Neusner, Jacob 1932–

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NEUSNER, Jacob 1932–

PERSONAL: Born July 28, 1932, in Hartford, CT; son of Samuel (a publisher) and Lee (a publisher; maiden name, Green) Neusner; married Suzanne Richter (an artist), March 15, 1964; children: Samuel Aaron, Eli Ephraim, Noam Mordecai Menahem, Margalit Leah Berakhah. Education: Harvard College, A.B. (magna cum laude; history), 1953; graduate study at Lincoln College, Oxford, 1953–54, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1957–58, and Union Theological Seminary, 1958–60; Jewish Theological Seminary of America, Master of Hebrew Letters, 1960; Columbia University and Union Theological Seminary, Ph.D. (religion), 1960. Religion: Jewish.

ADDRESSES: Home—39 Kalina Dr., Rhinebeck, NY 12572. Office—Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY 12504. E-mail[email protected]

CAREER: Columbia University, New York, NY, instructor in religion, 1960–61; University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, assistant professor of Hebrew, 1961–62; Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, research associate in Jewish history, 1962–64; Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, assistant professor, 1964–66, associate professor of religion, 1966–68; Brown University, Providence, RI, professor of religious studies, 1968–75, University Professor and Ungerleider Distinguished Scholar of Judaic Studies, 1975–90, codirector, Program in Judaic Studies; University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, distinguished research professor of religious studies, 1990–2000; Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY, professor of religion, 1994–99, research professor of religion and theology and senior fellow of Institute of Advanced Theology, 2000–. Guest lecturer at numerous universities, including Yale University, 1971, Notre Dame University, 1972, University of Chicago, 1972 and 1978, University of California, Berkeley, 1976, and Oxford University, 1981; visiting professor, Iliff School of Theology, 1976, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 1977, University of Minnesota, 1978, University of Frankfurt, 1990–91, Institutum Judaicum Åboense, Åbo Akademi, and Stiftelsens för Åbo Akademi Forskningsinstitut, all in Åbo, Finland, 1993, University of Göttingen, 1995, and Uppsala University, Sweden, 1996; visiting fellow, Cambridge University, 1992–, University of Canterbury, 1994. Has conducted lecture tours throughout the United States and in South Africa, West Germany, England, Sweden, Australia, New Zealand, Iceland, and Ireland. Member of Kent Fellowship Advisory Council of Danforth Foundation, 1964–66; member of board of advisors, I. Edward Kiev Library Foundation, beginning 1977, Ancient Biblical Manuscript Center, School of Theology Library, Claremont College, beginning 1978, Salvatori Center for Academic Leadership, the Heritage Foundation, 1991–; member of board of directors, National Humanities Institute, 1996–. Member, Institute for Advanced Study, 1989–, and Rockford Institute, 1990–; founder and president, Max Richter Foundation, 1969–.

MEMBER: American Academy of Religion (vice president and program chair, 1968–69; president, 1969–74), Phi Beta Kappa.

