Spruance, Raymond A.
Regarded as a superb ship handler, Spruance advanced between the wars, rising to the rank of rear admiral in 1940 after commanding a battleship. Taking command of Cruiser Division Five at Pearl Harbor in September 1941, he served as the surface screen commander for Adm. William F. Halsey during the early months of the war. When his friend Halsey was temporarily ill, Spruance took command of the American carrier force that fought and won the most crucial and decisive naval engagement of World War II: the June 1942 Battle of Midway.
Afterward, Spruance served as chief of staff to Adm. Chester Nimitz in Pearl Harbor, but he returned to battle in 1943 commanding the Fifth Fleet. His command of this force during the Battle of the Philippine Sea in 1944 attracted some criticism because the Japanese fleet escaped. However, it was during this battle that Japan lost the bulk of its remaining naval airpower, and Spruance's primary mission was to protect the transports carrying the troops to invade Saipan. After the war, he served as the president of the Naval War College until his retirement. Called out of retirement, Spruance served as the U.S. ambassador to the Philippines (1952–55) before retiring once again. Spruance's near‐flawless performance of command during two critical battles in World War II marked him as one of the U.S. Navy's great commanders.
Emmet P. Forrestel , Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, USN: A Study in Command, 1966.
Thomas B. Buell , The Quiet Warrior: A Biography of Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, 1974.
"Spruance, Raymond A.." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/spruance-raymond
"Spruance, Raymond A.." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Retrieved September 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/spruance-raymond
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
Spruance, Raymond Ames
Raymond Ames Spruance (sprōō´əns), 1886–1969, American admiral, b. Baltimore. Commissioned in the navy in 1908, he reached the rank of rear admiral in 1939. In World War II he distinguished himself at the battle of Midway (1942) and became chief of staff to Admiral Chester W. Nimitz. As head of the fleet in the central Pacific (later the 5th Fleet), he commanded (1943–44) the forces that invaded the Gilbert and Marshall Islands and was made a full admiral. He was (1945–46) commander in chief of the Pacific Fleet and retired from the navy in 1948. He served as ambassador to the Philippines (1952–55).
See biography by T. B. Buell (1974).
"Spruance, Raymond Ames." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/spruance-raymond-ames
"Spruance, Raymond Ames." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved September 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/spruance-raymond-ames