Master City Plan of Shanghai in 2001
Master City Plan of Shanghai in 2001
A master city plan is a legal document to guide urban development and construction, a basis for compiling the short-term plan of national economic and social development, zoning plans, district (county) planning, detailed planning, special planning, and a foundation for implementing urban construction and management.
The Master Urban Planning of Shanghai (1999–2020) was approved by the State Council of China on May 11, 2001. It is an important strategic plan of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the State Council concerning the long-term development of Shanghai in the 21st century, and a grand blueprint for the development of Shanghai over a 20-year period.
1. Background and Main Features of the City Plan
1.1 Implementation of Previous Master City Plans
In 1986, the State Council of China approved the Master City Plan of Shanghai (1983–2000), the first ever approved by the State Council in the history of Shanghai.
The implementation of this plan greatly promoted social and economic development and urban construction, and profoundly changed the urban appearance, laying the material foundation and basic framework for Shanghai to advance into the 21st century. After the 1990s, Shanghai focused on infrastructure construction in order to meet the demands of urban economic development, satisfy the people's living requirements, and improve the investment environment. Shanghai also carried out a series of major projects, such as rail transport systems, elevated roads, expressways, crossriver tunnels and bridges, as well as sewerage engineering.
After the CPC Central Committee and the State Council approved the plan for the development and opening-up of Pudong, Shanghai compiled the Master Urban Planning of Pudong and began its implementation. As a result, the Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone, Waigaoqiao Bonded Area, Jinqiao Export Processing Zone, Zhangjiang High-tech Park, and a group of modernized residential communities have been constructed, creating advantageous conditions for Shanghai's opening-up, industrial development, and urban construction. The Master City Plan was implemented with only a few minor adjustments to take account of changes in the economic situation.
1.2 Background of the Comprehensive Plan of Shanghai Metro-Region (1999–2020)
During the implementation of the Master City Plan of Shanghai (1983–2000), Shanghai went through considerable changes in its social and economic development. As a result, new requirements for the city layout emerged.
First, the strategic position of Shanghai had greatly changed. The Central Government decided to use the development and openingup of Pudong as the engine to propel the opening-up of cities along the Yangtze River. Building Shanghai into an international economic, financial, and trading center as soon as possible would promote the economic leap forward of the Yangtze River Delta and the whole Yangtze River region. This important strategic decision by the Chinese government had a major impact on the international and domestic situations, and on the overall strategic deployment at the turn of the century.
Second, the administrative organizational system of Shanghai had also greatly changed, with the urban districts and population significantly increased.
Third, the implementation of compensation became an effective leverage in adjusting the functions of urban land use. As a result, the process of reconstructing dangerous and dilapidated housing accelerated, together with the distribution of industry. The urban industrial structure and spatial distribution also underwent great changes.
Fourth, the urban system changed further with the rapid economic development and population rise of the suburbs.
Accordingly, in order to fulfill the historical mission assigned by the Central Government, and to seize the opportunity to promote its own development, Shanghai started a new round of master city planning, following the strategy formulated by the CPC Shanghai Municipal Committee and the Municipal Government to “rejuvenate Shanghai, develop Pudong, serve China, and open up to the world. The plan was made in accordance with the specifications of the Urban Planning Law of the People's Republic of China, with adaptations taking into account changes that had taken place or would take place in Shanghai, together with the demands of realizing Shanghai's strategy of economic and social development. The Comprehensive Plan of Shanghai Metro-Region (1999–2020) was completed in January 2000 and approved by the State Council on May 11, 2001.
1.3 Main Features of the Comprehensive Plan of Shanghai Metro-Region (1999–2020)
Based on the strategy of sustainable development, this Master Urban Planning has five prominent features.
Serving China and Opening up to the World
In this plan, Shanghai's productivity deployment and its major infrastructure constructions are planned in accordance with the three-tier development requirements of central city, city region, and the Shanghai-centered city clusters in the Yangtze River Delta.
Emphasizing the Joint Progress of the Urban Area and the Suburbs for an Enhanced Overall Competitiveness
The Master City Plan covers a city region of 6,340 square kilometers and specifies the urban layout as being “multi-layer, multi-core, and multi-axis.” The main task for the central city is to perfect its functions by taking advantage of the city's prosperity, while the main task for the suburbs is to accelerate development and enhance the overall economic strength of Shanghai.
Unified and Coordinated Development
The plan balances urban spatial planning and the planning of economic, social, and environmental development, further strengthening the integrated functions of the central city.
Being People-centered and Improving the Environment
The plan focuses on environmental development in order for Shanghai to build a new city image and promote its sustainable development.
Inheriting Tradition and Showcasing Unique Features
The plan emphasizes the protection of old architecture and street blocks that mirror Shanghai's rich cultural tradition, especially the excellent modern buildings.
2. The General Rules for Compiling the Comprehensive Plan (1999–2020)
2.1 Compilation Purpose
The plan was compiled to meet the demands of Shanghai's longterm development, optimizing resource allocation, coordinating the development between urban and rural areas, specifying the positioning, scale, and development orientation of Shanghai, and realizing sustainable development in terms of society, economy, population, resources, and environment
2.2 Compilation Basis
The plan is based on the following documents:
- Urban Planning Law of the People's Republic of China
- Compilation Methods in Urban Planning
- Regulations of Shanghai Municipality on Urban Planning
- The Ninth Five-Year Planning for Shanghai's National Economic and Social Development and the Outline for the 2010 Long-Range Targets
2.3 Position and Role
The Comprehensive Plan (1999–2020) is a legal guideline for urban development and construction, and a basis for implementing city development and management. This plan must be followed in compiling the short-term plan of national economic and social development, zoning plans, district (county) planning, detailed planning, spatial planning, and the implementation of various construction activities.
2.4 Planning Period
The current Master City Plan covers the period from 1999 to 2020 with a short-term outlook from 1999 to 2005. Based on the long-term development in the 21st century, the plan has taken into consideration the nature of the city, its development objective, its layout of the city region, and its distribution of municipal infrastructure and transport systems while at the same time outlining the course and direction of the city's long-term development.
2.5 Planning Area
The planning area is the administrative region of Shanghai, which covers a total area of 6,430 square kilometers. This plan dovetails with the Comprehensive Land Use of Shanghai.
2.6 Planning Guideline
The plan was formulated under the guidance of the Central Government's plan of taking the development and opening-up of Pudong as the engine to propel the opening-up of cities along the Yangtze River. At the same time, the development and opening-up of Pudong will help build Shanghai into an international economic, financial, and trading center, which will then promote the economic leap forward of the Yangtze River Delta and the whole Yangtze River region. Based on a holistic regional development concept that concerns the city clusters in the Yangtze River Delta area, the plan seeks coordinated deployment and development of Shanghai's industries, energy sources, environmental improvement, transport systems, and infrastructure development.
The planning embodies a sustainable development strategy so as to promote the coordinated development of economy, society, population, resources, and environment.
The planning considers the functions of Shanghai as an international center and rationally organizes the city's spatial layout, productivity deployment, population distribution, and infrastructure development.
The planning is also people-oriented, aiming to create a good environment for the citizens to enjoy their daily life, work, study, and leisure.
3. Positioning, Scale, and Development Objectives
As an important economic and shipping center, and a famous historical city in China, Shanghai will gradually develop itself into an international metropolis and an international economic, financial, trading, and shipping center.
3.2 Urban Development Scale
Shanghai will control the scale of the central area and land use, guiding the population and industries in the central area toward the suburbs. By 2020, the actual residential population will be around 16 million, of which 13.6 million will be city dwellers, resulting in an urbanization level of 85%. The land for urban construction in the concentrated urbanized area is about 1,500 square kilometers. The planned population of the central area is to be about eight million. The land for urban construction in the central area is about 600 square kilometers. The proposed population of suburban towns is about 5.6 million.
3.3 Development Objectives
By 2020, Shanghai will become an international economic, financial, trading, and shipping center. By giving full play to its role as a hub for domestic and foreign economic activities, Shanghai will further promote the development of the Yangtze River Delta and the Yangtze River Economic Belt.
Here are some main indicators:
- Possessing the economic scale and integrated strength of a modern international city, and forming a layout of urban functions that match the title of an international economic central city.
- Forming a proper urban distribution that matches a modern metropolis and seeks an integrated and coordinated development between urban and rural areas, while at the same time building a well-distributed cluster of cities together with the Yangtze River Delta region.
- Establishing an ecological environment with people and nature in harmony. Completing the construction of greenbelts around the city and forming a greening system and a green spatial system characterized by large ecological forest land in the suburbs and “greenbelts, wedges, corridors, and gardens” in the central city.
- Establishing an infrastructure framework that matches a modern international metropolis. Characterized by “three ports and two roads” (three ports refer to sea port, airport and information port [hub], while two roads refers to express railway and expressway), Shanghai will establish a group of key projects to link with other parts of China and the world, establishing a rapid and convenient network for passenger and freight transport within the city region focusing on “two networks” (i.e., rail transport network and expressway network).
- Forming a social development system that promotes people's full development and establishing well-distributed residential communities with clean environment, adequate facilities, comfortable living, and convenient transportation.
4. The Master City Plan of Shanghai
4.1 Orientation of Urban Development
According to the Plan, Shanghai will expand its coastal development and form waterfront cities and industrial belts, such as Baoshan New City, Waigaoqiao Harbor Area (Bonded Area), Konggang (Airport) New City, Haigang (Seaport) New City, Shanghai Chemical Industrial Park, and Jinshan New City. It will continue to advance the functional and image development of Pudong New Area. It will focus on developing new cities and central towns. In addition, it will take Chongming Island as an important strategic space for the sustainable development of Shanghai in the 21st century.
4.2 Layout of Shanghai City Region
According to the policy of urban and rural integration and coordinated development, Shanghai will take the central area as its main part and aim for a spatial layout of “multi-axes, multi-layers, multi-cores” in its city region.
“Multi-axes” consist of the Shanghai-Ningbo Development Axis, the Shanghai-Hangzhou Development Axis, and Riverside and Coastal Development Axis, which are important components of the city belt in the Yangtze River Delta.
“Multi-layers” comprise the central city, new cities, central towns, common towns, as well as central villages, forming a spatial layout structure with the central city as the main core, accessible road and rail transportation to all towns, and balanced spatial distribution between big, medium, and small towns.
“Multi-cores” refer to the central city and 11 new cities.
The central city is the political, economic, and cultural center of Shanghai, covering the area within the Outer Ring Road.
New cities are medium-sized cities that developed from the towns where the district (county) governments are situated or emerged along with development of major industries and key urban infrastructure projects.
Central towns are small cities developed from administrative towns in the city region that are well positioned, economically developed, and competitively large in scale.
Existing towns will merge to form common towns according to local positioning, transport conditions, and resources.
Central villages will be formed through the merging of natural villages, resulting in modernized, new-type, rural, residential communities with local characteristics, attractive environments, advantageous positions, adequate infrastructure and service facilities.
4.3 Layout of the Central City Area
The spatial layout of the central city area is “multi-centered and open.” The planning will make reasonable adjustments to the zoning structure according to the distribution of natural landforms, main public centers, and the demands for optimizing resource allocation (Figure 5.1).
Central Business District (CBD)
With a total area of about three square kilometers, the CBD comprises Little Lujiazui in Pudong (the area between Pudong South Road and Dongchang Road) and Puxi Bund (the area east of Henan Road extending from Hongkou Port to Xinkaihe). The CBD functions include finance, trading, information, shopping, culture, entertainment, urban tourism, business affairs, and limited accommodation.
Main Public Activity Centers
Main public activity centers refer to city-level centers and city-level sub-centers.
Shanghai will take the People's Square as the center of the city's public activities, incorporating four commercial roads, i.e., Nanjing Road, Huaihai Road Central, Xizang Road Central, Sichuan Road North, Yuyuan Business City, and Shanghai Station “Buyecheng.” Public activities include administration, offices, shopping, sightseeing, entertainment, and tourism.
The sub-centers refer to Xujiahui, Huamu, Jiangwan-Wujiaochang, and Zhenru. The Xujiahui sub-center mainly serves the southwestern part of the city with an area of about 2.2 square kilometers. The Huamu sub-center mainly caters to the needs of Pudong with an area of about two square kilometers. The Jiangwan-Wujiaochang sub-center targets the northeastern part of the city with an area of about two square kilometers. The Zhenru sub-center seeks to serve the northwestern part of the city with an area of about 1.6 square kilometers.
5. Planning of Industrial Development
5.1 Industrial Development
Adhering to the priority order of “tertiary, secondary, and primary” in industrial development, and taking technological innovation as the main driving force, Shanghai will boost the optimization and upgrading of its industrial structure with a focus on high-end service industries, represented by financial and insurance sectors, and hightech industries, represented by the information industry. It will form a new-type industrial system comprising strategic industry, pillar industry, urban industry, and knowledge-based industry. It will actively expand the domestic and foreign markets and raise the extent of export-orientation of its industries so as to establish an economic scale, overall strength, and service functions that match a modern international metropolis.
Shanghai will expand its tertiary industry so as to boost its integrated service functions up to the standard expected of an international metropolis. In order to achieve this, the city will elevate its standards, perfect its functions, expand its area, stay innovative in its measures and styles, and promote the development of industries, such as finance, insurance, securities, shipping and air transport, information consulting, trading, real estate, urban tourism, and community service, with a focus on the information industry.
In terms of industrial development, Shanghai will focus on high-tech industries and those with high added value. Through adjustment and optimization of industrial structures, and the promotion of industrial upgrading, Shanghai will eventually build up a modern industrial system characterized by high-tech industry, deep processing and integration.
Shanghai will mainly develop urban industry within the Inner Ring Road. It will develop urban industry, high-tech industry, and supporting industries in the area between the Inner and Outer Ring Roads. Certain industries will be placed outside the Outer Ring Road, such as steel, petrochemicals, and automotive.
