorianera authors of gothic and supernatural fiction. Critics praise his short stories and novels for their evocative descriptions of physical settings, convincing use of supernatural elements, and insightful characterization. Scholars also observe that Le Fanu's subtle examinations of the psychological life of his characters distinguish his works from those of earlier gothic writers.
Works in Biographical and Historical Context
Childhood in Phoenix Park: Duels, Military Pageantry, and Upper-Class Life The son of Thomas Philip and Emma Dobbin Le Fanu, Joseph Thomas Sheridan Le Fanu was born in Dublin on August 28, 1814. His family belonged to the professional and upper classes and was related to several of the leading families in Dublin, including the Sheridans (Le Fanu's paternal grandmother was a sister of Richard Brinsley Sheridan). Le Fanu's father, a Church of Ireland clergyman, was appointed chaplain for the Royal Hibernian Military School in 1815; Joseph, along with his older sister Catherine Frances and his younger brother William, spent his early childhood in Phoenix Park, a large public park just northwest of Dublin that contained the school and the residences of British administrators. In 1815 the park, which still looks much the same today, was the site of duels, military pageantry, and upper-class life. On its edges were several villages, including Chapelizod, the setting for The House by the Churchyard (1863). The family stayed in residence at the school for eleven years.
Financial Disaster in Rural Ireland In 1823 the Reverend Le Fanu became rector of Abingdon in County Limerick, a post he held in absentia until 1826, when he received the deanery of Emly and brought his family to Abingdon to take up residence. The family now found itself in rural Ireland, in a tiny village in the heart of Irish poverty and political ferment. The Reverend Le Fanu had alienated the resident Catholic priest by his three-year absenteeism, and the priest turned the countryside against him. As a result the move, which was promising at first, became financially disastrous. Tithe income dropped to half what it should have been in the first year, and, when in 1831 the Tithe Wars began, the situation became even worse: Catholics refused to pay the required tithes (10 percent of various agricultural produce) to the established Protestant Anglican Church of Ireland, and the family went deeply into debt.
Near-Death Experiences The political situation was, at times, dangerous. As a young man, Le Fanu's younger brother, William, was nearly killed at least once, and Joseph absorbed what his biographer W. J. McCormack calls the “atmosphere of automatic, casual, and yet strangely intimate violence [that] pervaded rural Ireland” along with the acceptance of the supernatural, which was also widespread among Irish peasantry.
The Dublin Evening Mail In 1832 Le Fanu entered Trinity College, University of Dublin, then the only college at the only university in Ireland. After studying classics he graduated with honors in 1837 and began legal training in the Dublin Inns of Court. The publication of his short story “The Ghost and the Bonesetter” in the January 1838 issue of the Dublin University Magazine began his longterm interest in the periodical. By 1840 he had bought interest in two Dublin newspapers, the Statesman and the Warder. He married Susanna Bennett in 1843, and they had four children. The Statesman folded in 1846, but Le Fanu continued his association with the Warder until 1870.
Withdrawal from the Public Eye Both Le Fanu and his wife suffered from ill health, and Susanna died in 1858. After his wife's death, Le Fanu gradually became more and more reclusive, earning over the years the title “The Invisible Prince.” In 1861 he became part owner and coeditor of the Dublin Evening Mail, which he edited it until he sold it in 1869. Most of his fiction appeared first in serial form in this magazine. From 1863 to his death in 1873 he wrote prolifically, mainly novels including The House by the Churchyard and Wylder's Hand. The last year of his life was extremely solitary; he refused to see even old friends. He died of a heart condition on February 7, 1873. His imposing home in Dublin, in which he lived for twenty years, was leased from his wife's kinsman John Bennett, to whom he was deeply in debt. At Le Fanu's death his children were forced to leave.
Legendary Death Many writers about Le Fanu have mentioned a legend about his death, which is probably the embellishment of a minor incident. He complained, it is said, of frequent nightmares about an old house that was about to topple in on him. When Le Fanu died, his doctor looked into the terror-stricken eyes of the dead man and said, “I feared this. That house fell at last.” While this story has no known basis in fact, it creates an image of Le Fanu as a “ghost-story writer.”
