Skip to main content

Birgham, treaty of

Birgham, treaty of, 1290. Anglo-Scottish treaty, initially drawn up at Birgham (Berwickshire) on 18 July and ratified at Northampton on 28 August 1290. It provided for the marriage of Margaret ‘the Maid of Norway’, granddaughter and successor of Alexander III, to Edward of Caernarfon (later Edward II), son and heir of Edward I, on condition that Scotland should remain an independent sovereign kingdom ruled by Margaret. It became redundant on Margaret's death in September 1290; but had the marriage taken place and children issued from it, it is possible that a lasting Anglo-Scottish union, similar to the union of the crowns of 1603, would have been achieved.

Keith J. Stringer

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Birgham, treaty of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . 17 Feb. 2019 <>.

"Birgham, treaty of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . (February 17, 2019).

"Birgham, treaty of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved February 17, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.