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Chapter One: World Events: Selected Occurrences Outside of Rome

264-476: Chapter One: World Events: Selected Occurrences Outside of Rome

by PATRICE D. RANKINE

264–227 B.C.E.

264 B.C.E.

262 B.C.E.

261 B.C.E.

260–253 B.C.E.

256 B.C.E.

252–251 B.C.E.

252 B.C.E.

251 B.C.E.

250 B.C.E.

247 B.C.E.

246–241 B.C.E.

244–241 B.C.E.

242–241 B.C.E.

241 B.C.E.

240* B.C.E.

239 B.C.E.

238 B.C.E.

237 B.C.E.

235–222 B.C.E.

232 B.C.E.

229 B.C.E.

225* B.C.E.

223 B.C.E.

221 B.C.E.

219–217 B.C.E.

218 B.C.E.

216 B.C.E.

215 B.C.E.

214 B.C.E.

211 B.C.E.

210 B.C.E.

209 B.C.E.

207 B.C.E.

205 B.C.E.

204 B.C.E.

203 B.C.E.

202 B.C.E.

202–198 B.C.E.

201 B.C.E.

200* B.C.E.

197 B.C.E.

196 B.C.E.

191 B.C.E.

190 B.C.E.

188 B.C.E.

185* B.C.E.

179 B.C.E.

175 B.C.E.

171 B.C.E.

167 B.C.E.

165* B.C.E.

164 B.C.E.

162 B.C.E.

156 B.C.E.

155–130 B.C.E.

153 B.C.E.

152 B.C.E.

149 B.C.E.

148 B.C.E.

146 B.C.E.

145 B.C.E.

141 B.C.E.

140–130* B.C.E.

139–129 B.C.E.

137–136 B.C.E.

134 B.C.E.

129 B.C.E.

118 B.C.E.

112 B.C.E.

110–109 B.C.E.

106 B.C.E.

103 B.C.E.

102 B.C.E.

100* B.C.E.

96 B.C.E.

95 B.C.E.

88 B.C.E.

83 B.C.E.

80* B.C.E.

79–78 B.C.E.

76–69 B.C.E.

73 B.C.E.

66 B.C.E.

63 B.C.E.

61 B.C.E.

60–30* B.C.E.

60 B.C.E.

58 B.C.E.

57 B.C.E.

56 B.C.E.

55 B.C.E.

54 B.C.E.

53 B.C.E.

52 B.C.E.

51 B.C.E.

51–50 B.C.E.

50 B.C.E.

49 B.C.E.

48 B.C.E.

47 B.C.E.

46 B.C.E.

44 B.C.E.

43 B.C.E.

42 B.C.E.

40 B.C.E.

37–34 B.C.E.

35* B.C.E.

34 B.C.E.

31 B.C.E.

29–28 B.C.E

27 B.C.E.

25 B.C.E.

20 B.C.E.

16–13 B.C.E.

15 B.C.E.

12 B.C.E.

9 B.C.E.

8 B.C.E.

6 C.E.

7–9 C.E.

9 C.E.

9–23 C.E.

14 C.E.

24 C.E.

26 C.E.

30–33* C.E.

31* C.E.

35 C.E.

36 C.E.

38 C.E.

39–40 C.E.

41–42 C.E.

43 C.E.

45* C.E.

45–50* C.E.

46 C.E.

50 C.E.

58 C.E.

60–61 C.E.

64 C.E.

66 C.E.

69 C.E.

70 C.E.

73 C.E.

75–79* C.E.

78 C.E.

83–85 C.E.

85–86 C.E.

87 C.E.

88–89 C.E.

93–94 C.E.

100* C.E.

100 C.E.

101–102 C.E.

105 C.E.

106 C.E.

108–110 C.E.

110 C.E.

113–114 C.E.

115 C.E.

116 C.E.

118–119 C.E.

122–126 C.E.

124 C.E.

127–148* C.E.

129 C.E.

132 C.E.

134 C.E.

138 C.E.

142 C.E.

145–150 C.E.

150* C.E.

150–200* C.E.

154 C.E.

155 C.E.

160 C.E.

162 C.E.

164–165 C.E.

165 C.E.

165–166 C.E.

166 C.E.

168 C.E.

170 C.E.

170–174 C.E.

175 C.E.

177 C.E.

179* C.E.

180 C.E.

184 C.E.

193 C.E.

195 C.E.

197 C.E.

199 C.E.

200* C.E.

202 C.E.

203 C.E.

204 C.E.

208–211 C.E.

212 C.E.

213 C.E.

221 C.E.

224 C.E.

226 C.E.

230–232 C.E.

233 C.E.

235 C.E.

238 C.E.

243–247 C.E.

248 C.E.

250* C.E.

252 C.E.

254 C.E.

257 C.E.

258 C.E.

259 C.E.

260 C.E.

262 C.E.

263 C.E.

265 C.E.

267 C.E.

269 C.E.

270 C.E.

271 C.E.

273 C.E.

274 C.E.

275 C.E.

277–279 C.E.

280 C.E.

286 C.E.

287 C.E.

288–289 C.E.

290 C.E.

293 C.E.

294–295 C.E.

296 C.E.

297 C.E.

298 C.E.

301* C.E.

303–305 C.E.

306 C.E.

308–310 C.E.

311 C.E.

311–383 C.E.

313 C.E.

313–316 C.E.

314 C.E.

316 C.E.

317 C.E.

320* C.E.

320 C.E.

321 C.E.

324 C.E.

325 C.E.

332 C.E.

335 C.E.

340–360* C.E.

350 C.E.

354 C.E.

355 C.E.

357 C.E.

360 C.E.

363 C.E.

368 C.E.

370 C.E.

376 C.E.

378 C.E.

382 C.E.

383 C.E.

386 C.E.

387 C.E.

390 C.E.

395–397 C.E.

400* C.E.

402 C.E.

405 C.E.

406–407 C.E.

409 C.E.

410 C.E.

414 C.E.

418 C.E.

420 C.E.

421–422 C.E.

422 C.E.

425 C.E.

428 C.E.

429 C.E.

430 C.E.

439 C.E.

441–443 C.E.

445 C.E.

447 C.E.

451 C.E.

452 C.E.

454–495* C.E.

455 C.E.

475 C.E.

476 C.E.

264–227 B.C.E.

  • King Asoka of India sends embassies to the Hellenistic kings.

264 B.C.E.

  • The First Punic War begins, pitting Carthage against Rome. The two powers fight for control of colonies on the island of Sicily.

262 B.C.E.

  • Eumenes I of Pergamum defeats the Seleucid ruler Antiochus I (Soter) near Sardes.
  • Zeno, founder of the Stoic school of philosophy at Athens, dies, Zeno’s philosophy was founded on the idea that the wise man lives in accordance with virtue. Cleanthes succeeds him as head of the Stoic school.

261 B.C.E.

  • Antiochus II (Theos) succeeds Antiochus I as the Seleucid king.

260–253 B.C.E.

  • Antiochus II regains much of the territories in Asia Minor lost by Antiochus I, during the Second Syrian War against Ptolemy II of Egypt. Pergamum remains independent.

