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AHMADNAGAR , capital of the former kingdom of the Niẓām Shah dynasty on the west coast of India. Under Burhān Niẓām Shah i (1510–53), a Shi'a Muslim, it became a center of Hindu-Muslim culture and learning. Among the scholars attracted to his court and enjoying its atmosphere of complete religious tolerance were some Marranos from Portugal, including Sancho Pirez, who became a favorite of the king and was a friend of Garcia *d'Orta. Garcia refers in his Colloquia (no. 26) to "Jews in the territory of Nizamuluco [Niẓām Shah]." A Jewish settlement also existed in the port of the kingdom, Chaul (now Revanda).


R. Shyam, Kingdom of Ahmadnagar (1966).

[Walter Joseph Fischel]

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Akbar I ( the Great) (1542–1605) Emperor of India (1556–1605). Generally regarded as the greatest ruler of the Mogul Empire, he assumed personal control in 1560 and set out to establish Mogul control of the whole of India, extending his authority as far s as Ahmadnagar. Akbar built a new capital at Fatehpur Sikri and endeavoured to unify his empire by conciliation with Hindus. He also tolerated Christian missionaries.