AWARDS, HONORS: Harvard College scholarships, 1950–53; Detur Book Award, Harvard College, 1951; Henry Fellow, Oxford University, 1953–54; Jewish Theological Seminary of America fellowships, 1954–57; Essay Prize in Jewish History, Yidisher Visnshaftlekher Institut, 1955; Fulbright Scholar in Israel, 1957–58; Kent Fellow, National Council for Religion in Higher Education, 1957–60; fellow of special program in Talmud, Jewish Theological Seminary, 1958–60; University Scholar, Columbia University, 1959–60; Abraham Berliner Prize in Jewish History, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 1960, for A Life of Rabban Yohanan ben Zakkai; National Defense Foreign Language Fellowship in Persian, Harvard Summer School, 1962; Lown Fellow, Brandeis University, 1962–64; research grants, American Philosophical Society, 1965, 1967; research fellowships, American Council of Learned Societies, 1966–67, 1970–71; summer research stipends, Brown University, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1972; A.M. Ad Eundem, Brown University, 1969; Guggenheim fellowships, 1973–74, 1979–80; University Medal for Excellence, Columbia University, 1974; Rabbi Solomon Goldman Creativity Award, Anshe Emet Synagogue (Chicago, IL), 1974; L.H.D., University of Chicago, 1978; honorary Ph.D., University of Cologne, 1979; Von Humboldt Prize, Von Humboldt Foundation, 1981; Judaism: The Evidence of the Mishnah was named to "Outstanding Academic Book List" by Choice, 1982–83; Distinguished Humanitarian Award, Ohio State University Melton Center for Jewish Studies, 1983; Judaism in Society: The Evidence of the Yerushalmi; Toward the Natural History of a Religion was named to "Outstanding Academic Book List" by Choice, 1984–85; Fellner Prize, Bible Review, 1988, for best article published in 1987; honorary doctorate in political science, University of Bologna, 1988; senior research fellowship, National Endowment for the Humanities, 1989–90; L.H.D., University of Rochester, 1989; research grants, University of South Florida, 1990–2000; Medal of Collège de France, 1990; Medal of la Regione di Campania (Italy), 1990; Von Humboldt Research fellowships, 1991, 1995; Ecumenical Medal, Xavier University, 1992; L.H.D., Tulane University and St. Louise University, both 1993; Commemorative Medal of the Cardinal of Milano, Archdiocese of Milano, Italy, 1993; research grants, Bard College, 1994–; Medal of the Honors Program, University of South Florida, 1994; Ambassador for the Arts, National Endowment for the Arts, 1994; honorary B.S., University of South Florida, 1996; Queen Christina of Sweden Medal, Å Akademi University, 1996; L.H.D., Dowling College, 1997; Professorial Excellence Program Award, University of South Florida, 1998. The Oral Torah: The Sacred Books of Judaism: An Introduction was a B'nai B'rith Jewish Book Club selection; Our Sages, God, and Israel: An Anthology of the Yerushalmi and Judaism and Scripture: The Evidence of Leviticus Rabbah were a Jewish Book Club selection.

WRITINGS:

Learning with the Living Talmud (study guide), Mentor, 1957.

Study Guide to Tradition and Change, National Academy for Adult Jewish Studies, 1959.

A Life of Rabban Yohanan ben Zakkai, Brill (Leiden, Germany), 1962, revised edition, 1970.

History of Judaism, Data Guide, 1963.

Fellowship in Judaism: The First Century and Today (essays), Vallentine, Mitchell, 1963.

History and Torah: Essays on Jewish Learning (essays), Schocken (Valentine Mitchell, NY), 1965.

A History of the Jews in Babylonia, Brill (Leiden, Germany), Volume 1: The Parthian Period, 1965, 2nd revised edition, 1969, Volume 2: The Early Sasanian Period, 1966, Volume 3: From Shapur I to Shapur II, 1968, Volume 4: The Age of Shapur II, 1969, Volume 5: Later Sasanian Times, 1970.

Development of a Legend: Studies on the Traditions Concerning Yohanan ben Zakkai, Brill (Leiden, Germany), 1970.

Judaism in the Secular Age: Essays on Fellowship, Community, and Freedom (essays), Ktav (Valentine Mitchell, NY), 1970.

The Way of Torah: An Introduction to Judaism, Dickenson (Encino, CA), 1970, seventh edition, Wadsworth/Thomson (Belmont, CA), 2003.

Aphrahat and Judaism: The Christian-Jewish Argument in Fourth Century Iran, Brill (Leiden, Germany), 1971.

The Rabbinic Traditions about the Pharisees before 70, Brill (Leiden, Germany), Volume 1: The Masters, 1971, Volume 2: The Houses, 1971, Volume 3: Conclusions, 1971.

There We Sat Down: Talmudic Judaism in the Making, Abingdon (Nashville, TN), 1972.

American Judaism: Adventure in Modernity, Prentice-Hall (New York, NY), 1972.