256 B.C.E.

  • The Chou dynasty in China ends. The Chou is the longest dynasty in Chinese history, lasting for 771 years.

252–251 B.C.E.

  • A citizen of Pontic Callatis (modern-day Mangalia, Romania) travels throughout the country to promote the Pythian games in Delphi, demonstrating the importance of Apollo’s cult to the region.

252 B.C.E.

  • Carthage and Rome forge a treaty that protects Italy from Carthaginian maritime trade.

251 B.C.E.

  • Aratus of Sicyon adds Sicyon to the Achaean Confederacy. He is an aggressive general of the Confederacy and later adds such city-states as Megalapolis (235) and Argos (229).

250 B.C.E.

  • Djenné-Jeno, a trading center on the Niger River, is established and flourishes until the eleventh century.

247 B.C.E.

  • The Carthaginian naval commander Hamilcar Barca attacks the southern coast of Italy.
  • Parthia emerges as an independent kingdom when Arsaces throws off the rule of the Seleucid dynasty. The Parthian (or Arsacid) dynasty eventually rules the area between the Euphrates and the Indus River valleys.

246–241 B.C.E.

  • The Third Syrian War is fought between Ptolemy III (Euergetes) of Egypt and the Seleucid king Seleucus II, who had replaced Antiochus II.

244–241 B.C.E.

  • Agis IV undertakes sweeping reforms in Sparta, returning to Lycurgus’s constitution. He is killed by the Spartan elite after he attempts to cancel mortgage debts.

242–241 B.C.E.

  • Arcesilaus, head of the Academy in Athens, dies. The Academy, the school of philosophy that Plato founded, became known for its skeptical doctrine under Arcesilaus.

241 B.C.E.

  • Attalus I succeeds Eumenes I of Pergamum. For refusing tribute to the Galatians, he is given the name Soter (“Savior”). Under Attalus, Pergamum becomes an important power and is pivotal to Roman politics in Greece and Asia Minor.
  • Hamilcar Barca is defeated by the Romans at the Aegates Islands. The First Punic War ends.

240* B.C.E.

  • Masinissa becomes the king of Numidia. He is attributed with transforming the nomadic people who inhabit this region into farmers.

239 B.C.E.

  • Demetrius II becomes the Macedonian king. He soon involves Macedon in a protracted war with the Achaean and Aetolian Confederacies.

238 B.C.E.

  • Diodotus I of Bactria gains independence for his region from the Seleucid dynasty.

237 B.C.E.

  • Hamilcar Barca, accompanied by his ten-year-old son, Hannibal, conquers southern and eastern Spain. The new Punic outposts in the region challenge Roman hegemony.

235–222 B.C.E.

  • Cleomenes III rules Sparta; he continues the reforms begun by Agis IV and threatens the Achaean Confederacy with military successes throughout Greece.

232 B.C.E.

  • Chrysippus becomes the head of the Stoic school in Athens.
  • Ashoka, the Buddhist monarch of the Maurya empire in India, dies.

229 B.C.E.

  • Hamilcar Barca drowns during a campaign in Spain. Hasdrubal succeeds him, marries an Iberian princess, and advances across the Spanish frontier as far as the Ebro River (226).

225* B.C.E.

  • Ariston of Ceos becomes the head of the Peripatetic school in Athens.

223 B.C.E.

  • Antiochus III (the Great) begins his rule over the Seleucid kingdom. He expands the dynasty to Armenia, and he regains Parthia and Bactria.

221 B.C.E.

  • Philip V becomes king of Macedon. His vicious expansionist policies alienate many of his Greek neighbors.
  • Hannibal takes command of Spain upon Hasdrubal’s murder at the hands of a slave.
  • The Ch’in dynasty takes complete control of China. Prince Cheng becomes Ch’in Shih-huang-ti, “the First Ch’in emperor.”

219–217 B.C.E.

  • Ptolemy IV checks the expansion of Antiochus III into Palestine and Egypt in the Fourth Syrian War. He is helped by native Egyptians, who later revolt against him.
  • Hannibal seizes Saguntum, a Roman-allied city near present-day Valencia, Spain.

218 B.C.E.

  • The Second Punic War begins. Hannibal sets out from Spain in his journey to Italy through Gaul and across the Alps.

216 B.C.E.

  • Hannibal defeats the Roman army and cavalry at the Battle of Cannae in Apulia.

215 B.C.E.

  • Philip V of Macedon forms an alliance with Hannibal.

  • The First Macedonian War begins with Philip V’s attack on Messene.
  • Construction of the Great Wall of China begins when smaller, pre-existing frontier walls are linked together and strengthened. The purpose of the wall is to keep out the Hsiung-nu, nomads from the north of China (Mongolia).

211 B.C.E.

  • Rome joins the Aetolian alliance against Philip V.
  • Hannibal marches on Rome. He is later forced to withdraw from Italy through Bruttium as a result of several military defeats.

210 B.C.E.

  • Ch’in Shih-huang-ti dies in China. The Ch’in dynasty comes to an end and a three-year revolt ensues.

209 B.C.E.

  • Attalus I of Pergamum joins the Aetolian alliance against Philip V.

207 B.C.E.

  • Hasdrubal, the younger brother of Hannibal, dies in battle at Metaurus after attempting to join Hannibal’s army in northern Italy.
  • The first Han dynasty begins in China when Liu Pang (Kao-tzu) becomes emperor.

205 B.C.E.

  • The First Macedonian War concludes with the Peace of Phoenice.
  • The five-year-old Ptolemy V (Epiphanes) becomes the ruler of Egypt after the death of his father. His reign, which lasts until 180, is marked by a period of revolts and political uncertainty, including the loss of territories throughout the Greek world and the Middle East.
  • Croton, a Greek colony in southern Italy known for its culture and learning, falls to the Romans in the Punic War.

204 B.C.E.

  • Zeno of Tarsus becomes the head of the Stoic school in Athens.

203 B.C.E.

  • The Carthaginian camps at Utica in North Africa are attacked and burned by the Roman general Scipio Africanus.
  • Syphax, the chief of a Numidian tribe and an ally of Carthage, is defeated at Campi Magni (Great Plains).

202 B.C.E.

  • Hannibal is defeated by Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Zama in North Africa.

202–198 B.C.E.

  • Antiochus III annexes Palestine, formerly ruled by the Ptolemies. He fails later in his attempt to conquer Greece.

201 B.C.E.

  • The Second Punic War ends. Carthage signs a treaty with Rome, surrendering its navy and its territories in Spain.

200* B.C.E.

  • Volcanic islands in the South Pacific are settled by seafaring peoples emigrating from Southeast Asia.
  • The Hopewell culture begins to emerge in central North America in what will become the states of Ohio and Illinois; this society is characterized by mound-building.
  • The Bastarnae first appear near the lower Danube River; they serve in Philip V’s military activities in the Balkans and later are both enemies and allies of Rome.

197 B.C.E.

  • The Second Macedonian War between Philip V and Rome concludes with a Roman victory at Cynoscephalae.