Works in Literary Context
Le Fanu was born in the late-Romantic period, and its interest in the dark and macabre, which found expression in the gothic novel, was the main stimulus to his literary imagination. Like many writers of the era, he was also influenced by Sir Walter Scott, Charles Dickens, and Wilkie Collins. All of Le Fanu's novels depend on mystery, often murder. Only one of his novels does not contain a crime.
Irish Life and History The elements of Le Fanu's life play significant roles in his fiction. In his early work Irish life and history are major themes. The violence and often the treachery that he saw around him in his adolescence are reflected in many of his characters and plots; and his own financial difficulties gave him sympathy with all those characters in his stories who are in debt. His legal experience taught him not only what constituted evidence but also about lawyers and legal procedures. His experience with his neurotic wife undoubtedly contributed to his understanding of, and interest in, abnormal psychology.
Vampires, Ghosts, and the Essence of Gothic “Carmilla” is a vampire story, arguably the best in the English language. It is considered less drawn out than many others, and it does not concern itself overmuch with the outward appearances of vampirism—the sharp fangs, the blood. The terror of the tale is in its restraint, its ordinariness, yet it retains all the traditional familiar elements: The lonely castle in Styria, the innocent girl as victim, the nightmares, and the eventual destruction of the evil.
The Gothic Novel It is common to speak of Le Fanu as writing within the tradition of the gothic novel. Understandable as this comment is, it creates difficulties because gothic is not a term that can be adequately defined. Le Fanu certainly has common ground with the better exponents of the “gothic art” in his skill in the creation of atmosphere: landscape and buildings are endowed with an air of menace and of mystery. Yet within this apparatus of suspense there is very little reliance on the mechanics with which he creates his illusions. He rarely—and never in his best work—joins with the lesser luminaries of the art who depended heavily upon sliding panels, descending ceilings, and all the machinery that could occasionally dominate the story. M. R. James, one of the finest writers of ghost stories in the twentieth century and one who greeted Le Fanu as “the master of us all,” wrote that an important element in a successful ghost story is that it should not explain itself. The sense of mystery must remain at the end—not be explained away by any logical process. Le Fanu demonstrates this ideally. The footsteps which pursue Captain Barton in “The Watcher” are not in any sense explained, although they can be understood in the context of the apparition of Barton's shipmate. The “small black monkey, pushing its face forward in mimicry to meet mine” which sat on the open Bible from which the Reverend Mr. Jennings was endeavoring to preach in “Green Tea” can only be explained as the embodiment of evil. To see here a connection between this personal apparition and The Origin of Species, as has been suggested, is to deny an important element in Le Fanu's work: Evil is a reality in his writings, and has as much power to affect human lives as goodness. It is never clear precisely what is the origin of that evil, but there is no doubt that it exists and is an influence that cannot be ignored.
LITERARY AND HISTORICAL CONTEMPORARIES
Le Fanu's famous contemporaries include:
Mark Twain (1835–1910): Born Samuel Clemens, Twain has been called the “father of American literature” by no less a figure than William Faulkner. His The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn remains a perennial candidate for the greatest American novel ever written.
Paul Verlaine (1844–1896): A French Symbolist poet, Verlaine led the prototypical lifestyle of the dissipated artiste, most notably (and scandalously) abandoning his wife and son to run off with poet Arthur Rimbaud, with whom he had a tempestuous relationship, and eventually sinking into drug and alcohol addiction by the end of his life.
Benito Juarez (1806–1872): Five-term president of Mexico, Juarez (a Zapotec Indian) resisted French attempts to install a puppet emperor and led efforts to modernize the country, earning a place as perhaps the best-loved political figure in Mexican history.
Charlotte Brontë (1816–1855): The eldest of a trio of literary sisters, this British author wrote four novels in her lifetime, including the classic Jane Eyre.