Shanghai will boost its urban agriculture and realize agricultural modernization by developing scientific agriculture and an intensive agricultural economy. It will actively develop characteristic agriculture, ecological agriculture, and installation agriculture. To construct citylevel modern agricultural zones, Shanghai will form several intensive agricultural bases to provide high-quality fresh food for the city, at the same time providing a favorable green ecological environment with areas for leisure and tourism. It also aims at building advanced import and export bases for agricultural technology.
Shanghai will control the total area of cultivated land to achieve dynamic balance. It will maintain the basic farmland area at the level of 2,747 square kilometers (4,120,000 mu) by incorporating natural villages, restoring old homestead fields to farmland, and conducting planned reclamation from mudflat fields. It will restructure agricultural land use and appropriately increase the proportion of woodland and garden plots.
5.2 Industrial Distribution
Based on the regional development of Shanghai and the Yangtze River Delta, according to the regional proximity and industrial linkage, Shanghai will plan its industries with a focus on concentrated and intensive development. There are three layers for regional industrial distribution in Shanghai:
The first layer is the area within the Inner Ring Road. Here the focus is on the tertiary industry with an appropriate amount of land reserved for urban industries.
The second layer is the area between the Inner Ring Road and the Outer Ring Road. The focus is on high-tech, high-added-value, and pollution-free industries while existing industrial areas are to be adjusted, renovated, and improved.
The third layer is the area beyond the Outer Ring Road with a focus on the primary and secondary industries. Efforts will also be made to increase the economic size and the level of intensive economic growth, develop city-level industrial areas, boost the suburban tourism industry, and modernize the agriculture.
6. Intercity Transportation
Focusing on the construction of “three ports and two roads,” Shanghai will build itself into an international shipping center, a pivotal port of international container shipment, an Asia-Pacific pivotal airport, and a modernized info hub. It will build a speedy, convenient transport network by water, land, and air to link itself to other parts of China and the rest of the world.
6.1 Inland Water Transport
In support of the efforts to establish itself as an international shipping center, Shanghai will improve its inland water transport capability with a focus on developing container transportation. At the same time, to adapt to the adjustment of urban functions and industrial structures, Shanghai will optimize the layout of its river ports.
6.2 Info Hub
Shanghai will establish an international information hub and informatize (introduce information technology to) its economy and society, enabling it to keep up with developed countries.
Shanghai will build its communication infrastructure, realize the integrated utilization and sharing of various network resources, and establish itself as one of the hubs of international and domestic communication with its rapid, convenient service and standardized management.
Shanghai will build a broadband network which is intelligent, multi-media, high-speed, well-integrated, and customizable. It will digitalize its information resources and apply networking technology to its information services, working toward a developed networked economy and an improved networked community.
Shanghai will develop express railway and more intercity lines in order to improve its integrated railway transport capacity. To this end, it will adjust and increase the feeder railways and build more facilities for passenger and freight transport.
Shanghai will focus on developing the two express railways between Shanghai and Nanjing, and Shanghai and Hangzhou so that it can form an intercity network in five directions. These will include seven arterial rail lines, together with the existing Shanghai-Nanjing line, Shanghai-Hangzhou line, the proposed Jiangnan line, Shanghai-Zhapu line, and the coastal rail line.
Shanghai will adjust and improve the railway network by planning and constructing the Luchaogang feeder railway, a special rail line for the Shanghai chemical industrial zone, Jinshanzui industrial zone, and North Ring Road Line, retaining the underground line from Shanghai Station to Pudong Passenger Railway Station.
Shanghai will strengthen its function as a key railway terminal by planning five passenger stations, which consist of three main stations, two secondary stations, and two main marshalling stations. The main stations are Shanghai Railway Station, Shanghai South Railway Station, and Pudong Passenger Railway Station. The two secondary stations are Shanghai West Railway Station and Caoxi Road Railway Station. The two main marshalling stations are Nanxiang Marshalling Station and Xinqiao Marshalling Station.
Shanghai will renovate the central city freight station (field) and build more peripheral freight stations (fields) with a focus on developing railway container stations to dovetail with the main container ports and promote combo-container delivery between seaport and railway.
6.4 Out-bound Roads
Taking the expressways as the arterial lines, Shanghai will dovetail with the expressways of the Yangtze River Delta. It will also increase more out-bound roads and raise its road standards. Accordingly, Shanghai will have a network of 19 out-bound roads consisting of seven state highways (including three state trunk highways) and 12 inter-province highways.
7. Shanghai City-region Transport Planning
With regards to the construction of the “two networks,” Shanghai will accelerate the development of its urban mass rail transport system, establish an expressway network within the city region, and improve the road network of the central city. Shanghai will also strengthen the link between out-bound transport and intra-city transport by constructing passenger transport interchanges and parking lots to give full play to the integrated efficiency of the transport system. Shanghai will carry out the basic policy of “prioritizing passenger transportation” and establish a modernized urban transport system characterized by a close link between rail transport and ground public transport and a coordinated development of various transport means.
7.1 Mass Rapid Transit (MRT)
The MRT system is a long-range project, planned as a whole but implemented in phases (Figure 5.2). After the completion of the
system, public passenger vehicles should take about one hour to travel between the central city area and the main suburban towns, while a journey by public transport between two destinations within the central city area should take about 40 minutes.
The planned MRT system consists of intra-city-region express rail lines, metro lines, and urban light-rail lines. There will be 17 lines in total, containing four intra-city-region express rail lines, eight urban metro lines, and five urban light-rail lines with a total length of about 780 kilometers. The total length of the planned MRT network in the central city will add up to 488 kilometers.
In addition, Shanghai will strengthen the development of the suburban rail transport network so that it can link to and coordinate with state rail lines, metro lines, and light railways. One or two rail transport lines are planned between every new city and the central city.
7.2 Major Roads within the City Region
Shanghai will build a well-distributed downtown road system with distinctive functions, using expressways as arterial roads to achieve the goal of “15, 30, and 60,” referring to 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes. It should take only 15 minutes for vehicles from important industrial zones, important cities and towns, transport hubs, and passenger (freight) stations to enter the expressway network. The travel time for vehicles from the central city area to new cities and from the central city area to provincial boundaries should be 30 minutes. It should take 60 minutes for vehicles to travel between any two places in the expressway network.
The road system within the city region consists of expressways, main highways, secondary highways, and country roads. The total length of the trunk highway system is about 25,000 kilometers, of which expressway takes 650 kilometers (Figure 5.3).
7.3 Roads in the Central City Area
The central-city road system in the plan has a total length of 3,630 kilometers (including 1,410 kilometers of arterial roads), made up of express roads, major arterial roads, secondary arterial
roads, and feeder roads, forming a mixed road network with a loop arrangement outside the Inner Ring and a square grid layout within the Inner Ring. Shanghai will accelerate the development of radial roads on the basis of the inner and outer ring roads, and three longitudinal arterial roads and three latitudinal roads. This will perfect the network of arterial, secondary, and feeder roads, and raise the road network service standard.
7.4 Parking Establishments
Shanghai will plan both ground and underground parking lots (garages) in such major traffic spots as newly built squares, large public buildings, and transport intersections. The parking lots will increase in line with the increasing vehicles in suburban towns. More efforts will be made to build parking lots in the central city. Shanghai will develop professional small-sized parking establishments in different areas within the Inner Ring, while large parking lots will be built at traffic nodes in other districts.
7.5 Passenger Transport Hinge
Shanghai will improve the efficiency of its transport system and provide greater convenience for passengers by positioning public passenger transport facilities on the basis of urban land use and transport network distribution.
7.6 Urban Traffic Policy
With the implementation of the policy of giving priority to public transportation, Shanghai will fully promote the development of rail transport, optimize and adjust public ground transport, moderately expand the number of cars, control the total number of motorcycles and auxiliary power vehicles, and gradually eliminate oil-fuelled auxiliary vehicles. It will also actively adopt vehicles powered by clean energy so as to harmonize the relationship between traffic and the environment.
With regard to the MRT, Shanghai will also further optimize and speed up its rail transport network for higher efficiency. It will adjust its public transport network, introduce a special-lane system for public transport as soon as possible, and build public transport interchanges.
High-tech applications will boost the research and development of intelligent transportation systems (ITS), optimize the transport structure, and improve the efficiency of the city's urban transport and management standards.
8. Environment and Landscape Planning
Shanghai will improve its overall environment by focusing on afforestation and environmental protection and treatment. A harmony between man and nature will be achieved through strengthening urban design, protecting the city's historical structures, and improving its urban spatial landscape.
8.1 Green Space System
Shanghai will redeploy its green spaces and perfect the various types of green space in keeping with the principle of the harmonious coexistence between city and nature. It will plant a large area of man-made forest in the suburbs to improve its urban ecological environment. By 2020, the per capita public green space will reach ten square meters; the per capita green space will be 21 square meters; and the green space coverage will exceed 35%.
Shanghai will focus on the afforestation of mudflats, building the Sheshan-Dianshanhu forest park. It will plant protective greenbelts along main roads and rivers. It will build eight wedge-shaped green spaces at Sanchagang, Zhangjiabang, Sanlintang, Dachang, and Wuzhong Road in the areas between the Inner and Outer Ring Lines. It will create green spaces with a width between 60 and 140 meters along the Huangpu River between Nanpu Bridge and Yangpu Bridge, and green spaces along the Suzhou River in support of its overall treatment. There will be at least one four-hectare green space in every district of the central city, one one-hectare green space in every street, and one three-hectare green space in every suburban town.
The plan for urban development also concerns the protection of the ecological environment. Practical measures will be taken to protect scenic areas, the marine ecology of Dajinshan and Xiaojinshan, birds in the east coast of Chongming Island, the Chinese sturgeon in the estuary of the Yangtze River, the Jiuduansha Wetland Nature Reserve, and the Dianshan Lake Nature Reserve.
8.2 Control and Protection of Water Environment
Shanghai will gradually improve the quality of its water environment through full-scale treatment of the river courses within the city region so as to have clean rivers flanked by green riverbanks.
The Yangtze River will be the main source of the city's water supply. To protect its source of drinking water, the city will tightly control waste discharge within the city region and protect the Qingcaosha water-source area, as well as strengthening the protection of the drinking water reserve upstream of the Huangpu River. In addition, relevant departments will coordinate their efforts toward the protection of water resources and drainage in the greater Shanghai area, including research on the feasibility of taking water from the Yangtze River.
Plans for regional water environment protection will consist of four functional zones: II, III, IV, and V. The control and protection of water environment in these zones will be strengthened in strict accordance with the requirements of functional zoning. A target rate of 80% and above is planned for sewage treatment, which will be achieved by improving the utilization rate of water resources, controlling total urban waste discharge, and raising the concentrated treatment rate of urban sewage.
Shanghai will realize the sustainable utilization and development of maritime resources and the environment in accordance with the marine functional zoning of China and Shanghai and the regulations of maritime space usage. This will be achieved through a strengthened protection of the maritime environment by maritime laws.
8.3 Prevention and Control of Air Pollution
Guided by the principle of sustainable development, the city will actively promote the use of clean energy resources, at the same time adjusting and optimizing the resource structure in order to decrease the proportion of coal-burning generators to control smoke and dust emissions, sulfur dioxide and vehicle exhaust. The city will utilize more electricity and natural gas from outside the city, and speed up the replacement and gradual elimination of ozonedepleting substances (ODS).
8.4 Urban Space Landscaping
Shanghai will become a modernized international city that fuses rich local characteristics with striking contemporary landscaping. For this, it will do more in urban design, balancing environmental protection and economic development
The city-center landscape along the east-west axis will be enhanced through streets, squares, and landmark buildings.
Shanghai will work toward building a new image as a riverside city through constructing such sightseeing corridors as Binjiang (Huangpu River) and Binhe (Suzhou River) in the central city area, organizing riverside spatial sequences and pedestrian greenbelts, and sharpening its natural and hydrophilic features.
To create an elegant skyline, Shanghai will guide and control the distribution of high-rise buildings and protect several sightseeing corridors in the central city area.
8.5 Disposal of Solid Waste
With regard to the hazard-free treatment of domestic garbage, Shanghai will employ various methods, such as landfill, incineration, biochemical treatment, and integrated utilization, to establish a service system for collecting classified garbage, reducing the quantity of garbage, and promoting recycling. Shanghai will also construct safe landfill sites for hazardous waste, put in place a system for environmental management and refuse disposal, realize the hazardfree treatment of domestic garbage, and promote the reuse of industrial solid waste.
9. Plan for Protecting Places of Historical Interest
9.1 Main Protection Targets
Material form and spiritual culture are two aspects of the plan of Shanghai for protecting its places of historical interest. The former focuses on protecting the old counties, which date back to the Ming and Qing dynasties, part of the former concessions after 1840, the 13 state-level key cultural relics (adjusted to 19 in 2006), 113 municipal cultural relics (increased to 119 in 2006), 337 municipal modern buildings (increased to 632 in 2006), as well as 82 districtor county-level cultural relics. There are 11 historical and cultural preserves (increased to 12 in 2003) in the central city area, and four famous historical towns (increased to 32 in 2005). The protection of spiritual culture seeks to inherit and carry forward the outstanding and healthy aspects of traditional culture, including folk customs, local operas, and folk handicrafts.
9.2 Principles of Protection
Shanghai will establish itself as a famous city with a rich historical heritage and a local yet refined cultural atmosphere through protecting its cultural relics, riding on its history and culture, enriching its urban cultural mix, elevating its artistic tastes, and integrating history and the future. To this end, it will inherit and carry forward the cultural traditions and handle properly the relationship between protection and development. Efforts will be made to preserve special features and at the same time protect and reasonably exploit historical and cultural resources. The efforts to maintain and carry on the holistic styles and features of such resources need to be coordinated with the task of improving local infrastructure and the living environment. The protection of individual buildings should be conducted according to their protection levels by specifying the protection scope, the construction control areas, and the protection requirements. These requirements and relevant rules and regulations must be followed when reconstructing buildings within the protective area or constructing or reconstructing structures within the control area so that the original appearances will remain intact.