196 B.C.E.

  • Antiochus III invades Greece but is defeated by the Romans at Thermopylae (191) and Magnesia (189).

191 B.C.E.

  • The Boii, a Gallic people living in Bononia between the Po River and the Apennine mountains, are dispossessed of their land by the Romans. They were previously allies of Hannibal.

190 B.C.E.

  • The Artaxiad dynasty is established in Armenia under Artaxias (Artashes I).

188 B.C.E.

  • The peace of Apamea ends Antiochus III’s war against the Romans in Greece.

185* B.C.E.

  • The Sungas replace the Mauryas as the ruling empire in India. Pusyamitra becomes the first Sunga ruler and returns India from Buddhism to orthodox Hindu.

179 B.C.E.

  • Perseus of Macedon succeeds Philip V and renews his father’s treaty with Rome.

175 B.C.E.

  • Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) becomes the Seleucid king. In addition to his influence in Judaea, he also sought to bring Egypt under Seleucid control.

171 B.C.E.

  • The Third Macedonian War begins with Perseus’s aggressiveness in Greece. His defeat at the battle of Pydna (168) further extends Roman power throughout Greece.
  • Mithradates I begins his rule of Parthia, which will last until 168. Bearing the name of several Parthian kings to follow, he oversees a massive expansion of Parthian rule throughout modern-day Iran and into Babylonia.

167 B.C.E.

  • Antiochus IV dedicates the Jewish temple in Jerusalem to the Olympian god Zeus. His attempts to Hellenize Israel cause the Maccabees, of the clan of Joarib and led by Judas Maccabaeus, to begin a revolt. The Pharisees emerge as a political faction.

165* B.C.E.

  • The Yuë-Chi, driven out of China, arrive in Bactria. Their arrival forces the migration of the Sakas, a nomadic people in the south of Russia (also called Scyths), who in turn attack India and Iran.

164 B.C.E.

  • The Maccabees reconsecrate the temple in Jerusalem. The event is from this date commemorated as Hanukkah.
  • Antiochus IV dies.

162 B.C.E.

  • The Greek Hipparchus records his first astronomical observation. The geographer, who was born in Bithynia, developed a theory for recording the motion and distances of the sun and moon.

156 B.C.E.

  • Han Ching-ti begins his rule of China, which lasts until 140. He quells a rebellion in the second year of his reign through land reforms.

155–130 B.C.E.

  • Milinda (Menander) rules the Indo-Greeks. He penetrates into the Ganges Valley and upholds Buddhism against Hinduism in India.

153 B.C.E.

  • Carthaginian forces invade Sicily, destroy Himera, and make an unsuccessful attack on Syracuse.

152 B.C.E.

149 B.C.E.

  • The Third Punic War begins when Numidian ruler Masinissa, a Roman ally, provokes Carthage into war. Rome then declares war on Carthage.
  • Andriscus, a pretender to the throne in Macedonia, invades the country with the help of the Thracians; he wins two victories but is captured and executed by the Romans the next year.

148 B.C.E.

  • Micipsa begins his rule of Numidia after the death of his father, Masinissa. He maintains an alliance with the Romans.

146 B.C.E.

  • The Fourth Macedonian War ends with the destruction of Corinth by the Romans; Macedonia becomes a Roman province.
  • The Third Punic War ends. The Roman blockade of Carthage is lifted, the city is sacked, and the territory becomes a Roman province.

145 B.C.E.

  • Aristarchus of Samothrace, an important literary critic most noted for his work on Homer, dies in Cyprus.

141 B.C.E.

  • A period of Jewish independence in Judaea begins. Simon Maccabaeus becomes high priest after the murder of his brother Jonathan.
  • Han Wu-ti is emperor in China. He is an innovator in education, economics, and defense. He introduces a public granary to China and makes innovations to the cavalry.

140–130* B.C.E.

  • The Qumran community is established in Palestine. They separate from the Maccabees and possess an apocalyptic, messianic faith, as demonstrated in the Dead Sea Scrolls.

139–129 B.C.E.

  • Antiochus VII Sidetes of Syria conquers territory in Greece, Palestine, and Babylon.

137–136 B.C.E.

  • The Greek skeptic Carneades steps down as head of the Academy in Athens.

134 B.C.E.

  • John Hyrcanus I of the Maccabees, Simon’s son, begins his rule of Judaea. He is an intense rival to Hellenism and expands Jewish rule to the territories of Samaria, Galilee, and Idumaea.

129 B.C.E.

  • The death of Antiochus VII marks the end of Seleucid power in the eastern region. The Parthians are left as the major power east of Babylon.
  • Rhodian Greek philosopher Panaetius becomes the head of the Stoic school of philosophy, succeeding Diogenes and Antipater of Tarsus. As an admirer of Plato and Aristotle, Panaetius makes Stoicism more accommodating to the Academy and the Peripatetic doctrine.
  • The Yuë-chi, a group that the Huns expelled from the borders of China, migrate south, levying tribute from Bactria.

118 B.C.E.

  • The Roman colony of Narbo Martius (modern-day Narbonne) is established in Gaul; it becomes an important obstacle to Celtic trade routes and passageways into Spain.
  • Adherbal begins his rule of Numidia but is deposed by Jugurtha in 112.

112 B.C.E.

  • Jugurtha is embroiled in war with the Romans. He is defeated by Quintus Metellus, imprisoned, and executed (105).

110–109 B.C.E.

  • Philon of Larissa becomes the head of the New Academy at Athens. He succeeds Clitomachus the Carthaginian.

106 B.C.E.

  • Hiempsal begins his rule of Numidia.

103 B.C.E.

  • Alexander Jannaeus, John Hyrcauns I’s brother becomes king of Israel. He might have been the first to strike national coins, and he extends Jewish rule from Mount Carmel to Egypt.

102 B.C.E.

  • The Germanic Teutones suffer defeat at the hands of the Roman general Gaius Marius.

100* B.C.E.

  • The Syrian poet Meleager is active. He is known for his Menippean satires, Cynic discourses, and epigrams, of which only the latter survive.
  • The Belgae, a Gallic people, arrive in Britain.
  • The city of Teotihaucán, twenty-five miles from modern Mexico City, emerges as a major commercial center; it is the home of the Pyramid of the Moon and Pyramid of the Sun, the latter being the largest building in pre-Columbian America.

96 B.C.E.

  • Alexander Jannaeus defeats Aretas II of the Nabataeans, who was making incursions along the Gaza Strip.

95 B.C.E.

  • Tigranes I (the Great) becomes king of Armenia.

88 B.C.E.

  • A series of three wars (88–85, 83–82, and 76–64) between Mithridates VI Eupator (the Great) of Parthia and Roman forces begins. Mithridates represents one of the strongest challenges to Roman power during this period.

83 B.C.E.

  • Quintus Sertorius becomes the governor of Spain. Between 77 and 73 he leads a faction of the Lusitanians against the Roman generals Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey) and Caecilius Metellus Numidicus (Metellus). Sertorius also seeks an alliance with the Parthians.
  • Tigranes I of Armenia occupies Syria, Phoenicia, and Cilicia.

