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Saguṇa-Brahman. ‘Brahman with qualities’, in contrast to nirguṇa-Brahman. In the perspective of Advaita, the latter is the highest, essential nature of Brahman, but in order that Brahman may become knowable, it manifests itself with qualities (guṇa, upādhi), though these are always superimposed on Brahman and do not have ontological independence. In personified form, saguṇa-Brahman becomes Īśvara, God, and by application iṣṭa-devatā, the personal god of a devotee.