9.3 Protecting Historical Relics in Old Districts of the Central City
Historical relics (historical buildings and blocks) in old districts of the central city are also included in the scope of Shanghai's effort to protect its status as a renowned historical and cultural city. Apart from buildings and historical cultural sites already specified in the protection plan, Shanghai will take measures to protect all the featured buildings, such as apartments, new-style lanes, old-style lanes, and valuable gardens in the old districts of the central city within an 80-square kilometer area (including Puxi within the Inner Ring Line and Caoyang in Putuo District outside the Inner Ring Line).
10. Residential Development Planning
The residential development will concentrate on improving the quality of the residential environment and service infrastructure. Shanghai will combine the construction of dwelling houses in the new districts and the old districts following the principle of relatively centralized development. To conform to the trend of housing commercialization, the city will adjust its pattern of residential construction and provide multiple options so as to satisfy the diverse needs of families at different income levels. At the same time, it will strictly control the number of high-rise residential buildings. The layout of residential housing in new districts will be designed in line with the orientation of urban development, mass rapid transit, and infrastructure development. The suburban towns listed for key development should also be taken into account. Around 20 large residential districts will be built in the area between the Inner and Outer Rings in the central city; while in the suburbs the focus will be on the development of the housing areas in the new cities and central towns.
11. Development Planning of Science, Education, and Social Undertakings
Shanghai will implement its strategy of revitalizing the city through science and education so as to enhance its citizens' qualities and raise its level of urban civilization. It will establish a relatively perfect system of social undertakings in line with its status as an international metropolis. It will introduce a market-based operating mechanism for social undertakings and realize the coordinated development between the national economy and social undertakings.
Shanghai will focus on developing information technology, modern biotechnology, new material technology, advanced manufacturing technology, and green technology. The capability for scientific and technological innovation will continue to be strengthened so as to build Shanghai into an important base for research and development, technological innovation, and high-tech industrial development.
Shanghai will strengthen its basic and applied research, promote the commercialization of scientific and technological achievements, and improve sci-tech agency to form a system of enterprise-based technological innovation. It will make more effort to incubate hightech industries and build bases for commercializing research results. It aims at building six state-level, high-tech industrial development zones, developing the Zhangjiang High-tech Park into an integrated base of innovation and entrepreneurship that incorporates “research, development, and production.”
Shanghai will make more efforts to introduce and cultivate talent, and improve the quality of education in all aspects. It also aims to establish a lifelong learning system that is connected with various channels of education.
Shanghai will implement a high-standard, high-quality nineyear compulsory education, popularize high-quality high school education, and actively develop vocational education. It will spare no effort to push forward higher education. Higher education institutes will be rationally located. Social resources will be introduced into the logistics management in colleges and universities, and adequate residential apartments will be built for college students. In addition, an IT-based modernized education platform will be set up and various forms of social education developed in order to raise the citizens' overall quality.
Shanghai will transform itself into a high-level international cultural exchange center where traditional Chinese culture coexists with cultures from around the world.
A rationally distributed, well-structured, and adequately equipped cultural network will be developed with a focus on the construction of public community cultural facilities. Shanghai will also promote international cultural exchange and command the ability to host important international exchange events. It will develop cultural industries, such as broadcasting, TV, newspapers, publishing, and printing, as well as entertainment.
Shanghai aims to establish itself as a state-level sanitary city in China and a medical center in Asia. A fully functional health system that meets the demands of a modernized city and satisfies the needs of its people will realize the goal of health care and medicare for all.
Shanghai will improve its medical establishment and optimize its medical resources to form a two-level medical service network consisting of municipal (district) medical centers and private medical organizations. It will also strengthen the medical organizations in terms of disease prevention, health care, and recovery. Moreover, Shanghai will improve its level of medical research to ensure its leading position in medical sciences.
Shanghai will make great efforts to implement the national fitness program and improve the standard of its competitive athletics. It will acquire the capability to host first-class international contests and comprehensive international sports meets. A network of sporting facilities will be built to satisfy the needs of training, competition, health care, and entertainment.
Shanghai will improve its existing large sports facilities and accelerate the construction of community sporting facilities. It will improve the sports facilities in schools, especially institutions of higher learning, and make them important sites for holding sports contests and mass sporting activities. Shanghai will improve the utilization ratio of public sporting facilities by combining them with culture, entertainment, and social services.
In accordance with the national family-planning policy, Shanghai will control its population, properly redistribute its urban population, greatly improve the overall population quality, and optimize the population structure.
Shanghai will pay close attention to population aging and enhance the development of facilities for its senior citizens. Shanghai will also put in place a population macro-control system to embody sustainable and coordinated development in terms of population, social resources, and environment.
11.7 Social Security and Social Welfare
Shanghai will establish and improve insurance for the aged, medical and basic unemployment insurance for the whole of society, encourage social assistance, and develop commercial supplementary insurance. It will also develop a modern social welfare system and establish a four-level security network, i.e., city, district (county), residential district, and neighborhood committee. The newly built or reconstructed residential areas must be equipped with supporting community service facilities.
Shanghai will promote the development of funeral and interment facilities, and build and rebuild a group of well-landscaped cemeteries. The city will also protect the benefits of the disabled and develop barrier-free facilities.
12. Municipal Infrastructure Planning
12.1 Water Supply System
Shanghai will enhance the protection of its water supply, gradually taking the Yangtze River as its main supply of water, and achieving a balance between raw water and clean water. By 2020, the peak daily volume of tap water supply will reach 13 million cubic meters (self-supplied water excluded).
12.2 Electricity System
Shanghai will realize a balance between electricity supply and demands by relying mainly on self-supplied power with imported power as a supplement. The city will optimize its mix of power supply and restructure its industries in order to reduce the proportion of coal consumption.
12.3 Natural Gas System
Shanghai will expand the structure of its natural gas supply and its utilization scope. Through adopting advanced techniques, it will upgrade its system of gas supply and distribution.
12.4 Drainage System
Rainwater Drainage: The drainage system will be improved by the reconstruction of the low-standard urban drainage system. The urbanized area of the central city will be fully covered by the rainwater drainage system. The standards for rainstorm prevention are: once a year in common areas, and once every three years in such important areas as the CBD, major business areas, and administrative centers. An initial closure to rainwater will be carried out where there is severe ground pollution.
Sewage Discharge: Both concentration and dispersion measures will be adopted in dealing with sewage discharge, with a focus on concentrated control and treatment. The newly built districts will adopt separate drainage systems. Districts adopting the merging system should gradually be reconstructed for separate drainage systems, together with step-by-step improvements to the sewage drainage system. Shanghai will also protect water resources and tightly control waste discharge in the upper sections of the Yangtze River within the city region. It will also work to improve the quality of its water environment by raising its sewage treatment ratio above 80%.
12.5 Post and Telecommunications
Shanghai will establish a well-distributed, fully functional modern postal service system by adjusting and building more post offices, straightening out the postal network, and strengthening the construction of postal hubs. Four postal pivots will be built, i.e., Shanghai Railway Station, Shanghai South Railway Station, Pudong, and International Post. A highly efficient modern postal communications network will also be built, which includes computer network systems for integrated postal services. Efforts will also be made to improve internal postal handling sites.
The construction of the information infrastructure will be strengthened to establish a high-tech, highly efficient, safe, and reliable information communications network capable of meeting the consumers' multi-level needs. The local telephone network will expand to ten million sets, taking the popularization rate of telephone main lines above 50%. In addition, the intensive building of information pipelines will enhance the development and utilization of information resources.
13. Disaster Prevention and Underground Space Planning
13.1 Urban Disaster Prevention
According to the national disaster reduction strategy and the requirements of urban development, Shanghai will implement a policy of “combining prevention, fighting, and rescue but focusing on prevention” and establish an integrated system of disaster prevention, fighting, and reduction.
Shanghai will put in place a uniformed emergency system for earthquake fighting and disaster relief, a communication guarantee system for urban disaster prevention and rescue, and a three-level fire-fighting system. It will also establish a security system for flood prevention, plus a system of medical aid and disease control. Shanghai will also establish monitoring and early warning systems for earthquake and weather.
13.2 Urban Underground Space
Shanghai will establish an urban underground spatial system featuring coordinated functions and convenience of use through the integrated use of underground space resource in combination with metro stations, traffic hubs, and main public activity centers (Figure 5.4).
14. Planning of Short- and Mid-term Development
After ten years of fast development toward a modern metropolis, Shanghai has experienced historic changes in its city functions and outlook.
Urban Functions Expanded and Urban Energy Level Raised
The Master City Plan of Shanghai, approved by the State Council in 1986, clearly stated that Shanghai is China's largest port city and the most important center of economy, science and technology, trading, finance, information, and culture. It further pointed out the orientation of Shanghai's modernization, which guaranteed Shanghai's rapid and well-planned urban development.
Since the 1990s, Shanghai has firmly embraced the opportunity brought on by the development and opening-up of Pudong. Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone, Waigaoqiao Bonded Area, Jinqiao Export Processing Zone, Zhangjiang High-tech Park, and a group of modernized residential districts have been completed. Pudong New Area has achieved great success in terms of functional development and image building. For example, a group of cross-river projects has been completed, such as Nanpu Bridge and Yangpu Bridge, which have created advantageous conditions for further opening-up and strengthening integrated urban functions.
The Central Government has clearly spelt out the strategic policy of “building Shanghai into a center of international economy, finance, and trading as soon as possible.” To implement this policy, Shanghai has speeded up large-scale city construction focusing on transport network projects, industrial redistribution, and reconstructing dangerous and dilapidated houses. As a result, a group of landmark buildings has emerged, presenting an image of an international modern metropolis. The centralization and radiation role of the central city has been strengthened. The economic strength of the suburban areas has been considerably elevated. With its energy level raised, Shanghai is gradually developing from a traditional industrial and commercial city into an international economic center.
The State Council approved the Comprehensive City Plan of Shanghai (1999–2020) (hereinafter referred to as New City Plan) in May 2001. The plan clearly spelt out that Shanghai will be built into a modern international city and center of economy, finance, trading, and shipping, ushering in a new era in Shanghai's city development.
Urban Industrial Structure Adjusted and Industrial Layout Further Optimized
Shanghai has strictly followed the sequence of “tertiary, secondary, and primary” in its industrial development. Based on the adjustment and optimization of its industrial structure, Shanghai's economy has experienced rapid and healthy development. The tertiary industry has been developing rapidly. The central city area has shifted from secondary industry to tertiary industry, which strengthens integrated service functions and greatly promotes the development of modern service industries. The CBD, centering on the Outer Bund of Puxi and Xiaolujiazui of Pudong, has basically been completed. A group of multinational enterprises have settled their headquarters in Shanghai. The secondary industry has gone from “developing in the midst of adjustment” to “adjusting during development.” The construction of a new industrial highland has witnessed significant progress. A framework of four industrial bases has formed, together with the state-level and municipal industrial layout of “1+3+9.” Traditional suburban agriculture is being rapidly transformed into modern urban agriculture. The position and role of the suburbs in development have been strikingly enhanced.
Construction of Pivotal and Functional Infrastructure Accelerated Systematically
Shanghai has rapidly enhanced its construction of pivotal and functional infrastructure. The completed “three ports and two roads” lay the foundation for further opening-up and economic expansion. A three-dimensional, comprehensive urban transport system has formed, which consists of elevated roads in the shape of the Chinese character Shen (), a “half-ring-plus-cross” rail transport network, and three latitudinal and three longitudinal arterial roads. The suburban expressway network has been formed with the completion of Xinzhuang-Fengxian-Jinshan Line, Shanghai-Qingpu-Pingwang Line, and the Outer Ring Line. Three expressways have been completed, i.e., Shanghai-Nanjing, Shanghai-Hangzhou and Tongsan National Trunk Highway. A great many functional backbone projects have been built, for instance the Waigaoqiao Power Plant (Phase I), Wusong Gas Works, diversion works of the Yangtze River, the diversion works upstream of the Huangpu River (Phase II), and Waigaoqiao Container Port. All these have provided a strong boost to the coordinated development of the urban and rural areas in Shanghai.
Urban Environment Improved and Living Quality Enhanced
A total of 3,650,000 square meters of houses in dangerous condition and simple pen-like houses have been reconstructed. A great many large, new, residential districts, such as Wangli and Chunshen, have been built. The per capita residential area in the urban area increased from 6.6 square meters in the early 1990s to 13.1 square meters at the end of 2002. Many municipal public utilities have been completed, such as electricity, water supply, water drainage, flood prevention, natural gas, and telecommunication, which have bettered the living conditions.
The implementation of the first round of a three-year environmental protection plan has efficiently improved the urban environment. The integrated renovation of the Suzhou River and the substitution of clean energy resources proved effective, eliminating the foul, black flow of the main stream of the Suzhou and improving the air quality. Many green public spaces have been planted, such as Yanzhong Green Space. A greenery framework in the forms of “ring, wedge, corridor, and garden” has been completed. The urban green coverage is 30% and green public space per capita has reached 7.6 square meters. The urban forest coverage is 12.2%. This will enable Shanghai to become a state-level garden city.
Shanghai has been implementing the strategy of “rejuvenating the city through science and education,” accelerating the education in science and technology, carrying on the reform of various social undertakings, and optimizing the resources of education and culture. Many multi-functional facilities for culture and education have been built, for instance, the Shanghai Grand Theater, the Shanghai Science and Technology Museum, Songjiang College Park, and extracurricular activity bases for Shanghai youth. Public health, sports, social welfare, population and family planning have been significantly improved. The standard of living has remarkably improved.
Thanks to the above achievements, Shanghai received the World Habitat Award and the UN Award for Sustainable Development.
The past decade has been a period in which Shanghai made its greatest efforts and achieved a resounding success in city development. City planning, which has played an important role in making all these possible, has been highly regarded by every session of the CPC Shanghai Municipal Committee and the Municipal Government.
