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Mogul Empire (1526–1857) Muslim Empire in India founded by Babur, who conquered Delhi and Agra in 1526. The Mogul Empire reached its height under Akbar I (the Great) (r. 1556–1605), Babur's grandson, when it extended from Afghanistan to the Bay of Bengal and as far s as the Deccan. Akbar encouraged religious tolerance, which declined under his successors Jahangir (r.1605–27), Shah Jahan (r.1628–58), and Aurangzeb (r. 1659–1707). Mogul art and architecture reached a peak under Shah Jahan, builder of the Taj Mahal. By the death of Aurangzeb, the Mogul dynasty was in decline. The British deposed the last Mogul Emperor in 1858, after the rising known as the Indian Mutiny.