80* B.C.E.

  • Invaders from Central Asia begin to spread throughout the Indus River valley. Chinese silk increasingly becomes a major luxury import to wealthy provinces such as Roman Egypt.

79–78 B.C.E.

  • The Greek philosopher Antiochus heads the Academy in Athens. He transforms it from the skepticism of its former proponents, emphasizing the uniting principles of the Stoics, Peripatetics, and the Academy.

76–69 B.C.E.

  • Jannaeus’s widow, Alexandra Salome, rules Palestine. Her sons John Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II become rivals after her death.

73 B.C.E.

  • Sertorius is killed by Marcus Perperna Veiento; Perperna is later executed when Pompey refuses to accept any terms of compromise.

66 B.C.E.

  • The defeat of Mithridates VI Eupator Dionysus marks the decline of many territories in Asia Minor and the rise of Roman rule in those regions. Mithridates commits suicide in 63.
  • The Allobroges revolt against Roman control in northern Gaul; the rebellion is crushed in 61.
  • Aretas III of the Nabataeans, supporter of John Hyrcanus II, besieges Jerusalem. Roman intervention, under Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, forces him to withdraw.

63 B.C.E.

  • Pompey intervenes in Jerusalem. John Hyrcanus II becomes high priest of Judaea, Samaria, Galilee, and Peraea.

61 B.C.E.

  • In the Pontic city of Histria, a coalition of Greek and indigenous tribes, such as the Bastarnae and the Getae, defeat the Roman proconsul Gaius Antonius Hybrida.

60–30* B.C.E.

  • Diodorus Siculus writes Bibliothékê, forty books of world history that draw upon many lost works.

60 B.C.E.

  • Burebistas unites the Dacian social groups and conquers some of the Illyrian people along the Danube River; he begins religious reforms in Dacia under the priest Cecaeneos.
  • Juba I becomes king of Numidia.

58 B.C.E.

  • The various ethnic groups of Gaul enter a war with Gaius Julius Caesar; the Helvetii, a Celtic tribe in the south of Germany, are pushed out of the region. Suebi king Ariovistus loses power in the area.

57 B.C.E.

  • The coalition of the Gallic Belgae succumbs to Caesar.

56 B.C.E.

  • Artavazd II, son of Tigranes I, becomes king of Armenia.

55 B.C.E.

  • Britain faces a Roman invasion under Caesar.

54 B.C.E.

  • A second invasion of Britain under Caesar occurs.

53 B.C.E.

  • The Surenas, a Parthian family, defeat the Roman general Marcus Licinius Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae (modern Haran). Crassus and his son, Publius, are killed in the battle.

52 B.C.E.

  • Vercingetorix, king of the Arverni, leads a revolt of the Gauls against the Romans; he is defeated at Alesia, modern Alise-Ste Reine.

51 B.C.E.

  • Uxellodunum becomes the last town in Gaul to succumb to Caesar. The Roman wars against Gaul end.

51–50 B.C.E.

  • The Greek Stoic philosopher Posidonius, who worked in geometry and ethics, dies.

50 B.C.E.

  • Burebistas the Dacian exterminates the Boii, a Gallic people, in Bohemia.

49 B.C.E.

  • Bogud, who shared the kingdom of Mauretania with his brother Bocchus II, becomes active in Roman politics; he aids Caesar in his struggles against Pompey and later is an opponent of Octavian and ally to Antony.
  • Massalia (present-day Marseilles, France) submits to Caesar only after a prolonged, five-month siege.

48 B.C.E.

  • Antipater, adviser to John Hyrcanus II, provides mercenary troops to Caesar in Alexandria.

47 B.C.E.

  • Ariobarzanes III Eusebes Philoromaios of Cappadocia receives Lesser Armenia from Caesar.

46 B.C.E.

  • Numidia becomes the Roman province of Africa Nova.

44 B.C.E.

  • Burebistas of Dacia is assassinated; his empire is divided into several kingdoms.

43 B.C.E.

  • Antipater is murdered.

42 B.C.E.

  • A faction of Geto-Dacians fight in a losing cause with Decimus Junius Brutus at the Battle of Philippi.

40 B.C.E.

  • Antigones, son of Aristobulus II, establishes a reign in Jerusalem with Parthian support. John Hyrcanus II is held in exile in Babylonia. Herod (later, the Great), son of Antipater, escapes to Rome.
  • Andronicus of Rhodes, a Peripatetic philosopher and later head of the school at Athens, writes an important treatise on Aristotle.

37–34 B.C.E.

  • Herod the Great, with Roman support, rules Judaea. Herod promotes the spread of Hellenism throughout the province, which spawns opposition among his subjects, particularly the Pharisees.

35* B.C.E.

34 B.C.E.

  • Artavasdes III, king of Armenia, is deposed and killed by Antony and Cleopatra; Armenia falls under Roman control.

31 B.C.E.

29–28 B.C.E

  • Dobruja, a city in the Balkans, falls to Crassus; the Bastarnae are brought under Roman control.

27 B.C.E.

  • The Four Gauls are established under Roman rule: Gallia Belgica, Gallia Lugdunensis, Aquitania, and Gallia Narbonensis.

25 B.C.E.

  • Galatia, the region south of Pontus, becomes a Roman province.
  • The geographer Strabo conducts research in Egypt; he later wrote Geógraphia, a world geography in seventeen books.

20 B.C.E.

  • Parthia reaches a settlement with Rome and recognizes Roman power over Armenia; Archelaus of Cappadocia becomes ruler of Armenia.

16–13 B.C.E.

  • The provinces of Spain and Gaul are reorganized under the Roman emperor Augustus. The emperor subdivides Hispania Ulterior into Baetica (Andalusia) and Lusitania.

15 B.C.E.

  • The peoples of the Alps are conquered under the rule of Augustus.

12 B.C.E.

  • The Sugambri in Gaul attack the Roman army but are later defeated by the general Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus.

9 B.C.E.

  • The area in central Europe extending as far as the Rhine and Danube Rivers falls under Roman control. The Danube becomes part of the Roman province of Illyricum.

8 B.C.E.

  • The Sugambri in Gaul surrender to the Roman general Tiberius.

6 C.E.

  • Judaea becomes a Roman province, spawning revolts of Jewish nationalist groups such as the Zealots.
  • pamphlagonia becomes part of Galaia.

7–9 C.E.

  • Revolts in Pannonia and Illyricum busy the Roman legions in those provinces.

9 C.E.

  • Under the leadership of Arminius, the Cherusci revolt against the Romans in Germany and annihilate three legions in the Teutoburger Wald; Publius Quinctilius Varus, Roman governor in the region, commits suicide on the battlefield.

9–23 C.E.

  • Wang Mang rules in China. As with his predecessors, the issues that affect his reign are economic (the resistance of wealthy landowners that leads to famine) and military (continued struggles against the Hsiung-nu in the north).

14 C.E.

  • Dobruja becomes the Roman province of Moesia.

