Skip to main content

Robles, Francisco (1811–1893)

Robles, Francisco (1811–1893)

Francisco Robles (b. 5 May 1811; d. 11 March 1893), president of Ecuador (1856–1859). Robles, born in Guayaquil, served as deputy from Manabí Province (1852) and as governor of Guayas Province (1854–1856) prior to assuming the presidency, the successor selected by departing president José María Urbina (1851–1856). In 1857 Robles moved to abolish Indian tribute but took no steps to make up for lost revenues. As a result, government revenues fell sharply. Not a strong leader, his presidency was further compromised by his serious illness in 1858. Later that year Peru threatened to invade Ecuador, and opponents in Congress, led by the Conservative Gabriel García Moreno and the Liberal Pedro Moncayo y Esparsa, refused to cooperate in establishing necessary defenses. Peru blockaded Guayaquil in 1858 and invaded in 1859, effectively cutting off Ecuador from its sole remaining source of revenue, the Guayaquil customs house. The nation quickly disintegrated into civil war: Loja and Cuenca declared their independence, Guayaquil annexed itself to Peru, and in Quito, Gabriel García Moreno selected former president Juan José Flores to battle Robles. Flores won, and Robles fled into exile in Peru. He died in Guayaquil.

See alsoEcuador: Since 1830; Flores, Juan José.


On nineteenth-Century Ecuadorian politics, see Mark J. Van Aken's splendid study, King of the Night: Juan José Flores and Ecuador, 1824–1864 (1989); or consult Frank MacDonald Spindler's descriptive narrative, Nineteenth Century Ecuador: An Historical Introduction (1987).

Additional Bibliography

Febres Cordero, Francisco. De Flores a flores y miel. Quito: Ojo de Pez, EDIMPRES, 1996.

                                            Ronn F. Pineo

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Robles, Francisco (1811–1893)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . 18 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Robles, Francisco (1811–1893)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . (April 18, 2019).

"Robles, Francisco (1811–1893)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved April 18, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.