Mystery Stories Le Fanu's purpose was different from Wilkie Collins's or Arthur Conan Doyle's. As Michael H. Begnal explains, both of these men wished to maintain “a distance … between the reader and the event,” and “we view crime and sin in a detached, deductive way as a puzzle which Sherlock Holmes may solve as an intellectual exercise but not as something which affects him or us very much. It is this very detachment which Le Fanu tries to avoid in his work.” Le Fanu wants his readers involved with his morally and psychologically ambivalent antagonists, who are studies of the individual who commits one crime and then has to live with the consequences. Such characters include Sir Jekyl Marlowe of Guy Deverell (1865), Mr. Dingwell of The Tenants of Malory (1867), and Walter Longcluse of Checkmate, all of whom are psychologically haunted. The operation of fate, through the confluence of coincidences that are completely rational except for their timing, is probably the greatest affirmation of the supernatural in Le Fanu's work—ironically enough for a man better known for his tales of the supernatural than for his mysteries. In a Le Fanu mystery the operation of an invisible providence forces the criminal into a position or place in which he betrays himself. Thus, Wylder's hand reappears at the precise time when Lake rides by; Silas leaves the door open when he should have shut it. In his interest in the criminal's psyche and in the awareness of a providence that insists “murder will out,” Le Fanu has more in common with Fyodor Dostoyevsky than with Conan Doyle.
Works in Critical Context
During his lifetime, Le Fanu's works were moderately successful, although they received scant critical attention. Le Fanu's novels contain elements of suspense in addition to engaging emotional and desciptive passages. Critics such as Elizabeth Bowen, Julian Symons, and W. J. McCormack agree that Uncle Silas: A Tale of Bartram-Haugh (1864) is Le Fanu's finest novel. In his introduction to Uncle Silas, Frederick B. Shroyer called it “one of the most effective, gripping novels of terror … ever written.” In addition, The House by the Churchyard (1863) and Wylder's Hand (1864) have also received acclaim.
Modern Criticism During the twentieth century the prominent ghost-story writer M. R. James drew attention to Le Fanu by writing introductions to several reissued volumes of his out-of-print works. V. S. Pritchett and Elizabeth Bowen also wrote essays championing Le Fanu as one of Gothic literature's foremost figures. In 1978, Jack Sullivan summarized the opinion of modern critics in his assessment of Le Fanu's achievement: “Beginning with Le Fanu, one of the distinctive features of modern ghostly fiction is … [the] synthesis of psychology and supernaturalism.” While he is not well-known today as a novelist, Le Fanu is noted by horror writers and aficionados as an innovative and masterful writer of psychological horror stories and as a pivotal figure in the history of supernatural fiction.
Responses to Literature
- Discuss Le Fanu's innovations in the ghost story genre. What were the common features of ghost stories prior to Le Fanu? What elements of his work were copied by authors who came after him?
- In what ways do Le Fanu's stories reflect his Irish upbringing, both from a religious and cultural standpoint? Provide examples from his work.
- Le Fanu was a master of indirect horror, usually derived from a supernatural element that remains ambiguous or not fully seen. In modern books and film, horror is often more direct: Killers and monsters are often described in full physical and emotional detail. Why do you think modern tales focus more on direct horror than indirect horror? Which do you think is more effective, and why?
- Compare Le Fanu's vampire Carmilla to Stoker's Dracula. How do the two authors present vampires? What is the significance of Le Fanu using a female for his vampire as opposed to Stoker's male?
COMMON HUMAN EXPERIENCE
Sheridan Le Fanu was the first modern writer of tales of vampires and ghosts, but was by no means the last. Other works that feature such creatures include:
Dracula (1897), a novel by Bram Stoker. A bridge between gothic novels and modern horror literature, the tale, told through diary entries, has inspired countless adaptations, imitations, and continuations in both literature and film.
“The Wendigo” (1910), a short story by Algernon Black-wood. Blackwood was considered by many of his contemporaries to be one of the greatest horror writers of all time; this short story, a tale of a Canadian hunting trip gone horribly wrong, is often cited as his best.
