1800-1860: Science and Medicine: Chronology
1800-1860: Science and Medicine: Chronology
- A smallpox pandemic begins to ravage Indian peoples in Central and Northwestern regions, particularly along the Missouri River.
- 8 Nov. Lewis and Clark reach the Pacific Ocean.
- Cartographer John Cary publishes a map of the Pacific coastline.
- 15 July Zebulon Pike starts an exploratory expedition west of the Mississippi River into northern New Spain and eventually crosses the Great Plains.
- 23 Sept. Lewis and Clark return to St. Louis after exploring the Upper Missouri River and the northwestern region of the present-day United States.
- The North West Company explorers spend the next four years on the Upper Columbia River searching for a route to the Pacific.
- John Colter journeys through the Bighorn Basin into present-day Yellowstone National Park.
- Mar. Manuel Lisa’s fur-trading party begins to explore tributaries of the Upper Missouri River.
- A second American overland expedition, financed by John Jacob Astor, travels through the Northwest and reaches the Pacific Ocean by April 1813.
- The journals of Lewis and Clark’s expedition are published.
- Stephen Long’s expedition crosses the plains to the Rocky Mountains and explores the Mississippi and Missouri River valleys.
- Henry Schoolcraft’s party locates the source of the Mississippi River.
- Over the course of the next six years the Hudson’s Bay Company explorers travel through present-day Montana, Idaho, Oregon, Utah, and California.
- A party of trappers employed by the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, among them James Bridger, become the first Euro-Americans to reach the Great Salt Lake.
- Henry Schoolcraft’s map of the Upper Mississippi River is published.
- Albert Gallatin publishes A Table of Indian Languages of the United States.
- Henry Schoolcraft leads a second expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi River.
- Artist George Catlin journeys up the Missouri River.
- Albert Gallatin compiles a map of the Great Basin and the Colorado River.
- A smallpox epidemic begins to sweep the Northern Plains tribes and by 1840 kills thousands of Blackfeet, Pawnees, Mandans, and others.
- A map drawn by Benjamin Louis Eulalie de Bonneville depicts the major river systems west of the Rocky Mountains.
- The U.S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers begins to conduct the first geological explorations of the Trans-Mississippi West.
- Albert Gallatin and others begin the American Ethnological Society.
- Apr.-Aug. John James Audubon travels to the mouth of the Yellowstone River, examining natural flora and fauna along the way.
- 16 June John C. Fremont leads an expedition from Independence, Missouri, along the Kansas River, over the Rocky Mountains, and eventually to the Columbia River and California.
- John C. Fremont’s account of his expedition to the Rockies, Oregon, and California is published.
- Henry Schoolcraft receives a government commission to assemble information on history and culture of North American Indians.
- Native American and Anglo travelers along the overland trails suffer from cholera epidemics.
- July The U.S. Topographical Corps begins its survey of the Rio Grande.
- Lewis Henry Morgan’s study of the Iroquois is published.
- Audubon begins publishing The Vivaparous Quadrupeds of North America.
- The Pacific Railroad and the U.S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers conduct a series of expeditionary surveys in the Northwest until 1855.
- G. K. Warren compiles all known geographic information into a map of the United States from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean.
- June-Dec. John Boardman Trask’s geological report on the agricultural and mineral resources of the coastal mountains is presented to the state legislature of California.
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