Fully aware of the importance of city planning, leaders of the municipality and districts are even personally involved in city planning. The Master City Plan aims at promoting the organic integration of economic and social development.
The implementation of the Master City Plan of Shanghai, approved by the State Council in 1986, laid a material foundation and framework for Shanghai's modernization in the 21st century. The master plan for Pudong has proved to be an effective guideline for the image building and functional development of Pudong New Area. The New City Plan of Shanghai, finished in early 1999 and approved by the State Council in May 2005, has portrayed a blueprint for Shanghai's development in the coming 20 years.
The New City Plan was prepared on a forward-looking basis and competitive mechanisms, such as soliciting proposals world-wide, were introduced. Advanced plan concepts have been collected from both home and abroad. Through transparent administration and public participation, the quality of city planning has been improved.
Legal administration is the basic policy of China. A legal framework for a Shanghai-style city planning has been put in place. A full set of laws and regulations, represented by The Code of the Master City Plan of Shanghai, provides legal guarantees for the implementation of the Master City Plan. The city development complies strictly with the Master City Plan and the laws. The administrative departments administer the city according to law, which promotes the legal management of city planning.
The reform of the management system for city planning is an important aspect of the effort to implement and improve the system of “two-tier government, two-tier management.” Under the principle of “unified leadership, unified plan, unified standard, hierarchical management,” the city planning advocates “one blueprint, one set of laws and regulations, one network, one team,” so that a strong force is formed between the city and districts (counties). As a result, the integrated level of the planning system is enhanced, the reconstruction of old districts and the construction of new districts are promoted, and the city development objectives are achieved faster.
In the 21st century, China's entry to the WTO and Shanghai's successful bid for the right to host the 2010 World Expo will provide new opportunities and challenges for the new round of development in Shanghai. Knowledge-based economy and economic globalization are making international competition even fiercer. A great gap still exits between Shanghai and New York, London, Tokyo, and Paris. Thus it is an arduous task to build Shanghai into a modernized, international city.
The city development of Shanghai should follow the strategy of coordinated and sustainable development in economy, society, population, resources, and environment. Driven by technological innovation, Shanghai will continue to strengthen urban functions and build itself into an international city with a prosperous economy, civilized society, and beautiful environment, as well as a center of international economy, finance, trading, and shipping. The Mid- and Short-term Development Planning of Shanghai will be worked out in light of the new development situation of Shanghai in the new century with a focus on designing the city development tasks in the coming three years, five years, and eight years respectively.
14.1 Guidelines and General Objectives
The scientific approach to overall, coordinated, and sustainable development will be sought, and the strategy of “revitalizing the city through science and education” will be implemented in all aspects. The planning will conform to the viewpoint that “science and technology are a primary productive force and talents come first.” The competitiveness of enterprises, state-owned economy, the regional economy, and Shanghai will be enhanced by a new industrial system matching an international metropolis, a modernized infrastructure system with “three ports and two networks,” a social undertakings system that promotes the all-round development of people, and an innovative urban system in line with the knowledge-based economy. Taking the successful holding of the 2010 World Expo as a driving force to boost the upgrading of the city's energy level and layout adjustment, Shanghai will continually improve its urban eco-environment, accelerate the functional development of Pudong, and advance the building of a modern international city.
The first 20 years of the 21st century is a major strategic period for Shanghai to develop. To build itself into a modern international city and a center of international economy, finance, trading, and shipping by 2010, Shanghai must quickly and soundly develop its national economy in the mid- to short-term periods. Its average annual GDP growth should be maintained at 2% to 3% higher than China's overall average.
Population Distribution : Population growth must be in keeping with socioeconomic development, resources, and environmental capacity. At the same time the influence from changes in urban-rural economic structure, the formation of city clusters in the Yangtze River Delta, and the improvement of transport facilities should also be taken into account. By 2020, the population will reach 20 million;so it will be necessary to develop the urban space and build more infrastructures.
Shanghai will strengthen its population control, optimize its population structure, and improve its population quality. It will strictly control the growth of its registered population and rationally control the size of its non-permanent population, while at the same time strengthening its management of the migrant population.
It will improve its population distribution by strictly controlling the population scale in the central city area, speeding up the population relocation from the central city area to the suburbs, and attracting the rural population into new cities and central towns. The permanent population of the central city area will be maintained below 8.5 million by 2010, and eight million by 2020.
Distribution of cities and town s: Based on the integrated development of Shanghai and the city clusters in the Yangtze River Delta area, the distribution and construction of the central city area, new cities, central towns, and common towns within the city region of 6,340 square kilometers should be taken as a whole in city planning to avoid the external spread of central-city development and disorderly development along transport lines in the suburbs. The short- and mid-term targets are as follows:
In the central city area, the policy of “double increases and double decreases” will be adopted to optimize structure and distribution. Efforts will be made to improve the eco-environment and urban landscape so as to promote population dispersion, functional upgrading, environment improvement, and landscape optimization. The functional development of Pudong New Area will be accelerated. In the suburbs, the strategy of “three concentrations” will be implemented. Depending on traffic conditions and big industries, Shanghai will take full advantage of the functions of cities and towns in the suburbs in terms of population centralization, industry congregation, and concentrated land use, and build several new cities with good functions, proper industrial structure, and a population which will exceed 300,000 by 2010.
Combining the municipal industrial parks with expressway nodes and rail transport stations, and taking full advantage of the historical legacy and development advantages of every city and town, Shanghai will speed up the construction of experimental cities and towns and steadily develop the central towns and common towns so as to establish a group of small cities and towns with relative autonomy and unique characteristics.
In an effort to strengthen the distribution and management of rural residential districts, Shanghai will actively redistribute, through merging, the natural villages, which are small and dispersed but occupy large pieces of land and struggle in deplorable conditions. This will reduce the number of such villages and promote the population concentration in cities and towns.
Industrial Distribution : Sticking to the industrial development sequence of “tertiary, secondary, and primary,” Shanghai will strengthen the current structure of secondary and tertiary industries and promote economic growth and industrial integration and coordination. The central city area will embody social prosperity, while the suburbs will demonstrate the strengths and level of the industries.
Through further improving and strengthening the functions of the central city in finance, trading, information, and administration, Shanghai will make every effort to develop modern service industries. It will also make proper efforts to develop pollution-free and high value-added urban industries. In addition, it will accelerate the functional development of Pudong and the reconstruction of old industrial bases.
Shanghai will accelerate the development of major industrial bases. Zhangjiang Microelectronics Base will be turned into the largest integrated circuit research and development base in China, holding a leading position in technology at a world level. Anting International Automotive Industrial Base will be developed into a world-class, integrated automobile industrial base that incorporates the production of automobile bodies and parts, research and development, science and education, trading and logistics, automobile, athletics, and tourism. Shanghai Petrochemical Industrial Base in Shanghai Chemical Industrial Park will become a world leader in the petrochemical industry with advanced technology, good eco-environment, and leading efficiency. Fine Steel Industrial Base will become China's most advanced base in this regard, incorporating production and research and development and possessing international competitiveness. The Industrial Base of Lingang New City will evolve into a new-type industrial base with international competitive edge, integrating high-tech industries, modern equipment manufacturing industry, and export processing industries. Shanghai Shipbuilding Industrial Base will integrate optimized ship modeling, high-tech ship model development, high value-added shipbuilding, key shipbuilding supporting facilities, and professional services.
Shanghai will continue to develop state-level and city-level industrial parks. By stressing the driving function of high-tech industries, it will encourage new, large-scale high-tech and high value-added industries to concentrate in the state-level and citylevel industrial parks so as to promote the demonstration effect of Pudong. It will further improve the investment environment and strengthen the construction of pilot zones and parks.
Shanghai will integrate industrial zones in towns and gradually merge the industrial zones and scattered industrial spots at the town level or below by making full use of the opportunities presented by the reorganization of the administrative divisions.
Shanghai will form a new-type industrial system that matches its role as an international metropolis. It will fully develop its pillar industries and actively develop the emerging industries to foster new areas of economic growth. It will optimize the development of basic industries and reform its traditional industries. It will encourage the development of urban industries to create more jobs. By 2007, its GDP per capita will reach US$7,500.
Shanghai will establish a modern infrastructure system with “three ports and two networks” as the backbone. By taking full advantage of the concentrating, radiating, and driving effects of the pivotal, functional, and network infrastructures on regional development, Shanghai will strengthen its intercity transportation with the Yangtze River Delta, and infrastructure development so as to create conditions for regional cooperation. It will also carry forward the guiding function of rail transportation and major infrastructure facilities in the development of cities and towns within the city region, taking into account their industrial development. It will accelerate the effort to improve its ecological environment, maintain its ecological security, and improve its ecological quality so as to establish an ecological city and strengthen its capability for sustainable development.
Shanghai will establish a system of social undertaking centering on the overall development of people. It will build itself into a first-class center for education, medical treatment, sports, and international culture exchanges that match its status as an international metropolis. It will also establish a corresponding urban security system. The moral quality, educational level, and physical quality of its citizens will thus be remarkably enhanced. The income of urban and rural residents will be increased. People will lead a better and richer material and spiritual life.
Shanghai will establish an urban innovation system in line with the development of a knowledge-based economy. Depending on science, technology, and talents, Shanghai will continue to increase its capability for technical innovation and speed up the construction of talent highlands so that the foundation of its economic and social development will be shifted toward science and technology as well as the quality of workers. It will informatize its economy and society and continually improve its innovation capability and the level of resource allocation.
14.2 Main Tasks
Science, Technology, and Education
Objectives : Shanghai will strengthen its comprehensive innovation capability through implementing the strategy of revitalizing Shanghai city through science and education, optimizing the resource allocation, building technological innovation platforms, establishing a human-resource highland, and creating a social environment where technological advancement and innovation are supported and emphasized, and intellectual property rights are respected and protected. By 2007, Shanghai will have established a basic innovation system that can meet the requirements for developing modern science and technology, and built itself into a learning city.
Shanghai will accelerate the industrialization of high technologies and integrate economic development with scientific research. Aiming to incubate new areas of economic growth and capture the vantage point for the development of science and technology, Shanghai will strengthen its original innovation in science and technology and obtain a group of core technologies supported by independent intellectual property rights. It will build scientific platforms (such as public laboratories) and research and development centers, establish several world-class high-tech parks, and implement key state scitech projects.
Shanghai will establish a multi-tiered educational system and a life-long learning system by strengthening educational innovation and accelerating educational development. It will also restructure and redistribute institutions of higher education and set up several university zones.
Shanghai will build a highland of human resources through deepening reform. It will improve the talent policy and optimize the structure of human resources. It will accelerate the introduction and fostering of high-caliber talents. It will also create an atmosphere of “flexible flow” to promote the reasonable mobility of talents from both home and abroad.
Shanghai will apply information technology widely in different walks of life in order to revitalize the city through science and education. Information technology will also be adopted in city management.
Main Tasks : Shanghai will continue to implement the strategy of “focusing on Zhangjiang,” completing “one zone plus six parks.” It will speed up the commercialization of technological achievements and the incubation of technical enterprises. By 2007, the area for functional development in high-tech parks will reach 50 square kilometers and the number of technology enterprise incubators will exceed 30.
Shanghai will establish a set of fundamental projects for science and education, and boost the construction of a series of major statelevel or local research centers and key labs in such fields as integrated circuits, biochips, Shanghai light source and animal medicine.
It will redistribute higher educational institutes by establishing Yangpu University City which is centered on Fudan University, the Minhang Zizhu Science Park which takes Shanghai Jiaotong University as its focus, Songjiang University Park, and Nanhui Science and Education Park. It will also strengthen those universities with their own features, develop a series of advantageous subjects, and set up university science parks and incubation bases that are devoted to “research, development, and production.” It will also found four key boarding high schools, i.e., Jinshan, Nanhui, Chongming, and Fengxian.
It will boost the project of introducing information technology into scientific and technological research and development. This will promote the sharing of science and technology resources. It will also construct a digitalized technological platform for design and manufacturing, and an information system for city management.
14.3 Industrial Development
Following the order of priority of “tertiary, secondary, and primary” in industrial development and grasping the new orientation of international industrial upgrading and relocation, Shanghai will promote those industries promising high added values, strong radiation effects, and more employment opportunities. Taking the path of new-type industrialization, Shanghai will balance the secondary and tertiary industries in boosting economic growth. The goal is to enhance the international competitiveness of its enterprises in the face of economic globalization. The GDP of Shanghai will grow annually at a two-digit rate up to 2010.
Objectives : Shanghai will seek to consolidate and develop the tertiary industry, advance modern service industries in stages with different focal points, and further enhance the energy level and quality of service industries so as to strengthen its integrated service functions as an international metropolis.
Main Tasks : Taking Little Lujiazui in Pudong and the Bund in Puxi as core areas, Shanghai will elevate the functions of the CBD and the financial, trading, and business functions of the central city area, and greatly promote the development of its modern service industries. By 2007, Shanghai will build itself into a national financial center.
Taking full advantage of its port facilities, Shanghai will establish four logistics parks: Waigaoqiao, Pudong Airport, Northwest, and Deep Water Harbor. It will also actively develop third-party logistics. By 2007, Shanghai will establish five to ten modern large logistics centers so as to form a modern logistics framework.
Through continuously adjusting the commercial layout structure and operation modes, Shanghai will boost the prosperity of Nanjing Road, Huaihai Road, Sichuan Road, Xujiahui, Jiangwan-Wujiaochang in the central area, and lay a solid foundation for realizing the ambition of becoming a modern international shopping center. It will also speed up the development of community and suburban commerce. By 2007, five to ten large modern shopping centers with an area of more than 100,000 square meters each will be completed, and 20 specialized streets will be established in line with modern consumer trends. A group of large state-level or regional-level commodity exchange markets will be built.
Shanghai will speed up the development of its modern tourism sector by tapping the international and domestic tourism markets. By 2007, there will be five tourism blocks and several municipal-level tourism and leisure resorts in the central, northeastern, southeastern, southwestern, and northwestern parts of Shanghai.