Interview with the Vampire, a novel by Anne Rice (1976). A somber, existential take on the vampire myth, this book is written as a confession given by a two-hundred-year-old vampire.
Begnal, Michael H. Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu. Lewisburg, Pa.: Bucknell University Press, 1971.
Benstock, Bernard and Thomas F. Staley, eds. Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 70: British Mystery Writers, 1860–1919. A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book. Detroit: Gale, 1988.
Briggs, Julia, Night Visitors: The Rise and Fall of the English Ghost Story. London: Faber & Faber, 1977.
Greenfield, John R., ed. Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 159: British Short-Fiction Writers, 1800–1880. A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book. Detroit: Gale, 1996.
Harris-Fain, Darren, ed. Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 178: British Fantasy and Science-Fiction Writers Before World War I. A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book. Detroit: Gale, 1997.
McCormack, W. J. Sheridan Le Fanu and Victorian Ireland. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980.
Nadel, Ira B. and William E. Fredeman, eds. Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 21: Victorian Novelists Before 1885. A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book. Detroit: Gale, 1983.
Petersen, Audrey. Victorian Masters of Mystery. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing, 1984.
Armchair Detective (1976): 191–197.
Canadian Journal of Irish Studies (1982): 5–15.
Ireland: A Journal of Irish Studies, No. 4 (1985): 65–88.
Modern Philology (August 1949): 32–38.
Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu
Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu
Considered "the father of the English ghost story," Irish author Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu (1814-1873) is recognized for combining Gothic literary conventions with realistic technique to create tales of psychological insight and supernatural terror. Among his most highly regarded works is In a Glass Darkly (1872), a collection of horror stories that includes the earliest example of a vampire story in English literature.
Of French Huguenot descent, Le Fanu was born in Dublin on August 28, 1814, the first son of Emma Lucretia Dobbin and Thomas Philip Le Fanu. His father, a clergyman in the Church of Ireland and nephew of the playwright Richard Brinsley Sheridan, served as the chaplain of the Royal Hibernian Military School in Phoenix Park during Le Fanu's early childhood. In 1826 the family moved to Abington in county Limerick, where Thomas Le Fanu had been appointed rector and dean of Emly. Le Fanu, who enjoyed the resources of his father's large library, was privately educated until his acceptance at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1833.
His university career was a success. He won academic honors and was active in debate and the historical society. After completing studies in classics he pursued legal studies at King's Inns in London but never took up the practice of law. His interests already lay in literary pursuits. As early as 1837 he had begun contributing to the Dublin University Magazine, and in 1839 he took ownership of the Irish Protestant newspaper The Warder. From this time on journalism constituted Le Fanu's foremost professional undertaking. He assumed a financial interest in several newspapers over the course of his career, including the Statesman, the Dublin Evening Mail, and Dublin University Magazine, and used these publications to promote his conservative political views.
In December 1843 Le Fanu married Susanna Bennett, the daughter of a barrister, and they had four children. Their years together were plagued by financial difficulties and ill health, and when she died in April 1858 at the age of thirty-four, it came as a life-shattering blow to Le Fanu, who blamed himself for her suffering. He wrote at the time, as quoted by Kathryn West in the Dictionary of Literary Biography, "The greatest misfortune of my life has overtaken me. My darling wife is gone… . She was the light of my life." His grief was inconsolable, and from this point on he retired from public life.
One obituary notice, quoted by Roy B. Stokes in the Dictionary of Literary Biography, later remarked: "He vanished so entirely that Dublin, always ready with a nickname, dubbed him 'The Invisible Prince;' and indeed he was for long almost invisible, except to his family and most familiar friends, unless at odd hours of the evening, when he might occasionally be seen, stealing, like the ghost of his former self, between his newspaper office and his home in Merrion Square; sometimes, too, he was to be encountered in an old out-of-the-way bookshop poring over some rare black letter Astrology or Demonology." However, it is during the period of his seclusion that he produced his most enduring works of fiction.