24 C.E.

  • The second Han dynasty rules in China for nearly two hundred years. The Hans relied more on the support of wealthy families than previous Chinese dynasties.

26 C.E.

  • Moesia revolts against Roman rule; the rebellion is put down by the Roman governor of the region, Gaius Poppaeus Sabinus.

30–33* C.E.

  • The crucifixion of the Jewish religious leader Jesus of Nazareth occurs.

31* C.E.

  • The monument of Tres Zapotes marks the advent of the calendar and the alphabet for the Olmec civilization in Central America.

35 C.E.

  • Seleuceia, on the Tigris River, revolts against the Parthian empire. It takes seven years to put down the rebellion.

36 C.E.

  • The Surenas crown Tiridates king of Parthia.

38 C.E.

  • Cotys, the grandson of Polemo I of Pontus, receives Armenia from the Roman emperor Gaius Caesar (Caligula).

39–40 C.E.

  • Philon (Philo Judaeus) is part of a delegation to Rome from the Jewish community in Alexandria. Philo wrote Legatio ad Gaium and In Flaccum, treatises that would influence both Christianity and Neoplatonism.

41–42 C.E.

  • Mauretania is brought under submission to Roman rule by Gaius Suetonius Paulinus.

43 C.E.

  • Cunobelinus dies. Suetonius refers to him as “king of the British Isles” because he defied Roman law to form a coalition of the Belgae. Upon Cunobelinus’s death the Roman emperor Claudius invades Britain.

45* C.E.

  • St. Paul begins his missionary work to bring Christianity to non-Jewish communities throughout Europe.

45–50* C.E.

  • Plutarch, the ancient biographer who writes Parallel Lives, comparing the morality of various leaders such as Alcibiades and Marcus Antonius, is born.

46 C.E.

  • Thrace becomes a Roman province after its ruler, Rhoemetalces, is murdered by his wife.

50 C.E.

  • The Ubii, a German tribe, begin to be called the Agrippinenses at the request of Claudius’s wife, Agrippina.

58 C.E.

  • Jewish leaders accuse St. Paul of blasphemy upon his return to Jerusalem. His trial begins.

60–61 C.E.

  • Boudicca, queen of East Anglia, leads an unsuccessful revolt of the Iceni in Britain against the Romans.

64 C.E.

  • St. Paul is executed in Rome. The persecution of members of the Christian sect under the Roman Empire begins. In the same year Nero blames the Christians for a fire in Rome.

66 C.E.

  • An open rebellion, the First Jewish Revolt, begins in Jerusalem against the Romans.
  • Tiridates I becomes king of the Armenians. (Nero crowns him in Rome.) The Arsacid dynasty begins in Armenia.

69 C.E.

  • Natives besiege the German town of Colonia Ulpia Traiana (Xanten); Mainz also revolts.

70 C.E.

  • Jerusalem is captured by Vespasian, who destroys the Jewish temple.

73 C.E.

  • Masada, a fort built on a plateau west of the Dead Sea a few centuries earlier by the Maccabees, falls after a six-month Roman siege, resulting in the mass suicide of its defenders. This event ends the First Jewish Revolt.

75–79* C.E.

  • Flavius Josephus, a Jewish priest, Pharisee, and government official, writes a history of the Maccabean revolt, Bellum judaicum (Jewish War).

78 C.E.

  • As governor of Britain, the Roman general Gnaeus Iulius Agricola advances into Scotland.
  • The Saka era begins in India. Many scholars favor this date for the beginning of the reign of Kaniska, the Buddhist king responsible for having protected the Kushans from Chinese sovereignty.

83–85 C.E.

  • The Chatti of Germany are at war with Rome.

85–86 C.E.

  • Decebalus leads successful attacks against Roman forces. It takes the emperor Domitian four years to make peace and recognize Decebalus as a client king.
  • Moesia is split into two Roman provinces, Moesia Superior and Inferior.

87 C.E.

  • Decebalus becomes king of the Dacians and initiates a war against the Romans.

88–89 C.E.

  • Lucius Antonius Saturninus leads an unsuccessful revolt at Moguntiacum; the governor of Lower Germany, Aulus Bucius Lappius Maximus, defeats him along the Rhine River.
  • The Stoic philosopher Epictetus arrives at Nicopolis after the expulsion of philosophers from Rome.

93–94 C.E.

  • Josephus writes Antiquitates judaicae (The Antiquities of the Jews), a history of the Jews that begins with the creation of the world.

100* C.E.

  • An anonymous Greek merchant in Alexandria writes the Periplus Maris Erythraei, which provides the oldest documented account of trade and civilization on the east coast of Africa.
  • Traders from Indonesia sail along the coast of Africa, possibly leaving settlers on Madagascar.
  • The Funan, a Hindu people that first emerge in Southeast Asia, occupy the Mekong Delta region of present-day Vietnam, as well as portions of Cambodia and Thailand. They trade with both India and China.
  • The Anasazi people begin to develop their culture in the deserts of southwest North America. They make baskets, grow corn, and build adobe structures.

100 C.E.

  • The city of Thamugadi (modern Timgad) is founded in Numidia by the Roman emperor Trajan; it later becomes a center of the African church.

101–102 C.E.

  • The First Dacian War is fought. Decebalus faces campaigns against his reign from the Roman emperor Trajan; he temporarily surrenders.

105 C.E.

  • The Second Dacian War begins; Decebalus beseiges Roman troops that Trajan left behind in Dacia.

106 C.E.

  • Defeat leads to Decebalus’s suicide; Dacia becomes a Roman province.
  • The land of the Nabataeans in northern Saudi Arabia falls under Trajan’s control, becoming the Roman province of Arabia.
  • The city of Bostra becomes the capital of the Roman province of Arabia under the emperor Trajan.

108–110 C.E.

  • Ulpia Traiana is founded in Dacia; formerly a Roman military camp, a city of veterans grows after Decebalus’s suicide.

110 C.E.

  • Licchavi rulers, whose people come out of the Ganges River area, establish a kingdom in Nepal.

113–114 C.E.

  • Armenia falls under Roman control; earlier, the Parthian king Osroes dethroned the Roman client ruler, Axidares, prompting Trajan’s attack on the region.

115 C.E.

  • Ctesiphon, the Parthian capital near the Tigris River, falls to Trajan.
  • The Jews revolt in Cyrene, Egypt, Cyprus, and the Levant.

116 C.E.

  • Southern Mesopotamia revolts against the Roman Empire; the region is subdued by the following year.

118–119 C.E.

  • Dacia becomes two Roman provinces, Dacia Superior and Inferior, under the emperor Hadrian.

122–126 C.E.

  • Hadrian’s Wall, which runs from Wallsend-on-Tyne to Bowness-on-Solway, is built in Britain; it marks the limits of the Roman frontier in the region.

124 C.E.

  • Dacia is further divided by Hadrian; the region now represents three Roman provinces.

127–148* C.E.

  • The geographer Claudius Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy) rejects the theory, held after the time of Herodotus, that the inhabited world is surrounded by Ocean.