Shanghai will develop its information service industry and software industry, encouraging software export through industrial parks. By 2007, the annual operating income of state-level and city-level industrial parks will exceed RMB 2 billion. These industrial parks will incorporate research and development, production, and service, becoming a well-structured leading software base in China.
Objectives : The objectives in secondary industry are: to strengthen the driving function of scientific and technological progress and informatization, and the reorganization of traditional industries; to strengthen the nurturing function of integrated industrial development in promoting innovation; to actively develop advantageous industries; to stabilize average industries and eliminate inferior ones;and to gradually establish a modern manufacturing system centered on the high-tech industry, taking manufacturing industries as the backbone, raw material industries as the basis, and urban industries as the supplement.
Main Tasks : Shanghai will strengthen industrial restructuring and upgrading in the central area; utilize its advantages in science, technology, and integrated services; actively develop its high-tech industries; and put in place an industrial layout that combines research, development, and production. By combining urban employment with industrial development, it will develop pollutionfree and high value-added urban industries. In addition, it will rebuild, upgrade, and restructure old industrial bases, such as Wusong, Taopu, and Wujing.
Shanghai will speed up the construction of its major industrial bases as well as state- and city-level industrial parks. Focus will be put on the construction of a microelectronics industrial base, an international automobile city, a chemicals zone, an industrial base for fine steel, the industrial base of Lingang New City, and the industrial base of Shanghai shipbuilding. The building of state- and city-level industrial parks will be completed. Efforts will be made to set up more software and biomedical research and development and innovation bases so as to upgrade the industrial level of Shanghai. The investment environment and service quality will be further improved so that industrial congregation will be promoted, and industrial chains and clusters with international competitiveness will be established in Shanghai.
With regards to the development of new cities and central towns, Shanghai will strengthen the integrated, supportive, and coordinated relationship between towns and industries. Efforts will be made to improve industrial support and employment situation in suburban towns. Integration between industrial zones and locations in suburban towns will be strengthened. Greater efforts will be made to concentrate industries in industrial parks in order to intensify industrial distribution and obtain the efficiency of scale.
Objectives : Shanghai will accelerate the strategic agricultural restructuring and promote intensive land use, large-scale agricultural management, and the functional innovation of agriculture so as to turn itself into a city with developed and competitive agriculture. By 2010, Shanghai will have established the basis for a modernized, urban agriculture matching its status.
Main Tasks : The strategy of reviving agriculture with science and education will be implemented so as to enhance the scientific and technological contents of agricultural parks and raise the level of agricultural organization.
The service function of agriculture will be strengthened. Great efforts will be made to develop seed-oriented agriculture, installation agriculture, export-oriented agriculture, and eco-agriculture so that Shanghai can provide a service platform targeting the whole of China.
Shanghai will strengthen the ecological functions of agriculture with a view to establishing a harmonious eco-environment for people and nature and creating a “green lung” for its citizens. The process of returning farmland to forest will be accelerated. Shanghai will establish a layout that consists of forests and flowers, garden vegetables and fruit, high-quality grains and oil with each occupying one-third of the farmland, and a four-zone breeding industry.
14.4 Integrated Transportation
Shanghai will establish a modern, integrated transport system featuring “three ports and two networks” as well as multiple pivots which are functional and network oriented. This will bolster the congregation and the radiating function of Shanghai.
International Shipping Center
Objectives : By 2007, there will be 32 container berths. The container throughput will exceed 16 million standard containers. By 2010, there will be 39 container berths with a throughput in excess of 18 million standard containers. By then Shanghai will have established itself as an international shipping center in Northeast Asia.
Main Tasks : In 2005, the construction of Donghai (East China Sea) Bridge, Haigang New City (Phase I) and the logistics zone were completed. In 2007, the first two phases of Yangshan Deep Water Harbor will be completed. The construction of Waigaoqiao Multi-purpose Port and Luojing Harbor area will be completed. The functional adjustment of the ports along the Huangpu River and the North Bund International Passenger Transport Center will be completed.
Objectives : In 2007, Shanghai will establish a combined international airport with Pudong International Airport as the main player and Hongqiao Airport as a supplement, turning the city into an airport hub in the Asia-Pacific area. The annual throughput of passenger transport will reach 33–35 million. By 2010, Shanghai will become an airport hub in the Asia-Pacific area with an annual throughput of 67 million passengers.
Main Tasks : In 2007, Shanghai will accomplish the construction of Pudong International Airport (Phase II) and related supporting facilities, such as the second runway and other auxiliary facilities for transportation, trans-shipment, and distribution. Efforts will be made to complete the second terminal building to increase the throughput and improve the service.
The function of Longhua Airport will be adjusted through the integrated development of the riverbanks along the Huangpu River.
Information Hub of the Asia-Pacific Area
Objectives : By 2007, Shanghai will establish an information infrastructure with five major functions: congregation and radiation, convenient access, business integration, computation on demand, and security safeguards. With a better configuration of the basic infrastructure for information and application facilities, Shanghai will become one of the most important info hubs in the Asia-Pacific area. The coverage rate for fixed telephone main lines, mobile phone lines, fixed telephone lines, Internet access, and family broadband access will respectively reach 65%, 95%, 80%, 60%, and 50%. The city's bandwidth for international access will exceed 50% of the whole country. The local Internet connection bandwidth will reach gigabyte level. By 2010, Shanghai will have a world-class information infrastructure. Digitalization will become one of the features of the 2010 World Expo.
Main Tasks : Shanghai will strengthen the intensive construction of public information infrastructure with a focus on information pipelines, telecommunications bureaus (stations), and mobile communications base stations. It will push forward the project of putting overhead pipelines underground to network with the stock pipelines.
In addition, it will improve its information network in terms of convenient access, service integration, congregation and radiation functions, and push forward the construction of the high-speed Internet Switching Center for the Yangtze River Delta.
It will also construct and improve its information functional service and accomplish the expansion of the Shanghai Super Computer Center (Phase II), and the construction of the main grid nodes for the “863” National Hi-Tech Program. It will also establish a disaster recovery system.
Another task is to establish and improve application networks, such as the governmental public affairs network and the governmental administration external network, and accelerate the construction of other related application systems.
Finally, it will push forward the certification of new facilities in compliance with the informatization functional standards. By 2007, the certification rate of industrial zones will reach 100% and that for public buildings and residential districts will reach 50% and 80% respectively.
The Land Transport Network
Shanghai will accomplish a multi-dimensional, integrated, transport network system characterized by close links between all four networks of expressways, out-bound railways, city rail transport, urban roads, important node functions, convenience, and speed.
Objectives : By 2005, the planning goal of “15, 30, and 60” will be realized. The total length of expressways will be 550 kilometers. By 2007, an expressway network within the city region, with a total length of 750 kilometers, will be formed and the expressway networks in the Yangtze River Delta will be integrated.
Main Tasks : Shanghai will accelerate the construction of expressways in line with the development of the urban transport network in the Yangtze River Delta and the industrial distribution of key towns and industries in the city region, completing the construction of seven out-bound expressways and an intra-city-region expressway network, including Shanghai-Qingpu-Pingwang, Shanghai-Chongming-Suzhou, Xinzhuang-Fengxian-Jinshan, Tingfeng, Hutai, Shanghai-Suzhou, and Shanghai-Jiaxing-Hangzhu. These expressways, together with the existing three expressways of Shanghai-Nanjing, Shanghai-Hangzhou, and Shanghai-Jiading-Liuhe, will provide ten high-speed ground channels for Shanghai to connect with Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces.
Shanghai will extend an expressway from Pudong International Airport to the Jiaxing-Jinshan expressway, which can connect Jiaxing and Huzhou in the west. This will enable Pudong International Airport to better serve Jiangsu and Zhejiang. At the same time, a supporting half ring between the Outer Ring Line and the Suburb Ring Line will be constructed to improve the service functions of the regional expressway network.
Objectives : By 2007, Shanghai will complete such major passenger transport stations as Shanghai Railway and Shanghai South Railway Stations, as well as such main freight transport stations as Nanxiang Railway Station and Luchaogang Railway Station. Shanghai will become one of China's centers of railway passenger transport and container transport. The transport capacity of these passenger stations will reach 86 million.
In order to strengthen the connection between Shanghai and the city clusters in the Yangtze River Delta area, and take full advantage of the national railways and the suburban railways, Shanghai will continue to study the proposal of integrating the three networks of express railway, intercity railway, and intra-city-region rail transport into one so as to accelerate the construction of a fast intercity traffic system.
Main Tasks : By 2007, Shanghai will accomplish the construction of the Shanghai South Railway Station, Southern Freight Station, Yangxing and Luchaogang Container Node Station, Pudong Railway (south section), Shanghai-Zhapu-Jiading-Huzhou Railway, Beijing-Shanghai Electric Railway, and the Shanghai-Hangzhou Electric Railway (Shanghai Section). By 2010, the Beijing-Shanghai Express Railway will be completed. Efforts will be made to complete such special passenger lines as Shanghai-Nanjing and Shanghai-Hangzhou, as well as the Shanghai-Nantong Railway.
Objectives : By 2007, Shanghai will establish a city rail transport system between the central city and key towns with a total length of 250 kilometers (of which 200 kilometers will be in the central area). By 2010, the total length will increase to 400 kilometers (of which 300 kilometers will be in the central area).
Main Tasks : To give full play to the role of rail transport in guiding and controlling the urban spatial distribution, Shanghai will prioritize the building of the rail transport network between the central city and the key towns in the suburbs.
Shanghai will complete the rail transport network in the central area and also improve the rail transport through nodal points in the urban sub-centers, along the banks of the Huangpu River, and in the Shanghai World Expo area.
Objectives : Shanghai's construction in this area includes an urban arterial road network, with “three rings and ten connections” and “three longitudinal and three latitudinal roads” as its backbone connected by secondary roads. It will build cross-river projects to advance the traffic capacity of the urban roads.
Main Tasks : The main tasks are to complete the urban central ring line and radial roads, a group of secondary trunk roads, such as Henan Road, and cross-river projects, such as Xiangyin Road, Jungong Road, Shangzhong Road, and the Dapu Dual Tunnel.
Shanghai will also speed up the reconstruction of roads and other related establishments within the World Expo area.
Objectives : Combining city rail transport, road network construction, and regional development, Shanghai aims to establish an integrated transport hub, a passenger transport hinge, as well as the static transport facilities with an appropriate hierarchy in distribution. This will improve the overall efficiency and service of its city transport.
Main Tasks : Following the principle of being people-oriented and facilitating interchange, Shanghai will construct a group of small-tolarge interchanges, such as People's Square, Shanghai Railway Station, Dongfang Road-Zhangyang Road, and Hongkou Football Court. These interchanges will be built in conjunction with the Central Ring Road, city rail transport, and ground public transport.
In the process of developing the land in the central area and building major municipal projects, Shanghai will build public parking lots in several major areas, such as Xujiahui, Zhongshan Park, Wujiaochang, and Tianshan-Outer Ring Road. It will also construct a group of interchange facilities, such as parking lots (stations) in support of the city's rail-transport network.
In line with the policy of “prioritizing public transportation and working toward international standards,” Shanghai will build public transportation terminals, taxi stops, and taxi pick-up stations. It will also adjust the network of public ground service routes during the construction of the basic city rail transport network.
Inland Waterway Network
Objectives : By 2010, a trunk inland waterway network with “one ring and ten radiations” as its backbone will be constructed. The landscape of the water system will be optimized. A multi-functional inland waterway network will be established, incorporating waterway transportation, flood prevention, water drainage, leisure, and tourism.
Main Tasks : By improving the waterways, Shanghai will complete the construction of an inland waterway backbone of “one ring and ten radiations.” The landscape will be optimized along the Huangpu River, Suzhou River, and Dianpu River to form a landscape water system. The research aimed for new ship designs will be furthered in order to improve the water transport capacity and riverside landscape.
The improvement of urban eco-environment and the protection of people's health are the starting point in Shanghai's effort to improve the environment, seek sustainable development, and work for green civilization. High on the agenda is the prevention and control of the possible negative impact city development may have on the environment. Afforestation and the forest industry constitute the top priority for urban ecological development. The city will fully promote the planting of green spaces and forests. Great importance is attached to the protection and restoration of species diversity and the habitat of fauna. Hard riverbanks will be softened with planting. Environmental improvement and protection will be promoted on a full scale so that a coordinated development of economy, society, and environment can be boosted.
Objectives : By 2007, the public green space per capita in Shanghai will reach 13 square meters with a coverage rate of 38%. The 500 meter blind spot in public green space service in the central area will be eliminated. The forest coverage will be more than 22% and an afforestation system, featuring the combination of “rings, wedges, corridors, gardens, and forests,” will be established. Landscape ecological corridors will be developed along the Huangpu River, Suzhou River, and Yan'an Road in the central area. An urban forest ecological pattern will be formed in the suburbs, consisting of “two rings, 16 corridors, three belts, and 19 green patches.”
By 2010, the level of urban afforestation will meet international standards. Public green space per capita in the city will reach 15 square meters, with green-space coverage of 40%. In Shanghai as a whole, forest coverage will reach 25%.
Main Tasks : The urban public green space project will be ongoing, focusing on large or wedge-shaped public green spaces. In line with the requirements of “eco-city and eco-town,” the green space indicators of the suburbs will be better than those of the central area.
In addition, efforts will be made to build up large areas of forest in Pujiang, Sheshan, and Chongming. The water-conserving forest upstream of the Huangpu River and the coastal protection forest will be completed. By 2007, the area of newly increased forest land will amount to 900,000 mu (60,000 ha), which will increase by 300,000 mu (20,000 ha) by 2010.
On Chongming Island, more effort will be made to increase the forest and green space and enhance environmental protection, in line with the target of building an eco-island. By 2007, the area of newly increased forest land will reach about 320,000 mu (21,333 ha).
Stress will be laid on protecting the diversity of species, the wetlands, and the Chongming East Bund Natural Reserve. At the same time, the Jiuduansha Wetlands Nature Reserve will be upgraded into a national one.