Eliezer ben Hyrcanus: The Tradition and the Man, Brill (Boston, MA), Volume 1: The Tradition, 1973, Volume 2: The Man, 1973.

The Idea of Purity in Ancient Judaism, Brill (Boston, MA), 1973.

From Politics to Piety: The Emergence of Pharisaic Judaism, Prentice-Hall (New York, NY), 1973.

Invitation to the Talmud: A Teaching Book, Harper (New York, NY), 1973, second revised edition, 1984.

A History of the Mishnaic Law of Purities, Brill (Boston, MA), Volume 1: Kelim: Chapters One through Eleven, 1974, Volume 2: Kelim: Chapters Twelve through Thirty, 1974, Volume 3: Kelim: Literary and Historical Problems, 1974, Volume 4: Ohalot: Commentary, 1975, Volume 5: Ohalot: Literary and Historical Problems, 1975, Volume 6: Negaim: Mishnah-Tosefta, 1975, Volume 7: Negaim: Sifra, 1975, Volume 8: Negaim: Literary and Historical Problems, 1975, Volume 9: Parah: Commentary, 1976, Volume 10: Parah: Literary and Historical Problems, 1976, Volume 11: Tohorot: Commentary, 1976, Volume 12: Tohorot: Literary and Historical Problems, 1976, Volume 13: Miqvaot: Commentary, 1976, Volume 14: Miqvaot: Literary and Historical Problems, 1976, Volume 15: Niddah: Commentary, 1976, Volume 16: Niddah: Literary and Historical Problems, 1976, Volume 17: Makhshirin, 1977, Volume 18: Zabim, 1977, Volume 19: Tebul Yom: Yadayim, 1977, Volume 20: Uqsin: Cumulative Index, Parts, I-XX, 1977, Volume 21: The Redaction and Formulation of the Order of Purities in the Mishnah and Tosefta, 1977, Volume 22: The Mishnaic System of Uncleanness: Its Context and History, 1977.

First Century Judaism in Crisis: Yohanan ben Zakkai and the Renaissance of Torah, Abingdon (Nashville, TN), 1975.

Early Rabbinic Judaism: Historical Studies in Religion, Literature, and Art (essays), Brill (Boston, MA), 1975.

The Academic Study of Judaism: Essays and Reflections (essays), Ktav (New York, NY), first series, 1975, second series, 1977, third series published as The Academic Study of Judaism: Essays and Reflections—Three Contexts of Jewish Learning, 1980.

Talmudic Judaism in Sasanian Babylonia: Essays and Studies (essays), Brill (Boston, MA), 1976.

Between Time and Eternity: The Essentials of Judaism, Dickenson (Encino, CA), 1976.

(Translator) The Tosefta, Ktav (New York, NY), 1977–80, Volume 2: Second Division: Moed, Volume 3: Third Division: Nashim, Volume 4: Fourth Division: Neziqin, Volume 5: Fifth Division: Qodoshim, Volume 6: Sixth Division: Tohorot.

The Glory of God Is Intelligence: Four Lectures on the Role of Intellect in Judaism, Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University (Logan, UT), 1978.

A History of the Mishnaic Law of Holy Things, Brill (Boston, MA), 1979, Volume 1: Zebahim, Volume 2: Menahot, Volume 3: Hullin, Bekhorot, Volume 4: Arakhin, Temurah, Volume 5: Keritot, Meilah, Tamid, Middot, Qinnim, Volume 6: The Mishnaic System of Sacrifice and Sanctuary.

A History of the Mishnaic Law of Women, Brill (Boston, MA), Volume 1: Yebamot, 1979, Volume 2: Ketubot, 1979, Volume 3: Nedarim, Nazir, 1979, Volume 4: Sotah, Gittin, Qiddushin, 1980, Volume 5: The Mishnaic System of Women, 1980.

Method and Meaning in Ancient Judaism (essays), Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), first series, 1979, second series, 1980, third series, 1980.

Stranger at Home: Zionism, "The Holocaust," and American Judaism (essays), University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1980.

