Science, Technology, and Health: Chronology
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Science, Technology, and Health: Chronology
1750-1914: Science, Technology, and Health: Chronology
- Denis Diderot and Jean Le Rond d’Alembert’s twenty-four-volume Encyclopédie is published in France.
- British colonist and scientist Benjamin Franklin invents the lightning conductor in Philadelphia.
- The Royal Society of Arts is founded in London.
- English inventor James Hargreaves invents the spinning jenny, which he patents in 1770.
- In England, inventor Richard Arkwright develops and patents a water-powered spinning frame to produce thread for the textile industry.
- English chemists Daniel Rutherford and Joseph Priestley independently isolate the element nitrogen.
- Priestley discovers hydrochloric and sulfuric acids.
- Scottish engineer James Watt begins manufacturing his version of the steam engine, which he invented in 1765 and patented in 1769.
- English inventor Samuel Crompton develops the spinning mule, which enables the production of large quantities of high-quality yarns and threads.
- Italian physician Luigi Galvani, a professor of anatomy who experiments with electricity and muscles, notices that frogs’ legs contract if an electrical jolt is applied to them.
- In Annonay, France, brothers Jacques-Etienne and Joseph-Michel Montgolfier inaugurate hot-air-balloon travel.
- Englishman Henry Cort develops the puddling process for smelting iron.
- French chemist Claude-Louis Berthollet develops a method for chlorine bleaching of textiles.
- British inventor and clergyman Edmund Cartwright invents the power loom; it is patented in stages over the next three years.
- The first telegraph line, for transmitting military information, is set up between Paris and Lille.
- The National Institute is created in Paris.
- The metric system is introduced in France.
- English physician Edward Jenner develops a vaccination against smallpox.
- Scottish chemist Charles Tennant combines chlorine and lime to create a bleaching powder for use on textiles.
- Italian physicist Alessandro Volta invents a means of storing electricity in a battery composed of zinc and copper plates.
- English scientist William Nicholson uses electricity to break water into its constituent elements—oxygen and hydrogen.
- English engineer Richard Trevithick constructs the model for a new, high-pressure steam engine, making possible the development of steamboats and railroad locomotives.
- English chemist and physicist John Dalton develops an explanation of the atomic nature of matter.
- French chef Nicolas Appert develops a technique for preserving food in tin cans.
- Danish physicist Hans Christian Ørsted discovers electromagnetism.
- In England, chemist Michael Faraday develops the principle of the electric motor and describes the fundamentals of electromagnetism.
- Joseph Nicéphore Niépce invents the heliograph, the first permanently captured optical image.
- Mechanics’ institutes are founded in London and Glasgow to provide training for artisans and the working classes.
- English inventor George Stephenson develops an effective steam locomotive, based on his first prototype of 1814.
- British chemist James Smithson leaves his fortune to found the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.
- English naturalist Charles Darwin sails on the HMS Beagle, a surveying vessel, to the Pacific Islands, South American coast, and Australasia.
- English scientists Charles Wheatstone and William F. Cooke patent an early form of the electric telegraph.
- French painter Louis Daguerre perfects his daguerreotype, the first practical form of photography.
- An International Exhibition opens in London, featuring the Crystal Palace, a building in which more than thirteen thousand manufactured objects are displayed.
- English nurse Florence Nightingale introduces battlefield nursing care during the Crimean War (1853-1856).
- The first artificial dye is fabricated by English chemist William Henry Perkin.
- Austrian monk and botanist Gregor Mendel performs experiments on heredity by hybridizing varieties of peas.
- French scientist Louis Pasteur proves that living organisms cause fermentation.
- Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, based on his observations during his 1831-1836 voyage aboard the Beagle.
- In Belgium, inventor Etienne Lenoir builds an internal-combustion engine.
- Pasteur invents the process of pasteurization of wine.
- At Cambridge University, Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell illustrates that light is an electromagnetic phenomenon.
- Swedish manufacturer Alfred Bernhard Nobel patents dynamite.
- English surgeon Joseph Lister introduces antiseptic practices in hospitals.
- Russian chemist Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev formulates the modern form of the periodic table of elements.
- Darwin publishes The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, focusing on the evolution of humankind and pointing out its physiological and psychological similarities to the great apes.
- German engineer Nikolaus Otto, who built his first gasoline-powered engine in 1861, invents the four-stroke internal-combustion engine.
- American inventor Thomas Alva Edison and English chemist Joseph Wilson Swan each develop a carbon-filament electric light.
- In England, American-born inventor Hiram Stevens Maxim, a naturalized British subject, develops the first practical single-barrel, rapid-fire machine gun.
- German engineer Karl Friedrich Benz builds his first gasoline-powered vehicle.
- German engineers Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach produce their first automobile.
- German physicist Heinrich Rudolph Hertz and English physicist Oliver Joseph Lodge independently identify the link between radio waves and light waves.
- French chemists and brothers Louis and Auguste Lumière invent a motion-picture camera.
- German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovers X-rays.
- Italian physicist Guglielmo Marconi patents the wireless telegraphy.
- In Paris, physicist Antoine-Henri Becquerel reports his discovery of radioactivity during his experiments with uranium.
- English physicist Joseph John Thomson discovers the electron.
- French scientist Pierre Curie and his Polish wife, Marie, a physical chemist, discover the elements radium and polonium.
- German physicist Max Planck defines the general principles of quantum theory.
- Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud publishes Die Traumdeutung (The Interpretation of Dreams).
- German physicist Albert Einstein publishes his special theory of relativity while working as a patent clerk in Switzerland.
- German chemist Fritz Haber develops a process to create synthetic ammonia.
- Danish physicist Niels Bohr applies quantum theory to subatomic physics.
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