Objectives : The three-year action plan for environmental protection will be carried out. In 2007, Shanghai's comprehensive environmental quality will match those of other large cities in China. Shanghai will become a city with clear water, clean riverbanks, and fresh air, and a state-level garden city enjoying the most pleasant living environment. This will lay the foundation for Shanghai to develop into an ecological city.
By 2010, when the World Expo will be held, the main environmental indicators and the eco-city framework will attain international standards.
Main Tasks : Watercourse improvement will be promoted all over the city, with a focus on the integrated improvement of the Suzhou River (Phase II). The development of the sewage conduit network and wastewater treatment plants will be accelerated. By 2007, there will be six sewage treatment networks covering the entire city, and the rate of sewage treatment will reach 75%. The protection of the drinking water resource in the Huangpu River and Yangtze River will be strengthened.
Shanghai will also implement the gross volume control of main air pollutants. It will also promote the use of clean energy, such as natural gas while strictly controlling motor vehicle exhaust and dust. The number of days with an atmosphere pollution index (API) reaching grade two or higher will rise to 85% to 90% throughout the year.
In processing household waste, Shanghai will stress reducing, recycling, and hazard-free treatment. By 2007, Shanghai will have developed a well-distributed household disposal system using various means. The rate of the hazard-free house-refuse disposal will reach 97%. By 2010, the target of reducing household refuse at source, recycling, and treating hazard-free will be realized, with the hazard-free treatment rate of household refuse reaching 100%.
By 2007, a group of large projects for household refuse disposal, such as the Laogang Waste Landfill Site (IV) and Jiangqiao Incineration Plant (II), will be completed. At the same time, a group of household-refuse disposal plants and transfer facilities will be accomplished.
Integrated environmental improvement will be carried out in such major areas as Wusong and Taopu Industrial Zones and Wujing Industrial Zone. A centralized heat supply project will be implemented in the Wusong Industrial Zone. Coal-burning boilers now in use will be eliminated and new coal-burning boilers banned. The scale of heat supply in areas such as Taopu and Gaohua will be adjusted appropriately. Consumers will be encouraged to use clean energy for heating. Clean-production methods will be advanced and environmental quality optimized in the Wusong Industrial Zone.
The energy resource structure will be optimized. A diversified energy supply system will be developed. Clean energy will be actively utilized. Centralized heating supply and combined heat and electricity generation will be promoted. The utilization efficiency of energy resources will be improved. The decrease of coal used in industrial energy consumption will lower the total pollutant discharge, protecting the eco-environment and advancing clean production. By 2007, complete clean-production in manufacturing industries will be implemented.
Great efforts must be made to build environmental protection infrastructure in industrial zones and suburban cities and towns. Centralized sewage treatment will be popularized and the collection system perfected. By 2007, all towns and industrial zones will have built their sewage treatment plants and improved the centralized heat-supply system. The pipeline network in residential districts will be completed, enabling a 100% sewage discharge via pipelines.
14.6 Social Undertakings
Shanghai will energetically develop various social undertakings. It will promote spiritual civilization with a view to meeting people's growing spiritual and cultural demands, raising their overall quality, and promoting urban civilization. All these efforts will stimulate Shanghai's modernization drive.
Objectives : Shanghai will be established as a center for international cultural exchange.
Main Tasks : A pattern of cultural facilities featured by lateral and a longitudinal cultural belts and “multi-cultural cores” will be established. There will be three cultural belts running through the cultural cores in the lateral direction, i.e., People's Square, Lujiazui, and Huamu. The longitudinal cultural belt will be formed by the North Bund Entertainment Center, the Bund, and the building complexes in the Outer Bund. The “multi-cultural cores” refer to public urban activity centers at all levels, consisting of Xujiahui, Wujiaochang, Hongqiao Development Area, Zhongshan Park, Luxun Park, Gucheng Park, New City, Duolun Road, Changshou Road, and Daning District.
Carrying forward fine cultural traditions, Shanghai will host the China Shanghai International Arts Festival, Shanghai International Tourism Festival, Shanghai International Fashion Cultural Festival, and Shanghai International Film and Television Festival, which will elevate its culture and contribute to its efforts toward an international cultural exchange center.
Mass cultural facilities will be built, such as libraries, museums, galleries, and cultural halls and squares. Special emphasis will be placed on the building of historical and professional museums to protect the city's historical relics.
A series of well-distributed and standardized community cultural centers and multi-purpose cultural activity rooms will also be built for residential committees (villages).
Objectives : By 2007, a diversified sports service system and a competitive sports system will be established and opened to the public in Shanghai. A series of sports facilities up to international standards will be constructed to satisfy the needs of hosting important international competitions. By 2010, Shanghai will be established as a first-class sporting city in Asia, with the capability of holding comprehensive competitions like the Asian Games, continental games, and international single game matches.
Main Tasks : In 2007, the Shanghai International Racing Field, Qizhong International Tennis Center, the Sports Center of the Songjiang University City, as well as the Shanghai Yacht Club will be completed. The municipal-level sports centers in Xujiahui and Pudong, the Oriental Oasis Training Center, and the aquatic athletic field will be expanded and improved. The Shanghai Natatorium will be renovated. A series of community public sports facilities will be built up. By 2010, the Shanghai Equestrian Stadium, Shanghai Skating Center, and Shanghai Martial Arts Center will be completed, and Pudong Baseball Field expanded.
Objectives : A three-year plan for the development of the public health system will be implemented on a full scale. On the basis of ensuring basic medical treatment, the software and hardware of medical services and the integrated service capability of hospitals will be improved so as to satisfy the multi-layered social demands for medical treatment.
The development of urban public health will be strengthened and public health undertaking and economic growth will be developing in harmony. By 2010, Shanghai will become a first-class medical treatment center in Asia. A world-class medical health system will be established, along with a modern city-wide system for medical emergency and first-aid services.
Main Tasks : Municipal public health centers will be constructed. The municipal disease prevention and control center and emergency center, as well as the municipal lung disease hospital, will be expanded. A public health information platform and network system will be developed and the establishment of a modern medical firstaid network accelerated.
A group of modernized integrated hospitals and specialist hospitals will be created. Focus will be put on the construction of hospitals, such as Ruijin, Zhongshan, Huashan, Pudong Renji, Shuguang, and the No. 1 Hospital of Songjing, developing them into star hospitals in Asia. Specialized hospitals, such as the No. 9 People's Hospital, Tumor Hospital, Chest Hospital, and Children's Hospital, will be completed. About 20 specialist medical treatment centers up to international standards will be developed. Distribution of municipal hospitals and regional medical centers will be properly adjusted.
The development of medical organizations at the grass-root level will be strengthened. Five central district- and county-level hospitals in Chongming and some other districts will be established. By 2005, about 127 public health service centers will be standardized in rural towns and social communities. By 2010, a city-wide community health system will be put in place. The Shanghai International Medical Parks will also go into operation.
Social Welfare and Social Security
Objectives : In order to safeguard people's fundamental interests, a people-oriented social security system will be established that complies with the operating mechanism of a socialist market economy and the level of economic development. By 2007, Shanghai will put in place a new social welfare and social security system characterized by a leading government role and broad social participation.
Main Tasks : Continuous efforts will be made to increase employment and improve social security.
Employment and reemployment will be promoted. An integrated reform targeting medical insurance, medical treatment, and pharmacy will be strengthened to create a basic medical insurance system. Efforts will be put into perfecting the urban insurance system, promoting town-level insurance and restructuring rural insurance. A system of social relief and assistance, as well as a low-rental housing system, will be strengthened so as to ensure the basic living standards of the poor.
Taking communities as the carrier, Shanghai will continue to improve social management and social security work and further strengthen the public service functions of communities. The professionalization of community workers will be promoted when community building and civil organizations management improve. A new community management system will be introduced. Measures will be taken to strengthen the management of and assistance for migrant population and the homeless.
More and better service facilities for the aged will be built at municipal, district (county) level, and street (community) levels. The current sub-standard caring organizations for the aged will be renovated and the service system for senior citizens improved.
Social welfare work will be carried out and support for the disabled will be promoted. Shanghai will build itself into a model city for barrier-free facilities in China. It will host the Special Olympics in 2007.
14.7 Residential construction
Objectives : Shanghai will boost its residential construction with the aim of improving the people's housing conditions. Shanghai can develop into a city where people from home and abroad can reside. A market-oriented, diversified, commercialized, and socialized residential construction and supply system will be established that matches the city's economic development and people's consumption level. A residential social security system featured by low-rental housing will also be established.
By 2007, the residential area per capita will reach 16–18 square meters. The percentage of families living in their own houses will surpass 85%, realizing the goal of one family owning one apartment. By 2010, the residential area per capita will reach around 20 square meters and the ratio of families living in their own houses will be around 90%.
Depending on technological progress and innovation, Shanghai will steadily improve the overall quality of newly built housing. It will make great efforts to advance housing commercialization by making sure all newly built houses are fully furnished and equipped with intelligent facilities. The design of residential housing will follow the principle of being “practical, safe, economical, and beautiful.” The newly built housing will have underground cables rather than overhead lines, fencing with airy green spaces, with air-conditioner outlet units and auxiliary facilities installed outdoors. The reading of water, electricity, and natural gas meters will be collected outdoors or remotely. The development of an eco-environment will be strengthened. A housing architecture outlook characterized by modern features and a Shanghai style will be in place.
Residential construction in the central area will be strengthened. High-intensity development and the distribution of high-rise residential buildings will be strictly controlled.
The rebuilding of the old districts will be carried out as per the principle of combining construction, demolition, renovation, and preservation. Old houses will be protected, giving the urban housing clusters historical flavors. Efforts will also be made to improve the environmental landscape and steadily push forward the renovation of old districts.
The development of housing in suburban cities and towns will be greatly strengthened. To fulfill the requirements of “three concentrations” (the concentration of industries in industrial parks, the concentration of population in cities and towns, and the concentration of land for scale management), a group of new-type, high-quality, and well-placed residential districts featuring perfect support facilities, high technological integration, and convenient and rapid transportation will be developed to attract farmers to relocate to the cities and towns. Measures will be taken to improve the planning and construction of rural housing. Standardized design will be advocated and the housing of farmers will be included in the planning and management system.
Main Tasks : In order to meet people's diverse needs in residential consumption, Shanghai will focus on developing multi-standard, ecological residential zones, and establish a pattern of rational housing consumption.
Large residential bases located between the Inner Ring and Outer Ring will be completed in the central area, and several major new cities and central towns will be completed in the suburbs. The environmental quality of housing in the suburban cities and towns will be better than that of the central area. The population of the central area will be dispersed, while the population of the suburbs should be centralized in cities and towns.
The construction of “four high” residential districts, which supplement major projects with medium and low prices, will be completed. The low-rental house leasing system will be perfected. The roof reconstruction of old housing from flat roofing into pitched roofing will be strengthened. A higher ratio of families living in their own houses will be achieved. More community public facilities will be built to improve the afforestation level of newly constructed residential areas, the people's housing conditions, and the environmental well-being.
14.8 Infrastructures Water Supply
Objectives : In 2007, Shanghai will be established as a water-saving city by achieving its overall objective in water supply of “one network with multiple zones and intensified water supply.”
Main Tasks : A reasonable distribution and optimized allocation of water resources will be achieved and the quality of water supplied to the suburbs will be improved. Four water-supply districts, i.e., Puxi, Pudong, Punan, and Sandao, will be developed.
Measures will be taken to protect the drinking water sources upstream of the Huangpu River and in the estuary of the Yangtze River. A water-source reservoir will be built along the Yangtze River.
Three water treatment facilities will be constructed, reconstructed, or expanded. Fifty water plants in the suburban towns will be integrated and merged.
Rain Water Drainage
Objectives : The drainage system in the central city will be enhanced, allowing it to cope with the probable scale of annual flooding. The drainage system in the suburbs will be enhanced to better handle regional floods.
Main Tasks : In 2007, the rebuilding of nine sub-standard drainage systems in districts such as Zhaojiabang will be fully completed. Twenty-one drainage systems will be constructed according to the planned standards, such as Shanghai South Station. By 2010, rainwater collection systems will be further improved in important areas. In addition, the system of surface water drainage in the suburban districts will meet the requirements of fighting severe floods that take place every fifteen years.
Objectives : Shanghai will synchronize the construction of the intracity power supply and the distribution of external power supply, and coordinate efforts to control the total number of coal-turbine generators and develop natural gas turbine generators. By 2010, a pattern of power supply will be established that consists of five power-generating bases within the city and two power bases and several other power supply sources located outside the city. In 2007, a power transmission and distribution grid that can satisfy the needs of urban development will be accomplished. The maximum power consumption of the city will exceed 20 million kilowatts.
Main Tasks : The Huaneng Gas-turbine Power Plant should be completed on schedule. The construction of Waigaoqiao No. 3 Power Plant and Shidongkou No. 3 Power Plant will be completed.
Power generator sets using clean energy technology will be further developed. The development of one or two large gas-turbine regulating power plants will be started.
Channels for receiving external power supply should be constructed. The direct current power line of the second loop 500 kilovolts (kv) from the Three Gorges Dam to East China will be completed in keeping with the progress of the Three Gorges Project. In addition, the two-loop 500 kv A.C. lines from Zhangjiagang to Xuhang will be completed. The fourth channel from East China to Shanghai, as well as pylons for the urban main grid of 500 kv, will be commenced in the half outer ring of the city.
Urban Natural Gas System
Objectives : In 2007, the number of natural gas users will amount to two million and the natural gas consumption will add up to 1.4 million cubic meters. By 2010, the number of natural gas users will increase to 2.8 million and its consumption two million cubic meters.
Main Task s: Shanghai will adjust the supply structure of the urban gas system by taking advantage of the natural gas supply from west to east, the development of natural gas in the East China Sea, and liquefied natural gas. This way it will strengthen the development of the natural gas pipeline system and the rebuilding of the gas pipeline system in the central area, making use of natural gas in a larger field, eventually establishing a trunk system of gas pipelines and gas-supply system to the central area.
