Saharan Arab Democratic Republic (SADR)
SAHARAN ARAB DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC (SADR)
the official government-in-exile of polisario.
The founding of the Saharan Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) was proclaimed at Bir Lehlou, a town in northwestern Western Sahara, on 27 February 1976, one day after the departure of Spain's authorities from the territory, by a previously established Provisional Sahrawi National Council. Its constitution, adopted at the third POLISARIO (Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia ElHamra and Rio de Oro, a politico-military organization formed in 1973 to secure the independence of Western Sahara) congress in August 1976, proclaimed SADR to be a "democratic Arab republic," with a "republican political system." SADR was declared part of the Arab nation and Islam the state religion. Fundamental objectives included socialism, social justice, and the attainment of Maghrib unity as a step toward Arab and African unity. POLISARIO's executive committee was charged with presiding over SADR's executive organ until independence and sovereignty were attained. POLISARIO's August 1991 Congress adopted a new draft constitution for the future Saharan state, including provisions for a multiparty system, a free enterprise economy (with strategic resources controlled by the state), universal suffrage, a free press, and cooperative relations with Morocco. POLISARIO head Muhammad Abd al-Aziz was the first, and thus far the only, president of SADR. He was re-elected secretary-general, receiving 92 percent of the vote, at POLISARIO's 11th congress, held in October 2003 in Tifariti, the POLISARIO-controlled territory of Western Sahara.
SADR's main value for POLISARIO has been in the diplomatic sphere: At its peak, it attained recognition from more than seventy countries (the number had dropped to around sixty by 2003), and, after years of struggle, assumed its seat in 1984 as a full member of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), triggering a Moroccan walkout. In contrast to the OAU, the League of Arab States (Arab League) kept SADR and POLISARIO at arm's length.
see also league of arab states; maghrib; organization of african unity (oau); polisario; western sahara.
Damis, John. Conflict in Northwest Africa: The Western Sahara Dispute. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1983.
Hodges, Tony. Western Sahara: The Roots of a Desert War. Westport, CT: Lawrence Hill, 1983.
Pazzanita, Anthony G., and Hodges, Tony. Historical Dictionary of Western Sahara. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1982.
"Saharan Arab Democratic Republic (SADR)." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 19, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/saharan-arab-democratic-republic-sadr
"Saharan Arab Democratic Republic (SADR)." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved December 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/saharan-arab-democratic-republic-sadr
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.