Schwarzenberg, Friedrich Joseph von
SCHWARZENBERG, FRIEDRICH JOSEPH VON
Austrian cardinal; b. Vienna, April 6, 1809; d. Vienna, March 27, 1885. A talented, pious, and idealistic descendant of a wealthy Bohemian family, he studied law for a short time, but the influence of the philosopher Anton gÜnther and other priestly teachers led him to transfer to the theology faculty at Salzburg. Augustin Gruber, Archbishop of Salzburg (1823–35), who proved a fatherly friend, appointed him a cathedral canon (1830). While in Vienna preparing his doctorate in theology, he was ordained (1833). Upon Gruber's death he succeeded to the see of Salzburg (1835) and became a cardinal (1842). The affable young prince of the Church proved an outstanding bishop who safeguarded the Church's rights capably and courageously during the 1848 revolution. In 1848 he summoned the bishops of his province to a synod, and also played an important part in the gathering of German bishops in Würzburg. He presided at the episcopal meeting in Vienna (1849), whose proposals for Austrian Church-State relations were later incorporated in the concordat of 1855. It had been to his advantage that his brother Felix (d. 1852) was Austrian prime minister. Schwarzenberg transferred to the See of Prague (1850) because the Emperor recognized his popularity with both sections of the population, and hoped that he could ease the religious, political, and nationalistic tensions there. As bishop he sought to utilize the newly won ecclesiastical liberty to better the Church and its clergy. In the Landtag and in the upper chamber he supported the policies of the Bohemian nobles against liberalism and centralization. He was entrusted with the official visitation of Austrian religious houses (1852–59). In 1860 he held a provincial synod, and in 1863 a diocesan synod for carrying out the provisions of the concordat. He was friendly to the ideas of Günther but opposed to the syllabus of errors. At vatican council i he opposed the definition of papal primacy and infallibility, but later accepted it. Schwarzenberg was one of the last and best of the type of eminent, aristocratic ecclesiastical princes of the old Austria.
Bibliography: c. wolfsgruber, Friedrich Kardinal Schwarzenberg, 3 v. (Vienna 1906–17). c. butler, The Vatican Council, 2 v. (New York 1930). k. zu schwarzenberg, Geschichte des reichsständigen Hauses Schwarzenberg, Teil 2 (Neustadt-Aisch 1964).