Schwarzenegger, Arnold 1947-
SCHWARZENEGGER, Arnold 1947-
PERSONAL: Born July 30, 1947, in Thal, Styria, Austria; emigrated to United States, 1968; naturalized U.S. citizen, 1983; son of Gustav (a police officer) and Aurelia Schwarzeneggar; married Maria Owings Shriver (a television news anchor), April 26, 1986; children: Katherine Eunice, Christina, Patrick, Christopher. Education: Attended Santa Monica City College and University of California, Los Angeles; University of Wisconsin—Superior, B.A. (business and international economics), 1980.
ADDRESSES: Home—Santa Monica, CA. Office—321 Hampton Dr., Ste. 203, Venice, CA 90291.
CAREER: Bodybuilder, actor, elected official, fitness expert, entrepreneur, and real estate investor. Body builder, 1962-76; former health club manager and instructor, Munich, Germany; producer of Mr. Olympia/Mr. International competition, 1975-81. Television commentator for bodybuilding events, Wide World of Sports, ABC-TV; appeared in documentary, "Pumping Iron," 1977, and as an actor in motion pictures, including, Stay Hungry, 1976, The Villains, 1979, Conan the Barbarian, 1982, Conan the Destroyer, 1984, The Terminator, 1984, Commando, 1985, Scavenger Hunt, The Jayne Mansfield Story, Red Sonja 1985, Raw Deal, 1986, Predator, 1987, The Running Man, 1987, Red Heat, 1988, Twins, 1988, Kindergarten Cop, 1990, Total Recall, 1990, Terminator 2: Judgment Day, 1991, Last Action Hero, 1993, True Lies, 1994, Junior, 1994, Eraser, 1996, Batman and Robin, 1997, End of Days, 1999, The Sixth Day, 2000, Collateral Damage, 2002, and Around the World in 80 Days, 2004; director for television, including episode of Tales from the Crypt, HBO, 1990, and movie Christmas in Connecticut, TNT, 1992. Founder, Oak Productions, Inc.; Planet Hollywood (restaurant), New York, NY, co-owner, 1991-2000. Governor of California, 2003—. Chair, President's Council for Physical Fitness, 1990-93. Military service: Austrian Army, 1965.
AWARDS, HONORS: Winner of sixteen amateur and professional bodybuilding titles, including Junior Mr. Europe, 1965, Best Built Man of Europe, 1966, Mr. Europe, 1966, International Powerlifting Championship, 1966, Mr. Universe amateur, 1967 and 1969, German Powerlifting Championship, 1968, Mr. International from International Federation of Body Builders, 1968, Mr. Universe professional, 1968-70, Mr. World, 1970, and Mr. Olympia, 1970-75, 1980; Golden Globe Award, Hollywood Foreign Press Association, 1976, for performance in Stay Hungry; named International Star of the Year, National Association of Theatre Owners, 1984; National Leadership Award, Simon Wiesenthal Center, 1991, for support of Holocaust studies; MTV Movie Award for best male performance, 1991, for Terminator 2: Judgment Day; named International Star of the Decade, National Association of Theatre Owners, 1993; Golden Globe Award nomination for best actor in a comedy, 1994, for Junior; MTV Movie Award nominations for best dance sequence and best kiss, both 1994, both for True Lies; Bambi Award in international category, 1996; honorary doctorate degree, University of Wisconsin Superior, 1996; Golden Apple Awards, Hollywood Women's Press Association, 1996, for best male star of the year; Golden Camera Award, Germany, 1996; Humanitarian Award, ShoWest, 1997; Blockbuster Entertainment Award, 1998; American Cinematheque Award, 1998; Blockbuster Entertainment Award nomination for actor in an action or science fiction film, 1999, for End of Days; Saturn Award nomination, 2001, for The 6th Day; Tuarus Honorary Award, World Stunt Awards, 2001; received star on Hollywood Walk of Fame.
(With Douglas Kent Hall) Arnold: The Education of a Body Builder, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 1977.
Arnold's Bodyshaping for Women, photographs by Douglas Kent Hall, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 1979.
(With Bill Dobbins) Arnold's Bodybuilding for Men, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 1981.
(With Bill Dobbins) Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 1985, revised as The New Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 1998.
(With Charles Gaines) Arnold's Fitness for Kids Ages Birth-5: A Guide to Health, Exercise, and Nutrition, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1993.
(With Charles Gaines) Arnold's Fitness for Kids Ages 6-10: A Guide to Health, Exercise, and Nutrition, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1993.
(With Charles Gaines) Arnold's Fitness for Kids Ages 11-14: A Guide to Health, Exercise, and Nutrition, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1993.
Contributor to books, including Pro-Style Bodybuilding, by Tom Platz, Sterling, 1985; The Muscular Gourmet, by Mandy Tanny, 1988; Awesome Teen: Smart Choices for the 90s, by Chris Silkwood, Master Media, 1992; Ten Million Steps: The Incredible Journey of Paul Reese, Who Ran across America—A Marathon a Day for 124 Days—at Age 73, by Paul Reese, WRS, 1993; If: The Pat Roach Story, by Pat Roach, Brewin Books, 2002; ACSM Fitness Book, third edition, Human Kinetics, 2003; I Choose to Stay: A Black Teacher Refuses to Desert the Inner City, by Salome Thomas-El, Kensington, 2004. Author of magazine body-building column "Ask Arnold." Contributor to periodicals, including Muscles and Fitness. Also author of videotapes "Shape Up with Arnold" and "Arnold's Total Body Workout." Executive editor, Muscle and Fitness and Flex magazines.