City Disaster Mitigation
Objectives : A three-pronged disaster emergency system will be gradually developed, including command, security, and prevention. In 2007, an integrated system for urban disaster mitigation that matches the status of an international metropolis will be developed.
Main tasks : The sea wall and riverbanks will meet the national standards for flood prevention. The embankment of the Huangpu River in its middle- and lower-reaches will be strengthened for preventing floods of a severity seen only once every 1,000 years. The 110 kilometers of newly built flood-preventing projects in the main stream of the Huangpu River will be completed. The renovation of the low-standard drainage system will be accomplished, as well as the gate project at the estuary of the Suzhou River. The sluice project at the estuary of the Huangpu River will also be started.
In 2007, a total of 1.5 million square meters of civil defense projects will be built. The development of the backbone civil defense project will be strengthened. The ready command stations for the civil defense project, as well as several district-level command stations, will be accomplished. A group of medical treatment and rescue projects, as well as professional teams for aerial defense, will also be developed.
Combining the subway stations and traffic hubs with the main urban public activity centers, Shanghai will develop integrated facilities for multi-purpose public activities so as to make full use of the underground space. The municipal infrastructures and the underground traffic facilities must be considered when formulating overall plans. In connection with the development of underground space, the underground projects for both peace time and war situations will be accomplished. All these efforts will contribute to a pattern of integrated utilization of underground spaces in Shanghai.
Eighteen fire stations and city-level fire fighting command centers will be developed by 2007. The distribution of fire stations in the central area will be improved. The construction of fire stations in the suburbs will be speeded up along with the development of major suburban cities and towns.
14.9 City Image
Shanghai will take the opportunity of hosting the 2010 World Expo to fully upgrade its city functions and improve its environment in order to build a new image of leaps-and-bounds development and demonstrate the spirit and charm of a modern international metropolis,.
Taking the opportunity of preparing for and holding the World Expo, Shanghai will make efforts to build world-class spatial landscape areas in the form of one longitudinal belt and two transverse belts. The 2010 World Expo provides an important opportunity for Shanghai to perfect its urban functions and image. Through the integrated development of the Huangpu River and the hosting of the World Expo, Shanghai will accelerate the upgrading of its city functions and image building. The Huangpu River will become an ecological river serving the people, a world-class riverside landscape area, and a symbol of Shanghai's urban development in the 21st century.
The integrated renovation of the Suzhou River is an important part of Shanghai's strategy of environmental development. Characterized by “clean water and riverbanks, trees, and a beautiful landscape,” Shanghai will develop the river's banks into a water-landscape area for living and leisure with rich local flavors, improved environmental qualities, and well preserved historical culture. The capacity and the height of buildings along both banks of the Suzhou River will be strictly controlled.
The elevated Yan'an Road and its extending line is a landscape axis running through the central city area from east to west of Shanghai. From Dianshanhu, Zhujiajiao to the central city area, Lingang New City, and Yangshan Deep Water Port, Yan'an Road runs through many unique scenic spots and central urban centers within the city region which perfectly embody the city's history and culture. The development of green spaces, forest land, and landscapes in the districts along Yan'an Road will be strengthened. The building density and the building setback distance along Yan'an Road must be strictly controlled in the central city area.
Shanghai will preserve its well-known historical landmarks and become a cultural city by shaping its own urban cultural style on the basis of its historical heritage. Shanghai is a famous historical and cultural city. Great efforts need to be made to preserve its 12 historical and cultural areas and 632 outstanding historical buildings, famous suburban historical and cultural towns, and towns and villages with unique historical features. Outstanding historical buildings will be well preserved and this applies not only to single buildings but also to neighborhoods and blocks. At the same time, more efforts will be made to survey and verify the existing historical buildings and protect historical buildings that reflect the different periods of Shanghai. Buildings with unique features and superior structures within the city region will also be protected. In addition, measures are to be taken to protect the environment and landscape around these historical buildings.
Planting large urban public green spaces and suburban forest will top the agenda of building a new image of “ecological city, green Shanghai.” A city's afforestation indicates its urban ecological civilization. Shanghai will need to plant more urban public green spaces and suburban forest in order to become a National Garden City. In the central city, the focus is to expand green spaces. In the suburbs, the target will be enlarging forests and promoting ecological development. Thus Shanghai will build a new image that perfectly integrates green spaces, forests, water, and buildings. In 2010, an afforestation system will be completed, combining “rings, wedges, corridors, gardens, and forests” within the city region and landscape ecological corridors along the Huangpu River, Suzhou River, and Yan'an Road in the central city.
Shanghai will make great efforts to develop a new outlook for suburban towns by relying on pilot cities and towns. The suburbs are the focus of Shanghai's urban development in the new century. Drawing on the advanced city planning concepts of other countries, and taking into consideration the local features of Shanghai, the functional positioning of the cities and towns, their environmental and resource advantages, Shanghai will be committed to building featured towns and ecological towns with new unique suburban landscapes in a better overall environment.
In 2007, pilot towns will be built, such as Songjiang, Anting, Pujiang, Gaoqiao, Zhujiajiao, and Luodian.
Shanghai will make great efforts to build new landscapes along arterial roads with the Central Ring Line as a model. As an important part of the urban spatial structure, the arterial roads, especially the elevated roads, will play a major part in building the image of the central city area. Starting with the construction of the Central Ring Line, Shanghai will integrate the relationship between elevated roads and buildings, green spaces, public squares, and water systems along the elevated roads. The fifth façade surface of the buildings and the billboards along the elevated roads will be carefully designed. The belt-type green space and large public green space, as well as the open space in important nodes along the roads, will be increased. Arterial roads, such as the Central Ring Line, will be developed into a landscape corridor rich in Shanghai colors. In 2007, the city backbone road landscape lines will be completed, as represented by the Central Ring Line.
Shanghai will seek to present the modern urban spirit through its new city sculptures. City sculptures are important tools to display the urban spirit, culture, and other qualities. By taking the opportunity of preparing for the 2010 World Expo, Shanghai will accelerate the construction of its city sculptures, striving to create world-class artworks that can better embody its urban spirit and raise the artistic level of public spaces.
In 2005, the Sculpture Park for Sister Cities will be completed and the construction of city sculptures in five major districts will be started. In 2007, the construction of city sculptures in ten to 15 major districts will be completed. Eight to ten iconic city sculptures up to international standards will also be completed.
Efforts are required to improve the environment of the central city area. A strict system for the protection and preservation of outstanding historical and cultural buildings should be put in place. Shanghai will actively advance the “three concentrations” in the suburbs and improve the management system and mechanism for city planning under a legal framework so as to ensure the healthy and orderly progress of Shanghai's city development.
Improving the Environment of the Central City Area
Economic indexes are not the only way to measure the development level of a city. An overall evaluation of the economy, resources, culture, and environment also counts. Experience of other international cities shows that in order to maintain the eco-environment quality of a big city, population size and building capacity must be tightly controlled.
At present, many problems are troubling city construction and reconstruction, for instance, over expanded building capacity, too many high-rise buildings, and poor layout of the central city area. If these problems cannot be solved in time, they will hold back the strategy of dispersing population to the suburbs and shifting the focus of city construction to the suburbs. This will in turn cause a series of problems, such as traffic jams, overloaded public municipal facilities, discounted service capability and infrastructure standards, deteriorating ecological environment, and watered-down disaster resistance and prevention.
To seek sustainable development, development of the central city area must be combined with population dispersion, functional improvement, environmental protection, and landscape optimization. The role of city planning in exercising overall regulation must also be promoted with a view to enlarging the public green space and public activity space and reducing the plot ratio and the total number of buildings. The legal system will be improved and planning management strictly implemented. The current Comprehensive City Plan will be executed in a down-to-earth manner.
Strengthening Planning Compilation and Ensuring the Realization of Objectives
The Comprehensive City Plan is the basis of and the guideline for compiling plans at different levels and specialized plans for the central city area. Zone-based planning should be practiced and the total population and the total number of buildings specified. Zoning should be based on development intensity so that the total number of buildings can be reasonably distributed. Zoning can also be done by city functions, landscape, environment, styles, and features, which require different plot ratios, control areas, control standards, and management methods.
The compilation of the regulatory unit plan should be strengthened. With the concept of grid management, Shanghai will integrate the compilation units, administrative units, and the municipal service units by considering as a whole the professional planning, administrative resources, and the infrastructures. In line with the principle of zoning-based planning, the aggregate control quantity of the population and buildings will be broken down according to compiling units. The compulsory controlling requirements in terms of the purposes of land use, public services, road transport, municipal public utilities, and public green space, and the guiding principles for city design and planning strategies will also be specified to provide specific operating principles for compiling plans at a more specific level. The compilation of the regulatory unit plan is an important link in implementing the Master City Plan, and also an important basis for managing city planning. It cannot be adjusted without necessary legal procedures.
The regulatory planning should be specific and comprehensive, covering land use intensity, spatial environment, municipal infrastructure, and public utilities, so as to provide a management basis for city development projects.
Development projects will be strictly controlled and implemented on the basis of the regulatory plan and they cannot be modified without authorization.
The newly revised Regulations of Shanghai Municipality on Urban Planning (the Regulations) and the Technical Regulations of Shanghai Municipality on Urban Planning (the Technical Regulations) should be strictly implemented to ensure the execution of the plan.
Governments and the management departments at all levels should follow the Regulations to ensure administration according to law. Developers and individuals should conform to the requirements of the Master City Plan and the Technical Regulations. Harsh disciplinary action will be taken against those who violate the city plan. Any illegal development must be confiscated and removed. The supervisory measures, compulsory measures, and disciplinary action will be improved within the limits of the law to ensure the smooth implementation of the city plan.
The Technical Regulations must be strictly carried out to straighten out the relationship between building management and planning. City development projects should be carried out under the guidance of the “five layers” for formulating and implementing city planning and the Technical Regulations. For construction projects with a ground area of construction exceeding 30,000 square meters, detailed planning should be in line with the city planning and should not be implemented without approval. At the same time, the plot ratio of the single ground area should be lowered, for example, the plot ratio of high-rise buildings within the Inner Ring Line will be below 2.5, while that of high-rise commercial buildings will be less than 4.0. The guiding principle that the areas around public green spaces should be open should be highlighted. Centralized green space should be planted along the urban roads, and the inner green space should be open to the outside. Regulations on the width of building surfaces, underground spatial connections, and parking should be strictly implemented to protect public landscapes and space.
Development projects being examined for approval, and those approved yet constructed, must be handled proactively and carefully. Such projects need to be reviewed in order to reduce their possible negative impact on urban landscape and environment in the central city area. For the long-term interests of Shanghai, the Municipal Government should respect the past, set a reasonable order of priority, and approve projects in accordance with the law.
The management departments at the city and district (county) levels should continue to study carefully the design schemes of those projects that are being approved or have been approved but not yet constructed. The Planning Law should be fully observed and the planning principles and operation feasibility integrated. The planned technical parameters, such as sunlight and building intervals, must be strictly followed since they have a direct bearing on the residents' living quality. The impact of newly built buildings on the environment, landscape, historical districts, and the protected buildings of modern and contemporary periods should be assessed. The roofs and façades of these buildings should be optimized so that they are in harmony with the neighboring buildings. The detailed planning approved through legal procedures must be strictly implemented and related building laws and regulations must be comprehensively cited in examining and approving project schemes.
Those who break the law and regulations should be severely punished in due course, and their acts of infringement should be kept on record. At the same time, if management departments break the law and regulations, the interested party and its leaders will be held accountable.
Strengthening the Protection of the Historical and Cultural Landscape
Shanghai is a national historical and cultural city. Measures should be taken to protect its historical relics, tap its historical heritage, and fuse history and the future so that Shanghai will be developed into a city with a profound historical tradition and abundant local flavors.
In rebuilding old districts and engaging in a new round of development, efforts should be made to protect historical sites and important historical buildings. A strict system must be put in place for this purpose. The Bylaw for Protecting Historical and Cultural Sites and Important Historical Buildings must be strictly carried out.
The protection of the 12 historical sites in the central city area, 632 important historical buildings, famous historical and cultural towns and villages in the suburbs must be strengthened. Great efforts should be made to gather information about the status quo, identifying the protection tasks, enlarging the scope of protection, and working out detailed protection plans. A comprehensive plan has been compiled for protecting the 12 historical sites in the central city area. Protection plans for the historical sites in the suburbs are also being complied. Detailed implementation rules will be worked out soon.
Apart from single historical buildings, the whole streets where they are located should also be protected. Garden-style residences, apartments, new-style lanes, and Class I old-style lanes with good structure should also be listed for protection, including the improvement of their neighboring environment.
Estate development in protected areas and peripheral areas of historical sites, important historic buildings, and famous historical and cultural towns must be strictly controlled. The examination and approval of such development projects must be tightened. Buildings to be built or renovated should preserve their original outlook.
Proactively Pushing Forward “three concentrations” in Suburbs
“Three concentrations” is essential to Shanghai's efforts toward urban- rural integration, agricultural modernization, and rural urbanization. It addresses the need for establishing a rational spatial system between the cities and towns, the congregation of industries and intensified development, the maximization of efficient infrastructure use, and the urban eco-environment construction and sustainable development.
Urban planning is an important means to advance the “three concentrations.” The functions of city planning in resource deployment, spatial guidance, and macro-control should be given full play. Through the stages of planning compilation, implementation, and management, an integration of the planning units, administrative units, industrial units, and a networked management will be achieved. The districts and counties should play a major role in implementing “three concentrations.” The Master City Plan defines the comprehensive orientation and development priorities of the suburbs. The plans of the administrative region of the districts (counties) define the population, the layout of the cities and towns, and the industrial development. The master plans of the new cities, central towns, and industrial zones are to centralize diverse resources to create characteristic towns and zones to attract the concentration of population and industries.