129 C.E.

  • The Greek physician Galen is born in Pergamum. Of his many accomplishments, including the proof that veins and arteries carry blood, he is noted for his humanistic (and philosophical) approach to medicine and for his contributions to scientific thinking.

132 C.E.

  • Shim’on Bar Cosiba (Bar Kohkba) leads the Second Jewish Revolt against Rome. He is killed in the siege of Jerusalem in 135.

134 C.E.

  • Greek politician and historian Flavius Arrianus (Arrian), a student of Epictetus in the Stoic doctrine, defends Cappadocia from the Alans, a Sarmatian people living on the southwestern border of Russia along the Caspian Sea.

138 C.E.

  • Evidence of the presence of Moors (or Muslims) appears in Dacia; they occupy the city of Racari.

142 C.E.

  • Under the emperor Antoninus Pius, a Roman wall is erected from the Forth to the Clyde in Britain; the attempt to extend the Roman frontier on the island fails by the end of the century.

145–150 C.E.

  • Numidian and Mauretanian revolts against Roman rule are put down. Uprisings also occur in Judaea and Egypt.

150* C.E.

  • Pausanias, the Greek geographer, writes the Periêgêsis tês Hellados, a history and topography of various cities throughout Greece.

150–200* C.E.

  • The Goths migrate to the region north of the Black Sea; previous migrations brought them from southern Scandinavia to the area around the Vistula River.

154 C.E.

  • A rebellion of the Brigantes and Selgovae results in the first withdrawal of Roman troops from Scotland.

155 C.E.

  • Greek theologian St. Justin Martyr, born at Flavia Neapolis in Samaria, writes the first of two apologiai (defenses) of the Christian faith.

160 C.E.

  • The Costoboci, a social group from northern Transylvania, invade Dacia; they later penetrate into Greece.

162 C.E.

  • The Parthian capture of Armenia prompts Roman action.

164–165 C.E.

  • Armenia again falls under Roman control after a brief revolt.

165 C.E.

  • Smyrna becomes the site of the murder of many Christians; some of the victims, such as St. Polycarp, the bishop of Smyrna, are burned alive.
  • St. Justin Martyr is killed at Rome.

165–166 C.E.

  • Seleuceia is destroyed by Gaius Avidius Cassius of Rome. The fall of the city ends a major commercial center in Babylonia; Mesopotamia becomes a Roman protectorate.

166 C.E.

  • German social groups (such as the Quadi and the Marcomanni) create a disturbance across the Danube River. They later enter into northern Italy.
  • Chinese annals record an envoy from Rome during the year. Huan-ti rules China.

168 C.E.

  • Dacia is further partitioned and placed in the care of one Roman governor.

170 C.E.

  • Flavius Philostratus, author of Bioi sophistôn (Lives of the Sophists), which comments on the celebrities of the Second Sophistic movement, is born.

170–174 C.E.

  • The Macromanni and Quadi war with Rome; the Danube region is resettled with Roman supporters.

175 C.E.

  • The Iazgians, Sarmatian nomads in the Danube region, are temporarily quelled by Marcus Aurelius.

177 C.E.

  • Forty-eight Christians are martyred at Lyon including a slave woman named Blandina, who is tortured and given over to wild beasts; they are all later canonized.
  • The Macromanni begin a revolt in Dacia.

179* C.E.

  • Celsus, a Greek and a Platonist, writes Alêthês Logos (The True Word), an attack on the Christian doctrine.

180 C.E.

  • Further German revolts in the region of Pannonia are quelled by the Roman emperor Commodus upon Marcus Aurelius’s death.
  • Tribes in Scotland continue their efforts against Roman occupation and penetrate a frontier-wall in the region.
  • The Catechetical School is established in Alexandria. Such noted Christian scholars as Clement and Origen serve as heads of the school.

184 C.E.

  • The Romans are forced to cede the frontier in Scotland. The Roman frontier in Britain now extends only to Hadrian’s Wall.
  • The rebellion of the Yellow Turbans begins against the Han dynasty in China. The peasant revolt is quelled within six years by Ts’ao Ts’ao.

193 C.E.

  • The seige of Byzantium begins, lasting about two years. The city supported general Pescennius Niger’s revolt against the Roman ruler Septimius Severus.

195 C.E.

  • Byzantium and other regions that sided with Niger are punished.
  • Syria is divided into two Roman provinces (Coele and Phoenice) because of the civil war.

197 C.E.

  • Britain is divided into two Roman provinces.
  • The Parthian city of Ctesiphon falls to Septimius Severus.
  • The Carthaginian Christian Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus (Tertullian) writes his first works, Ad Martyres (To the Martyrs), Ad Nationes (To the Nations), and Apologeticus (Defense). These books are the first Christian writings in Latin; they advance important doctrines of the church, such as the idea of the Trinity.

199 C.E.

  • Osroene and Mesopotamia are annexed to the Roman Empire.

200* C.E.

  • The Saxons become a more dominant presence along the Elbe River, subduing the Chauci, who formerly inhabited the region.

202 C.E.

  • The Athenian scholar and theologian Titus Flavius Clemens (Clement of Alexandria) steps down as head of the Catechetical School of Alexandria; his work includes the Protreptikos pros Hellenas (Hortatory Address to the Greeks) and other Christian writings.

203 C.E.

  • Origenes Adamantius (Origen) becomes the head of the Catechetical School. The Alexandrian Christian is noted, among other works, for Contra Celsum (Against Celsus, circa 248).

204 C.E.

  • A Moorish temple is built on the restored Roman site in the Pontic city of Micia.

208–211 C.E.

  • Fortifications along Hadrian’s Wall in Britain are improved under the Roman emperor Septimius Severus; the Caledonians defend Scotland from Roman attacks.

212 C.E.

  • The decree of universal citizenship for all of the Roman world under Caracalla has widespread repercussions for Christians and for other social groups opposed to Roman rule throughout Europe.

213 C.E.

  • The Macromanni are involved in a campaign against Caracalla; the emperor offers them money to keep out of Upper Germany.

221 C.E.

  • After the fall of the second Han dynasty one year earlier, the period of the Three Kingdoms begins in China. The Wei rule in the north, the Wu in the southeast, and the Shu in the west.

224 C.E.

  • The Sassanian (Persian) king Artaxerxes (Ardashir) defeats and kills Artabanus V of Parthia at Hormizdagan and enters Ctesiphon.

226 C.E.

  • The Sassanians overthrow the Parthian dynasty in Iran. The Parthian empire had covered a great expanse, extending during one period from Iberia (east of the Black Sea) to the Persian Gulf.

230–232 C.E.

  • Artaxerxes (Ardashir) engages in an indecisive campaign in Mesopotamia against the Roman emperor Severus Alexander.

233 C.E.

  • The Macromanni return to Upper Germany, prompting military action from Alexander.

235 C.E.

  • Continuing unrest in Germany results in the murder of the Roman emperor and his mother by the legions on the Rhine River.
  • The Thracian peasant and soldier Gaius Julius Maximinus wins a victory in W¨rttemberg after being appointed emperor by his troops some months earlier.