SIDELIGHTS: Movie actor and California governor Arnold Schwarzenegger first became famous as a bodybuilder, winning the titles of Mr. Universe, Mr. World, and Mr. Olympia in 1970. He used this success as a springboard to his highly successful acting career, which in turn has supported his political aspirations. Remarkably, Schwarzenegger has not been straight-jacketed by his Austrian accent or muscular physique in his multiple roles on and off screen. His early film persona was hulking and dangerous, including the mono-syllabic lead in The Terminator, the character with which he is still most often associated. But his development as a charismatic actor led to comedic and heroic roles, which helped make him one of Hollywood's largest box-office draws. Schwarzenegger is married to Maria Schriver, the television journalist who is a member of the famous Kennedy family of politicians, but his own political allegiances are with conservative figures and causes. In 2003 Schwarzenegger was elected governor of California following the recall of Democrat Gray Davis. As an author, Schwarzenegger has offered advice on bodybuilding and physical fitness. And while his acting career has been put on hold during his term as governor, he has subsequently accepted the position of executive editor of Muscle and Fitness and Flex magazines.
The constant in Schwarzenegger's life has been his relentless drive to succeed. He began training for bodybuilding at the age of fifteen and showed a fierce dedication to the sport. In Arnold: The Education of a Bodybuilder he describes his experiences with bodybuilding this way: "During the early years I didn't care how I felt about anything except bodybuilding. It consumed every minute of my days and all my best effort." He would be nicknamed "The Austrian Oak" and became the epitome of a successful bodybuilder. Charles Gaines described him in his book Pumping Iron: The Art and Sport of Bodybuilding as "the best bodybuilder alive, and very possibly the most perfectly developed man in the world."
During the late 1970s and early 1980s, Schwarzenegger published his biography as well as three how-to books on bodybuilding. Arnold was a "happy joining" of his personal and professional experiences, presented in two separate sections, according to Marshall E. Nunn in Library Journal. Arnold's Bodybuilding for Men was described as "interesting and informative" by Garland E. McLaughlin in School Library Journal. It offers charts and photographs while demonstrating and explaining exercises for new and established male body builders. A workout for women is presented in Arnold's Bodyshaping for Women, which School Library Journal's Susan Flannery enjoyed for "its nononsense approach." Working with Bill Dobbins, Schwarzenegger also created a more comprehensive look at the sport in the Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding, which covers history, training, nutrition, injuries, and steroid use. Writing in Library Journal, David L. Mills called this volume "a thoughtful treatment of bodybuilding."
Schwarzenegger began to turn his energies toward a film career in 1975. In a Cable Guide interview with Rex Morgan, he revealed, "I'd had it [with bodybuilding]. I did not find as much interest in winning anymore and competing and making the money…. I wanted to be a multimillion dollar actor." To accomplish this, he explained, "You have to have a total concept of how you can sell yourself to the public as a personality and as an actor. There's a whole marketing trick behind it, so you have to think about all of those things involved in promoting you to the top." His first starring role came in the 1982 film Conan the Barbarian, and in 1984, his role in The Terminator as an evil amalgam of flesh and machine programmed to destroy the human race established him as an action film star. Later films such as Twins, in which he is reunited with brother Danny DeVito, and the comic crime story Kindergarten Cop expanded his range of characterizations and popularity. By 1997, the actor was being paid as much as twenty-five million dollars per film.
In 1990 President George Bush named Schwarzenegger the chairman of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. Schwarzenegger subsequently published a series of books. One volume gives advice for children from birth to five years, another is for six-to ten-year-olds, and the third is for eleven-to fourteen-year-olds. In these books, Schwarzenegger recommends play as the basis of exercise, discourages parents from putting children into organized sports before they are ready, and urges parents to focus on the fun of exercise rather than competition. A Publishers Weekly writer said of the series that it is "a welcome antidote to the 'Little League parent' syndrome" and that the first installment had the clearest purpose. In School Library Journal, Todd Morning warned that the middle book's "lack of focus will deter many readers."
On October 7, 2003, Schwarzenegger became governor of his home state after the majority of voting Californians supported a recall of democrat governor Gray Davis. Schwarzenegger garnered the most votes of the many candidates on the ballot for replacement governor. He proposed to resolve California's huge budget deficit problems by borrowing funds and capping spending.
BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:
Gaines, Charles, and George Butler, Pumping Iron: The Art and Sport of Bodybuilding, Simon & Schuster, 1974.
Schwarzenegger, Arnold, and Douglas Kent Hall, Arnold: The Education of a Bodybuilder, Simon & Schuster, 1977.
Cable Guide, September, 1985, Rex Morgan, interview with Arnold Swarzenegger.
Library Journal, December 1, 1977, Marshall E. Nunn, review of Arnold: The Education of a Bodybuilder, p. 2443; June 1, 1981, William H. Hoffman, review of Arnold's Bodybuilding for Men, p. 1240; September 1, 1985, David L. Mills, review of Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding, p. 210.
Publishers Weekly, January 7, 1985, review of Arnold's Bodybuilding for Men, p. 16; April 12, 1993, review of Arnold's Fitness for Kids: A Guide to Health, Exercise, and Nutrition, p. 65.
School Library Journal, April, 1980, Susan Flannery, review of Arnold's Bodyshaping for Women, p. 135; November, 1981, Garland E. McLaughlin, review of Arnold's Bodybuilding for Men, p. 117; August, 1993, Todd Morning, review of Arnold's Fitness for Kids Ages 6-10, p. 183.*
"Schwarzenegger, Arnold 1947-." Contemporary Authors, New Revision Series. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 17, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/educational-magazines/schwarzenegger-arnold-1947
"Schwarzenegger, Arnold 1947-." Contemporary Authors, New Revision Series. . Retrieved July 17, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/educational-magazines/schwarzenegger-arnold-1947
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.