Form-Analysis and Exegesis: A Fresh Approach to the Interpretation of Mishnah, University of Minnesota Press (Minneapolis, MN), 1980.

A History of the Mishnaic Law of Appointed Times, Brill (Boston, MA), 1981–83, Volume 1: Shabbat, Volume 2: Erubin, Pesahim, Volume 3: Sheqalim, Yoma, Sukkah, Volume 4: Besah, Rosh Hashshanah, Taanit, Megillah, Moed Qatan, Hagigah, Volume 5: The Mishnaic System of Appointed Times.

Judaism: The Evidence of the Mishnah, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1981.

The Palestinian Talmud: A Preliminary Translation and Explanation, Volumes 27-34, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1981–84.

Judaism in the American Humanities (essays), Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1981, second series published as Judaism in the American Humanities: Jewish Learning and the New Humanities, 1983.

The Mishnah: A New American Translation, Yale University Press (New Haven, CT), 1982.

Formative Judaism: Religious, Historical, and Literary Studies, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), First Series, 1982, Second Series, 1983, Third Series: Torah, Pharisees, and Rabbis, 1983, Fourth Series: Problems of Classification and Composition, 1984, Fifth Series: Revisioning the Written Records of a Nascent Religion, 1985.

The Talmud of the Land of Israel: A Preliminary Translation and Explanation, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), Volume 33: Abodah Zarah, 1982, Volume 34: Horayyot; Niddah, 1982, Volume 32: Shebuot, 1983, Volume 35: Introduction, Taxonomy, 1983, Volume 36: Qiddushin, 1984, Volume 37: Sotah, 1984, Volume 38: Baba Qamma, 1984, Volume 39: Baba Mesia, 1984, Volume 30: Baba Batra, 1984, Volume 31: Sanhedrin; Makkot, 1984, Volume 22: Ketubot, 1985, Volume 23: Nedarim, 1985, Volume 24: Nazir, 1985, Volume 25: Gittin, 1985, Volume 20: Hagigah; Moed Qatan, 1986, Volume 21: Yebamot, 1986, Volume 9: Hallah, 1987, Volume 10: Orlah; Bikkurin, 1987, Volume 17: Sukkah, 1987, Volume 18: Besah; Taanit, 1987, Volume 19: Megillah, 1987, Volume 12: Erubin, 1988, Volume 14: Yoma, 1988, Volume 15: Sheqalim, 1988, Volume 11: Shabbat, 1989.

Judaism in Society: The Evidence of the Yerushalmi; Toward the Natural History of a Religion, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1983.

Ancient Israel after Catastrophe: The Religious World View of the Mishnah (contains the Richard Lectures of 1981–82), University Press of Virginia (Charlottesville, VA), 1983.

Torah from Our Sages: Pirke Avot; A New American Translation and Explanation, Rossel (Chappaqua, NY), 1983.

Judaism in the Beginning of Christianity, Fortress (Philadelphia, PA), 1983.

A History of the Mishnaic Law of Damages, Brill (Boston, MA), 1983–85, Volume 1: Baba Qamma, Volume 2: Baba Mesia, Volume 3: Baba Batra, Sanhedrin, Makkot, Volume 4: Shebuot, Eduyyot, Abodah Zarah, Abot, Horayyot, Volume 5: The Mishnaic System of Damages.

Major Trends in Formative Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), First Series: Society and Symbol in Political Crisis, 1983, Second Series: Texts, Contents, and Contexts, 1984, Third Series: The Three Stages in the Formation of Judaism, 1985.

The Foundations of Judaism: Method, Teleology, Doctrine (also see below), Fortress (Philadelphia, PA), 1983–85, Volume 1: Midrash in Context: Exegesis in Formative Judaism, Volume 2: Messiah in Context: Israel's History and Destiny in Formative Judaism, Volume 3: Torah: From Scroll to Symbol in Formative Judaism.