238 C.E.

  • Artaxerxes (Ardashir) invades Mesopotamia a second time; he takes the cities of Carrhae and Nisibis.

243–247 C.E.

  • The Carpi, a social group in Dacia, raid the Pontic city of Racari.

248 C.E.

  • The Goths invade the Balkan city of Moesia and murder the Roman emperor Gaius Messius Quintus Decius (251); they later sack Nicaea and Nicomedia and raid the Ionian cities.

250* C.E.

  • The Mayan classical period begins in Mexico and Central America; the dedication of monuments for astrology and mathematics distinguishes this era.

252 C.E.

  • Sapor I, the Sassanian king, gains control of Armenia and brings the Arsacid dynasty to an end.

254 C.E.

  • Barbarian attacks in Upper Germany result in the withdrawal of many Roman troops.

257 C.E.

  • The Franks, a coalition of Germanic tribes, invade Lower Germany.

258 C.E.

  • The Alamanni of Germany invade Italy; they are defeated by Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus, Publius Licinius Valerianus’s (Valerian) son, at Milan.
  • Bishop Cyprian (Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus) is executed in Carthage during a period of persecution of Christians. He wrote letters on the trials of the early Christian community.

259 C.E.

  • Gaul, Germany, Britain, and Spain form a coalition separate from the Roman Empire; Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus becomes the independent ruler of the Gallic Empire.

260 C.E.

  • Septimius Odaenathus of Palmyra defeats Sapor I after the latter captures the Roman emperor Valerian at Edessa.

262 C.E.

  • Franks make incursions into Spain, destroying the city of Tarraco.

263 C.E.

  • The Sarmatians of the northern Caspian Sea burn the walls of the Pontic city of Callatis.

265 C.E.

  • The Western Chin dynasty, founded by Ssu-ma Yen, begins in China.

267 C.E.

  • The Heruli, a Germanic people from Scandinavia, sack Athens, Corinth, and Argos; Odaenathus dies of uncertain causes while opposing the invaders.

269 C.E.

  • The Goths are defeated by Claudius II in decisive battles at Naissus (in Dacia) and Doberus.
  • Septimia Zenobia, widow and perhaps murderer of her husband, Odaenathus, conquers Egypt; during this period she also captures Syria, Bostra, and much of Asia Minor.
  • Postumus is killed by his own soldiers.

270 C.E.

  • Plotinus, the Neoplationist philosopher from Egypt, dies.

271 C.E.

  • Dacia is abandoned by the Roman Empire under the rule of emperor Lucius Domitius Aurelianus (Aurelian); the population shifts to a new province south of the Danube River.
  • Zenobia of Palmyra names her son Augustus, inviting open opposition from Aurelian; she is defeated and captured along with her sons.

273 C.E.

  • Palmyra revolts; Antiochus, the leader of the rebellion, is unseated by the Roman emperor Aurelian.

274 C.E.

  • The Battle of Châlons is fought in Gaul; Aurelian defeats the locally appointed emperor, Gaius Pius Esuvius Tetricus, ending the brief, independent Gallic Empire.

275 C.E.

  • The Alamanni, Franks, Vandals, and Burgundians sack Trier (Augusta Treverorum) in Germany.
  • Aurelian is killed in the city of Caenophrurium near the Black Sea.

277–279 C.E.

  • Efforts are made under the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius Probus to keep raiding bands out of Germany; the Alamanni, Franks, Burgundians, and others are repelled from the Rhine frontier.

280 C.E.

  • The Bastarnae are removed from the Balkans to Thrace by Probus.
  • The activity of Saxon pirates in Britain leads to the building of additional forts along the coasts.

286 C.E.

  • The Bacaudae, a social group in Gaul, are broken up by Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus (Maximian), one of the Caesars under Diocletian.

287 C.E.

  • Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius, a former Roman admiral, takes Britain and northern Gaul and declares himself emperor.

288–289 C.E.

  • The Alamanni in Germany occupy the Roman emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (Diocletian).

290 C.E.

  • Tiridates III ascends to the throne in Armenia under Roman patronage.

293 C.E.

  • Bononia (Boulogne) is blockaded by Caesar Constantius; Carausius is expelled and later assassinated.

294–295 C.E.

  • The disturbance in Britain prompts the resettlement of Franks and other Germanic groups in Gaul.

296 C.E.

  • Britain, in revolt since Carausius established a British Empire, is reconquered by Caesar Constantius.
  • Social groups in Mauretania, including the Quinquegentanei, attempt a revolt from Roman rule; Maximian is sent to check it.
  • Egypt revolts under Domitius Domitianus and Aurelius Achilleus.

297 C.E.

  • The Egyptian revolt is put down by Diocletian at Alexandria.

298 C.E.

  • The Alamanni fall to Constantius at Langres; along with the recapture of Britain, a new period of Roman control in the central European provinces begins.
  • Mesopotamia, Armenia, and Iberia (of the Black Sea) are further reduced to the Roman dependents.

301* C.E.

  • Christianity becomes the state religion of Armenia, making it the oldest Christian civilization.

303–305 C.E.

  • North Africa suffers great losses under the Roman persecution of the Christians.

306 C.E.

  • Crocus, king of the Alamanni, convinces the Roman troops in Britain to appoint Flavius Valerius Constantinius (Constantine the Great) as emperor.

308–310 C.E.

  • The Franks, Alamanni, and Bructeri suffer defeat along the Rhine River at the hands of Constantine the Great; the Frankish kings Ascarius and Merogaisus are imprisoned in Trier.

311 C.E.

  • The Chinese city of Loyang is sacked by Hsiung-nu and the Tartars.

311–383 C.E.

  • Ulfilas the Visigoth is responsible for the conversion of many of his people to Christianity; he creates the Moeso-Gothic alphabet and translates the Bible into Gothic language.

313 C.E.

  • The Edict of Toleration of Christian Worship is passed in Trier, Germany.

313–316 C.E.

  • Constantine frequently visits Germany and Gaul, and Trier gains prominence as the capital of Rhineland.
  • The Donatist sect develops in Africa after Caecilian’s election as bishop is challenged; the opponents appoint Donatus of Casae Nigrae as rival. A council led by Constantine decides for Caecilian, but the puritanist sect gains momentum.

314 C.E.

  • Eusebius becomes bishop of Caesarea. He writes what is probably the first ecclesiastical history of Christianity.

316 C.E.

  • The Chinese city of Ch’ang-an falls, and the last Western Chin emperor is imprisoned.

317 C.E.

  • The Eastern Chin dynasty begins in China. The rule will eventually succumb to ongoing attacks from the north.

320* C.E.

  • King Ezana takes the Axum throne in present-day Ethiopia. He will expand the borders of his kingdom into the Sudan; Christianity is introduced into the region at this time.

320 C.E.

  • Candra Gupta I rules in India. He controlled the center of the country by the time of his death, establishing a power base from the Ganges to the coast of Bengal.
  • St. Pachomius establishes the first cenobitic community in Egypt.

321 C.E.

  • The construction of the Christian cathedral in Trier begins.

324 C.E.

  • Byzantium becomes the foundation site of Constantinople, the Roman capital on the Danubian frontier.