Le Fanu sold the Dublin University Magazine, which had become the main outlet of his short fiction, in 1869. He died in 1873. Of the effect of the seclusion of his final years on his literary work, biographer Michael H. Begnal commented, "Instead of limiting his artistic vision, it would seem that the seclusion of Sheridan LeFanu was a blessing in disguise, for it preserved him from the pitfalls of immersion in immediate social concern. Yet at the same time it induced him to concentrate upon the larger issues which were the true shapers of his time."
Le Fanu's first published works of fiction were short stories printed in the Dublin University Magazine beginning in 1838. The earliest of these, "The Ghost and the Bone-Setter," draws on the Irish folk belief that the most recently deceased corpse in a cemetery must carry water to the thirsty souls already in purgatory. Though the story offers a comic explanation for the appearance of a ghost, the work is notable for introducing the character of Father Francis Purcell, a Catholic priest from Drumcoolagh in county Limerick, who serves as a connection for a number of stories later collected in The Purcell Papers (1880). Similarly, "The Fortunes of Robert Ardagh" employs a dual structure to tell the story of a mysterious murder, explained alternately as a manifestation of Satanic power and a rational series of unfortunate events.
The most famous of the Purcell stories is "Strange Event in the Life of Schalken the Painter," published in May 1839. In the story, Purcell relates a tale told to him by the owner of "a remarkable picture" painted by an artist named Godfrey Schalken—a portrait of a young woman named Rose whom he had once loved. Betrothed to a wealthy stranger whose ghoulish appearance is an omen of his diabolical nature, Rose returns home in an anguished state some months after her marriage, begging not to be left alone and crying, "The dead and the living cannot be one—God has forbidden it!" She mysteriously disappears from her room, and no trace of her is ever recovered. Sometime later Schalken experiences a vision of Rose beckoning him to follow her. He cannot resist, and she leads him to a richly outfitted bedchamber where she reveals—with "an arch smile, such as pretty women wear when engaged in successfully practising some roguish trick"—her demonic husband waiting for her in a black-curtained bed. The painter faints at the sight but paints a faithful representation of what he has seen.
A somewhat later tale, "The Watcher," was included in Ghost Stories and Tales of Mystery (1851) and revised as "The Familiar" for In a Glass Darkly. The story relates events leading up to the death of Captain James Barton, who is haunted by a strange figure who may or may not be a ghost, but whose relentless appearance causes Barton to lose his senses and eventually his life. In the Dictionary of Literary Biography Gary William Crawford called the story "remarkably sophisticated for its day," noting that "the lingering uncertainty about what happens … invokes a genuine frisson." A story first published in 1853, "An Account of Some Strange Disturbances in Aungier Street," again depicts the persecution of the living by the dead when two students rent a house in Dublin that had once belonged to a judge who had sentenced many convicts to hang. Only in the midst of their terror do they learn that he had ultimately hanged himself in the house in his despair and madness. The story was later revised as "Mr. Justice Harbottle" and included in In a Glass Darkly.
Le Fanu published no fiction works during the period 1853 to 1861, an unsettled time in his family life, but his later period proved to be the most productive. When Le Fanu resumed his literary output he published The House by the Churchyard (1863), a many-faceted novel that combines comedy, mystery, history, and horror, and Wylder's Hand (1864), a successful tale of rivalry and murder. His next work, Uncle Silas (1864), is set in Derbyshire, England, and is Le Fanu's best-known Gothic mystery. In the story Maud Ruthyn is the niece of a man suspected though never proven to have committed a murder years before. A wealthy heiress, she comes under his care when her father dies and once in his household becomes herself the intended victim of a murder plot calculated by her uncle, her cousin, and an evil governess in hopes of gaining Maud's fortune. She escapes when the governess is mistakenly killed in her place, and the uncle's true character is revealed. The fourth of his sensational novels published during this period, Guy Deverell (1865), centers on the Marlowe estate, illegitimately acquired by Sir Jekyl Marlowe, and the efforts of Monsieur Varbarriere to reinstate the rightful heir.
