Skip to main content

Raymond de Penaforte°


RAYMOND DE PENAFORTE ° (d. 1275), Dominican monk, one of the initiators of anti-Jewish activities in Catalonia during the reign of James i (1213–76). Raymond was born in Peñaforte, Catalonia, and studied law at the University of Bologna, completing his studies in 1216. In 1222 he founded the Dominican monastery of Barcelona. He was a favorite of Pope *Gregoryix and, among other duties, he served as the Pope's confessor beginning in 1230. When the heresy of the *Albigenses spread to northern Catalonia from Provence, Raymond influenced the king of Aragon to establish the Papal *Inquisition in the district of *Tarragona. As initiator of missionary activities in his order, he made great efforts to convert Jews to Christianity, founding Hebrew and Arabic schools for this purpose. He was the moving spirit of the anti-Jewish legislation of James i in 1228. He was also among the initiators and most prominent participants of the *Barcelona disputation of 1263. The accusation before the royal tribunal of Barcelona against *Naḥmanides, in 1265, that he had "blasphemed Christianity," was also instigated by Raymond and the Christian anti-Jewish literature written after the disputation of Barcelona was a product of his school. He was canonized in 1601.


Baer, Spain, 1 (1961), 152, 156f., 161; F. Valls-Taberner, San Ramón de Penyafort (1953), incl. bibl., 372–80.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Raymond de Penaforte°." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . 15 Jul. 2019 <>.

"Raymond de Penaforte°." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . (July 15, 2019).

"Raymond de Penaforte°." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved July 15, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.