325 C.E.

  • The Council of Nicaea meets to formulate an orthodox Christian doctrine. Known as the Nicaean Creed, the statement of faith directly opposes Arianism, a doctrine that refutes the divinity of Christ and the idea of the Trinity.

332 C.E.

  • The Goths suffer defeat at the hands of Constantine on the Danube River.

335 C.E.

  • Samudra Gupta begins his rule in India. He expanded the Indian empire south-ward and annexes the kingdoms of the rulers in the north.

340–360* C.E.

  • A mass migration of non-Roman peoples into Dacia occurs.

350 C.E.

  • Meroe, an ancient city on the upper Nile, is destroyed by Aksumite armies under Ella-Amida.

354 C.E.

  • Aurelius Augustinus (St. Augustine) is born; he becomes one of the most important authors of the early Catholic Church. His works include Confessions (circa 400), De doctrina christiana (On the Christian Doctrine, 397–428), De trinitate (On the Trinity, 400–416), and De civitate Dei (On the City of God, 413–426).

355 C.E.

  • The Salian Franks gain Toxandria after falling to Flavius Claudius Julianus (Julian the Apostate); both the Alamanni and the Franks cross the Rhine River into Roman territory.

357 C.E.

  • The Battle of Strasbourg ends in the defeat of the Alamanni at the hands of Julian.

360 C.E.

  • The Franks force a confrontation with Julian near Xanten.
  • The Scots take action against Roman rule in Britain.

363 C.E.

  • The Persians kill Julian on his way through Armenia.

368 C.E.

  • The Roman emperor Valentinian I attacks the Alamanni and consolidates the Rhine frontier.

370 C.E.

  • The Huns expel the Ostrogoths from Ukraine. The Ostrogoths are a division of the Goths, who earlier migrated from Scandinavia to the region south of the Vistula River.

376 C.E.

  • The Huns expel the Visigoths from the lower Danube.
  • Candra Gupta II rules in India. Further expansion in India is made possible by his defeat of the Sakas.

378 C.E.

  • The Battle of Adrianople is fought. Under the leadership of Fritigern, the Visigoths cross the Danube River and defeat the emperor Valens.

382 C.E.

  • The Visigoths gain a treaty from the Roman emperor Theodosius the Great, who rules in the east; they are recognized as federates of the Romans and are granted land in Thrace.

383 C.E.

  • Gaul is occupied by the Spanish general Magnus Maximus, one of the claimants to the Roman Empire.
  • The Eastern Chin dynasty defeats a force of foreign invaders at Fei Shui.

386 C.E.

  • Persia signs a treaty with the Roman emperor Theodosius the Great; the two kingdoms agree to divide Armenia, previously an area of much contention for the Romans.

387 C.E.

  • The Sassanians partition the remainder of Armenia between Parthia and Byzantium.

390 C.E.

  • The oracle-site at Delphi is declared a pagan shrine and is officially closed by Theodosius.

395–397 C.E.

  • The Visigoths, led by Alaric, defend their territories in Greece against the attacks of the Roman general Flavius Stilicho, who is emperor of the Western Empire.

400* C.E.

  • The first settlers, sailing from the Polynesian islands, arrive in Hawaii.
  • Pelagius, the British Christian writer, is active during this period. He spends some years in Rome, but the political unrest there leads him to Africa and Palestine; Pelagius’s exhortation to Demetrias is called the first British literature.
  • The Olmec civilization in Central America ends.

402 C.E.

  • Alaric is defeated at Pollentia (Polenza) and the next year at Verona.

405 C.E.

  • Radagaisus, leader of the Ostrogoths, invades Italy; the Ostrogoths suffer defeat at the hands of Stilicho.

406–407 C.E.

  • The Germanic Vandals occupy the Rhine region after the Huns drive them west-ward; the nomadic Alans of Russia are also driven to Gaul by the Huns. This expulsion marks the end of Roman rule in Gaul.

409 C.E.

  • The Vandals occupy Spain; they join with the Alans.

410 C.E.

  • Britain is abandoned by the Roman Empire. The Saxons and other Germanic peoples become more prevalent; Celtic culture also spreads.
  • The Visigoths sack Rome after attacking Greek cities; Alaric, the leader of the group, dies in the same year.

414 C.E.

  • Kumara Gupta I begins his rule in India. The long-standing peace of the Gupta empire begins to crumble at the end of his reign (455) with the arrival of the Huns.

418 C.E.

  • The Visigoths settle in Gaul and Spain, establishing a capital at Toulouse.

420 C.E.

  • Eusebius Hieronymus (St. Jerome) dies. His important writings include a chronicle of classical times, a work titled De viris illustribus (Concerning Illustrious Men, 392–393), and the Vulgate, the Latin translation of the Christian Bible.

421–422 C.E.

422 C.E.

  • The Huns begin to exact tribute from the Romans; 350 pounds of gold are given each year, and the amount will later increase.

425 C.E.

  • The Salian Franks leave Toxandria; the Rhineland Franks cross into Gaul. Within the century, the Roman hold on Gaul will end.
  • A university is founded in Constantinople for the teaching of Greek and Latin grammar, rhetoric, philosophy, and law.

428 C.E.

  • Gunderic, the ruler of the Vandals, dies; the Asding Vandals and the Alans leave Spain for Africa.
  • Artaxias IV, the last Arsacid king in Armenia, is deposed.

429 C.E.

  • Gaiseric, king of the Asding Vandals and the Alans, arrives in Africa with eighty thousand of his people.

430 C.E.

439 C.E.

  • Gaiseric occupies Carthage and denounces Roman rule there.

441–443 C.E.

  • Attila leads the Huns against the Eastern Roman Empire; they destroy such cities as Naissus in Moesia.

445 C.E.

  • Attila murders his brother Bleda; he is now the sole ruler of the Huns.

447 C.E.

  • The Huns, led by Attila, are active in the Balkans and Greece.

451 C.E.

  • The Huns are defeated in Gaul by a Roman force, along with the Visigoths, at the Catalaunian plains.
  • The Council of Chalcedon establishes the doctrine of diophysitism, the idea that Christ is both human and divine; the council declares any other doctrine heresy.
  • The Persians defeat the Armenians at the Battle of Avarayr. The Zoroastrian faith replaces Christianity as the official religion in this region.

452 C.E.

  • Attila the Hun invades Italy; he dies in the following year.

454–495* C.E.

  • The Gupta dynasty in India is temporarily restored after the Hun invasion; Skanda Gupta’s reign is followed by that of Budha Gupta. His power is curtailed by the rise of subject kings throughout India.

455 C.E.

  • The Ostrogoths escape from the rule of the Huns in the Ukraine.

475 C.E.

  • Euric of the Visigoths declares an independent kingdom separate from Rome.

476 C.E.

  • Odoacer the German deposes Romulus Augustulus in Rome; the Ostrogoths soon establish an empire in Italy. Gaiseric, the king of the Vandals and the Alans, who had captured Rome eleven years earlier, dies the following year.

* Denotes Circa date

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