Spruance, Raymond A.
Regarded as a superb ship handler, Spruance advanced between the wars, rising to the rank of rear admiral in 1940 after commanding a battleship. Taking command of Cruiser Division Five at Pearl Harbor in September 1941, he served as the surface screen commander for Adm. William F. Halsey during the early months of the war. When his friend Halsey was temporarily ill, Spruance took command of the American carrier force that fought and won the most crucial and decisive naval engagement of World War II: the June 1942 Battle of Midway.
Afterward, Spruance served as chief of staff to Adm. Chester Nimitz in Pearl Harbor, but he returned to battle in 1943 commanding the Fifth Fleet. His command of this force during the Battle of the Philippine Sea in 1944 attracted some criticism because the Japanese fleet escaped. However, it was during this battle that Japan lost the bulk of its remaining naval airpower, and Spruance's primary mission was to protect the transports carrying the troops to invade Saipan. After the war, he served as the president of the Naval War College until his retirement. Called out of retirement, Spruance served as the U.S. ambassador to the Philippines (1952–55) before retiring once again. Spruance's near‐flawless performance of command during two critical battles in World War II marked him as one of the U.S. Navy's great commanders.
Emmet P. Forrestel , Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, USN: A Study in Command, 1966.
Thomas B. Buell , The Quiet Warrior: A Biography of Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, 1974.
"Spruance, Raymond A.." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 22, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/spruance-raymond
"Spruance, Raymond A.." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Retrieved January 22, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/spruance-raymond
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
Spruance, Raymond Ames
Raymond Ames Spruance (sprōō´əns), 1886–1969, American admiral, b. Baltimore. Commissioned in the navy in 1908, he reached the rank of rear admiral in 1939. In World War II he distinguished himself at the battle of Midway (1942) and became chief of staff to Admiral Chester W. Nimitz. As head of the fleet in the central Pacific (later the 5th Fleet), he commanded (1943–44) the forces that invaded the Gilbert and Marshall Islands and was made a full admiral. He was (1945–46) commander in chief of the Pacific Fleet and retired from the navy in 1948. He served as ambassador to the Philippines (1952–55).
See biography by T. B. Buell (1974).
"Spruance, Raymond Ames." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 22, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/spruance-raymond-ames
"Spruance, Raymond Ames." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved January 22, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/spruance-raymond-ames