Le Fanu also produced several additional novels over the next few years, including the romances All in the Dark (1866) and Haunted Lives (1868), and the mysteries The Tenants of Malory (1867), A Lost Name (1867-1868), and The Wyvern Mystery (1869).
In a Glass Darkly
Le Fanu's short story collection In a Glass Darkly contains a group of his most chilling horror tales, "Green Tea," "The Familiar," "Mr. Justice Harbottle," "The Room in the Dragon Volant," and "Carmilla," all purportedly taken from the files of Dr. Martin Hesselius, a German doctor with an interest in psychic phenomena. "Green Tea" is among the best known of Le Fanu's works of supernatural terror, and in 1947 V. S. Pritchett named it "one of the best half-dozen ghost stories in the English language." It concerns Reverend Robert Jennings, a clergyman suffering from a nervous condition. Engaged in a study of ancient religions, Jennings reports that he has been haunted by a little black monkey and suggests that perhaps it is a hallucination brought on by drinking large amounts of green tea. The presence of the monkey begins to interfere with Jennings's duties and with his research, and the creature begins to urge evil actions on the increasingly distressed clergyman. Ultimately, Jennings commits suicide.
The final tale in the collection, "Carmilla" is also the most important from a literary standpoint for it introduces the vampire legend into English literature. Set in an isolated castle occupied by an innocent young girl and her father, the story draws on conventions of the Gothic to heighten terror. Carmilla is a young woman who is brought into the castle to recuperate after a carriage accident. She gives no information about her past, but resembles a dead woman whose portrait hangs in the castle. The heroine of the tale suffers visions of a nocturnal visitor and is slowly drawn into intimate association with Carmilla, whose possessiveness and passion overpower the innocent girl. When Carmilla's true nature as a vampire is discovered, she is killed.
Le Fanu, though not as well known as Edgar Allan Poe, Bram Stoker, or Mary Shelley, remains a seminal figure in the advancement of horror writing, and his works continue to find new audiences through reprint editions. His works expanded the vocabulary of Victorian Gothic to include the deeper effects of psychological terror that characterize modern supernatural horror. In describing what set Le Fanu's stories apart, Pritchett wrote: "LeFanu's ghosts are the most disquieting of all ghosts… . The secret doubt, the private shame, the unholy love, scratch away with malignant patience in the guarded mind. It is we who are the ghosts. Let illness, late nights and green tea weaken the catch we normally keep clamped so firmly down, and out slink one by one all the hags and animals of moral or Freudian symbolism."
Le Fanu died on February 10, 1873, in Dublin, Ireland.
Begnal, Michael H., Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu, Bucknell University Press, 1971.
Campbell, James L., Supernatural Fiction Writers, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1985.
Crawford, Gary William, J. Sheridan Le Fanu: A Bio-Bibliography, Greenwood Press, 1995.
Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 21: Victorian Novelists Before 1885, edited by Ira B. Nadel and William E. Fredeman, The Gale Group, 1983.
Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 178: British Fantasy and Science-Fiction Writers before World War I, edited by Darren Harris-Fain, The Gale Group, 1997.
Kollmann, Judith J., Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 70: British Mystery Writers, 1860-1919, edited by Bernard Benstock and Thomas F. Staley, The Gale Group, 1988.
Lovecraft, H. P., Supernatural Horror in Literature, Ben Abramson, 1945.
McCormack, W. J., Sheridan Le Fanu, 3rd ed., Sutton, 1997.
Melada, Ivan, Sheridan Le Fanu, Twayne, 1987.
Pritchett, V. S., introduction to In a Glass Darkly by Sheridan LeFanu, John Lehmann, 1947.
West, Kathryn, Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 159: British Short-Fiction Writers, 1800-1880, edited by John R. Greenfield, The Gale Group, 1996.
Criticism, Fall 1996.
Nineteenth-Century Literature, September 1992.
Studies in Short Fiction, Winter 1987.
Studies in the Novel, Summer 1997.
"Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu (1814-73)," http://lang.nagoya-u.ac.jp/~matsuoka/Fanu.html (February 11, 2003). □