During the actual implementation of the “three concentrations,” focus should be placed on the following points:
The master city planning should be improved so as to distribute suburban population, towns, industries, and ecological layout as specified in the planning and to provide development orientation and space for the suburban “three concentrations.” A proper scale for population, towns, industries, and ecological land use should be defined as per the implementation of the “three concentrations” and the development orientation and spatial layout should be implemented. Eventually urban construction land, agricultural land, eco-green space, and forest land will each take up one-third.
Population should be mainly concentrated in new cities and central towns in the suburbs. Shanghai should form a “countermagnetic” layout that corresponds with the central area as soon as possible by riding on the new round of effort to restructure the administrative regions of the towns.
Industry should be concentrated mainly at the state- and city-level industrial zones. Shanghai should strengthen the integrated extension of district- and county-level industrial zones, merge industrial spots with town- and village-level units, advance the planned objectives annually, and form industrial clusters and chains.
Efforts will be doubled to increase the scale of agriculture and operate it in an organized manner. The focus will be put on “returning farmland to forest.” Efforts are also to be made to realize industrialized management, accelerate non-agricultural employment, develop urban agriculture, and create urban forests.
The development of towns and industries should be flexible enough to leave room for the future. At the same time, permanent ecological space, such as urban green space, forest land, wetlands, and water resource land, should be strictly controlled.
The full coverage of specific planning must be boosted to provide the correct conditions and support for the “three concentrations” of the suburbs. For key cities and towns, and industrial zones that conform to the orientation of the “three concentrations,” more favorable policies should be offered. Priority should be given to large municipal projects and large transport projects. Diverse resources and conditions should be concentrated to speed up the congregation and centralization processes.
To ensure the speedy implementation of “three concentrations,” rail transport, expressways, and pivots in the suburbs must be developed. Priority should be given to the development of rail transport, regional pivots, and public transport in the administrative region of those districts between the central area and key cities and towns. As the population will be concentrated in the peripheral areas, the current population in the central area will be relocated. The developmental integration of cities and towns with that of industry should be strengthened. The role of major expressways in stimulating economic development should be brought into play instead of indiscriminately seeking even development.
The transfer of public facilities to the suburbs and the development of eco-environment must be accelerated to lay the groundwork for the “three concentrations.” In line with the scales of the towns and their industrial features, and in consideration of their local characteristics, Shanghai will put more effort into new suburban towns, creating beautiful environments, strong characteristics, and modern aspects. With higher goals and standards set for implementation, the transfer of public facilities and the development of an eco-environment in the suburbs must be accelerated. The supporting facilities in the towns, such as medical treatment, education, culture, and entertainment, must be improved. The afforestation of the suburban cities and towns should be better than that of the central area in order to attract the population to the suburbs.
The planning management of the suburbs should be strengthened to provide supervision and security for the “three concentrations.” Any construction planning which will contribute to the “three concentrations” will be prioritized, while that which may do harm to the “three concentrations” will be strictly and tightly controlled.
The development of unplanned land must be strictly controlled. Management of rural building planning should be strengthened. The distribution of central villages and residential districts for farmers should be rationalized. The merging of the administrative villages and natural villages should be implemented on a year-by-year basis. Permanent ecological space, like green space, forest land, and water source areas, should not be misappropriated.
14.11 Improving the Urban Planning Managerial System, Mechanism, and Legislative System
The managerial system of “two levels of governments and two levels of planning” and the principles of “separation of decision making, execution and supervision, and separation of planning compilation, examination and approval, and supervision” must be followed to optimize the planning system, enhance scientific decision making and administration efficiency, and to promote administration by law. Public participation will also be advocated to further improve the urban planning managerial system, mechanism, and legislative system, which can meet the requirements of building Shanghai into an international metropolis.
Further Reinforcing Planning Formulation and Optimizing the System for Planning Compilation, Examination, and Approval
Domestic and foreign experience should be borrowed to guide the development of the central city and suburbs and to motivate system reform and innovation. The new version of the city master plan should be implemented. A fair and transparent urban planning managerial system featuring high efficiency, standardized behavior, and harmonious operation should be established.
Optimizing Urban Planning Compilation, Examination, and Approval System
The principle of being both scientific and operational should be followed in building an urban planning system with clear structure, definite objectives, orderly management, and high feasibility. At the same time, the urban planning compilation, examination, and approval system should be strictly carried out. The compiled urban planning must be submitted for approval in accordance with procedures stated in relevant laws and regulations, and the compulsory contents of the approved urban planning should not be arbitrarily altered.
The City Master Plan should act as the basis for the compilation of planning at all levels, including specialized planning, guiding the development of all districts and departments of the city.
The planning compilation and management system of the central city can be divided into five levels: city master planning, zoned planning, regulatory compilation unit planning, regulatory detailed planning, and project management implemented in accordance with the planning.
The compilation of all professional-system planning must be strengthened. All professional-system planning should be compiled or altered and then applied to the whole administrative region of the city, namely, from the central city to the suburbs, based on the new version of city master planning.
Urban design should be enhanced and carried out at all phases of the compilation of urban planning. Specifically, the role of urban design should be strengthened in optimizing urban spatial layout, shaping urban vistas, improving public environmental quality, and creating favorable activity space. At the same time, urban design should also be reinforced regarding such sightseeing corridors as historical and cultural areas, outstanding historical architecture coordination areas, the Yan'an Road line, the banks of the Huangpu River and Suzhou River, as well as CBD, major commercial districts, and main city-level public activity centers.
Strengthening the Role of Municipal Planning Management Departments in Organizing Planning Compilation and Supervising Planning Implementation
The municipal planning management department is shifting its focus to macroscopic and forward-looking planning compilation. It should organize the compilation of the city master planning, district planning, the regulatory compilation unit planning of the central city, and particular regional planning, such as historical and cultural sites and nature reserves. At the same time, the municipal planning management department should also work together with the district (county) governments in the compilation of district (county) master planning, new city master planning, and master planning of national industrial parks, and so on. The examination and approval of the regulatory planning of the central city, the new city, and national industrial parks, and master planning of central towns compiled by the district (county) government should be conducted by the municipal planning administration department. In addition, it should effectively guide the planning management work at the district (county) level and supervise the planning implementation.
In the short term, focus will be put on completing the planning of the six sub-areas of the central city based on a general survey of the current state of the 4,079 blocks in the central city. Based on the pilot project in Huayang community, the planning for the 242 regulatory compilation units in the central city will be formulated in stages, together with all district governments of the city. All district governments of the city should compile regulatory planning systematically, based on the compulsory and instructive contents defined by the regulatory compilation unit planning.
Regulating the Power of the District (County) Governments in the Examination and Approval of Construction Projects
The management responsibilities of construction projects must be delegated to arouse the enthusiasm of the district (county) planning management departments. The examination and approval of construction projects will be handed over to corresponding district (county) governments, except those municipal, systematic, crossregional, and special construction projects that should be examined and approved by the municipal planning management department. All district (county) governments should strictly follow the approved planning in actual implementation.
The municipal planning management department should also be responsible for the examination and approval of national security or confidential projects and military projects; municipal and systematic urban construction projects in the historical and cultural sites, excellent historical buildings, the estuary of the Yangtze River, the banks of the Huangpu River and Suzhou River, Sheshan scenic spot, Dianshan Lake scenic spot; and other construction projects designated by the Municipal Government in the outer ring greenbelts, wedge-like public green spaces, large areas of forest, water-conserving forests, and shelter forests.
Further Strengthening Leadership and Optimizing the Scientific Decision Mechanism
The decision-making function of the municipal planning commission will be optimized. The commission will exercise decision-making power on significant regional planning, project planning, and planning adjustment, and the formulation of planning policies on behalf of the Municipal Government. At the same time, an expert consultation mechanism will be established in the commission to conduct preliminary studies on major decisions, offering a firm basis for decisions, conducting postmortem appraisal on the implementation of significant decisions, assisting the Municipal Government in summing up the experience of making significant decisions. Important planning will be discussed by the expert panel first before being submitted to the municipal planning commission for review and approval.
An expert consultation and review mechanism will be further optimized. As for significant projects and planning, scientific verification and decision making are necessary. The planning compilation scheme will be verified by experts first before being submitted for examination and approval. Reasonable opinions from the experts should be adopted. The procedures for expert verification and planning disclosure in the process of examination and approval will be formulated strictly to highlight the seriousness of legal proceedings and the rigidity of planning examination and approval.
The district (county) governments should further strengthen the awareness of “planning first.” In implementation, clear objectives, well-defined responsibilities, and effective measures should be ensured. How the planning is implemented should be taken as one of the criteria for appraising officials. At the same time, full play should be given to expert opinions in planning implementation and decision making.
The mechanism for coordinating planning implementation should be strengthened at all levels of governments in Shanghai. The collaboration should also be enhanced between the planning management department and departments in charge of planning, land resource, fire-fighting, environmental protection, sanitation, and traffic administration. Well-defined responsibilities and optimized procedures should be ensured so as to give full play to the comprehensive functions of planning management in the construction project management and raise the overall efficiency of the government.
Further Enhancing Planning Supervision and Management and Improving the Level of Administration by Law
First, the system of legislation on urban planning needs to be optimized gradually. The legislation on urban planning should be strengthened to raise the legal status of urban planning. A local system of legislation on urban planning based on the characteristics of Shanghai's largescale urban planning should be gradually established, which can take into consideration the overall requirements of developing a socialist market economy system and the new circumstances and problems arising in the new round of development for Shanghai. The research and practice of the legislation for planning should stress the connection between entity norms and procedural norms. A set of technical standards and local norms, in accordance with international practices and state regulations, should be formulated as soon as possible for local regulations, such as the Technical Regulations.
Second, the system of law enforcement and supervision regarding urban planning will be improved. All levels of planning should be strictly carried out to maintain the authority of urban planning. The administrative supervision function of the municipal planning management department should be enhanced and the urban planning administration registration system should be optimized. At the same time, a system of electronic reporting, examination, and approval recording, and on-time registration after the issuance of certification will gradually be put into practice. In addition, a planning administrative responsibility system will be implemented to strengthen the postmortem supervision of projects approved and implemented.
An urban planning work report system needs to be established. The urban planning management work should be subject to the inspection and supervision of the People's Congress of the same level. As for the planning schemes for important areas or projects, the suggestions of the NPC Standing Committee should be adopted. The district (county) planning management departments should submit written reports to the municipal planning management department regarding the work progress, especially major problems that periodically arise. The municipal and district planning management departments should conduct regular self-examination and self-correction as to the law enforcement in planning. The municipal planning management department should conduct a random inspection on the law enforcement in district and county planning. At the same time, an administration error-correction system should be established to ensure a timely correction of administrative acts in violation of laws or regulations.
The procedures specified in relevant laws and regulations should be strictly followed in the examination and approval of the planning and construction projects. A unit or individual must not alter the compulsory contents of approved planning at various levels. The planning should be adjusted in accordance with legal proceedings. As for government administration departments that violate the urban planning, the persons directly involved and the leaders of the department will be investigated, and those in violation of the criminal law will be subject to the investigation and punishment by judicial authorities.
Third, a mechanism for public participation in urban planning needs to be gradually established. Great efforts have to be made to motivate the compilation and implementation of urban planning with the participation of the public through various channels. At the same time, a planning publishing system must be gradually established. The planning schemes approved through legal proceedings will be released to the public, enabling the latter to know, participate, and supervise urban planning. In addition, a report and feedback mechanism will be gradually established and the system of transparent government administration will be further improved so that public supervision over the planning implementation can be conducted.
Further Strengthening the Planning Administration Team and Optimizing the Planning Administration Network
First, it is essential to establish a high-quality planning administration team. Great efforts must be made to attract and cultivate professionals in urban planning and strengthen talent training so as to establish a high-caliber team of planners and planning administrators with an overall perspective, sharp business acumen, and high political awareness. A competitive employment mechanism will be introduced for important posts in planning administration. A communication mechanism will also be established. Technical training must be strengthened, with the focus on certification training. At the same time, renewed efforts are required to develop the planning administration supervision and inspection team and to provide legal training for planning law enforcement officers. Such legal training and assessment will be viewed as a basis for the employment and appraisal of civil servants.
The division of municipal, district, and county planning administration responsibility must be further regulated to enhance department development. The municipal planning administration department mainly takes charge of planning compilation, examination, and approval, at the same time strengthening business guidance and administrative supervision and replenishing district and county planning administration departments with necessary personnel.
Innovation is encouraged to accelerate industrial development. At the same time, advanced foreign planning concepts and experience of other provinces and cities in planning administration will be studied and absorbed. For important planning projects, design schemes will be solicited from other countries or other provinces or cities. A group of highly competitive urban planning design companies and top-notch urban planning professionals will be cultivated.
Second, it is important to further improve the information system via scientific and technological innovation. The adoption of new technologies in urban planning, development, and management must be speeded up and planning concepts updated so as to heighten the level of urban planning in Shanghai. All-out efforts must be made to optimize the information system and mechanism and to accelerate network construction for both the planning management intranet and the extranet for open administration. The information communication between any two levels of government must be strengthened and an information-collecting mechanism, based on the network platform provided by the said intranet, must be established for timely feedback on administrative information. At the same time, an information-collecting system, such as electronic reporting, examination, and approval recording, will be gradually put into place. An information collecting and processing mechanism will also be set up.
The information channels will be widened and public participation promoted. Planning management information, including approved planning, construction projects, handling of illegal building projects, will be released in good time through different means and channels, such as the “open administrative affairs” websites, news media, and an urban planning exhibition hall. At the same time, public awareness of city planning will be enhanced and planning schemes publicized with a view to attracting the participation by the public.
"Master City Plan of Shanghai in 2001." Shanghai Urban Planning. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 23, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/international/international-magazines/master-city-plan-shanghai-2001
"Master City Plan of Shanghai in 2001." Shanghai Urban Planning. . Retrieved March 23, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/international/international-magazines/master-city-plan-shanghai-2001
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