The Talmud of Babylonia: An American Translation, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1984–85, Volume 1: Berakhot, Volume 6: Sukkah, Volume 13A: Sanhedrin I-III, Volume 13B: Sanhedrin IV-VIII, Volume 13C: Sanhedrin IX-XI, Volume 32: Arakhin.

From Mishnah to Scripture: The Problem of the Unattributed Saying (reprise and reworking of materials in A History of the Mishnaic Law of Purities), Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1984.

Our Sages, God, and Israel: An Anthology of the Yerushalmi, Rossel (Chappaqua, NY), 1984.

The Jewish War against the Jews: Reflections on Golah, Shoah, and Torah, Ktav (New York, NY), 1984.

How to Grade Your Professors and Other Unexpected Advice, Beacon Press (Boston, MA), 1984.

In Search of Talmudic Biography: The Problem of the Attributed Saying (reprise and reworking of materials in Eliezer ben Hyrcanus: The Tradition and the Man), Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1984.

Das pharisaeische und talmudische Judentum, edited by Hermann Lichtenberger, foreword by Martin Hengel, J. C. B. Mohr (Tübingen, Germany), 1984.

Ancient Judaism: Disputes and Debates, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1984.

The Peripatetic Saying: The Problem of the Thrice-Told Tale in Talmudic Literature (reprise and reworking of materials in Development of a Legend: Studies on the Traditions Concerning Yohanan ben Zakkai and The Rabbinic Traditions about the Pharisees before 70, Volumes 1-3), Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1985.

The Memorized Torah: The Mnemonic System of the Mishnah (reprise and reworking of materials in The Rabbinic Traditions about the Pharisees before 70, Volume 1 and 3, and A History of the Mishnaic Law of Purities, Volume 21), Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1985.

Genesis Rabbah: The Judaic Commentary on Genesis; A New American Translation, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1985, Volume 1: Parashiyyot One through Thirty-three; Genesis 1:1-8:14, Volume 2: Parashiyyot Thirty-four through Sixty-seven; Genesis 8:15-28:9, Volume 3: Parashiyyot Sixty-eight through One Hundred; Genesis 28:10-50:26.

Sifra: The Judaic Commentary on Leviticus; A New Translation; The Leper; Leviticus 13:1-14:57 (based on the translation of Sifra Parashiyyot Negaim and Mesora in A History of the Mishnaic Law of Purities, Volume 7: Nagaim; Sifra), Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1985.

Israel in America: A Too-Comfortable Exile?, Beacon Press (Boston, MA), 1985.

The Public Side of Learning: The Political Consequences of Scholarship in the Context of Judaism (part of the "Studies in Religion" series), Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1985.

The Integrity of Leviticus Rabbah: The Problem of the Autonomy of a Rabbinic Document, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1985.

The Oral Torah: The Sacred Books of Judaism: An Introduction, Harper (New York, NY), 1985.

The Pharisees: Rabbinic Perspectives (reprise of The Rabbinic Traditions about the Pharisees before 70, Volumes 1-3), Ktav (New York, NY), 1985.

Israel and Iran in Talmudic Times: A Political History (reprise of materials in A History of the Jews in Babylonia, Volumes 2-5), University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 1986.

Genesis and Judaism: The Perspective of Genesis Rabbah; An Analytical Anthology, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1986.

Judaism, Christianity, and Zoroastrianism in Talmudic Babylonia (reprise of materials in A History of the Jews in Babylonia, Volumes 2-5), University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 1986.

Israel's Politics in Sasanian Iran: Jewish Self-Government in Talmudic Times (reprise of materials in A History of the Jews in Babylonia, Volumes 2-5), University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 1986.

Comparative Midrash: The Plan and Program of Genesis Rabbah and Leviticus Rabbah, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1986.

Reading and Believing: Ancient Judaism and Contemporary Gullibility, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1986.

Judaism and Scripture: The Evidence of Leviticus Rabbah, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1986.

Judaism: The Classical Statement; The Evidence of the Bavli, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1986.

The Tosefta: Its Structure and Its Sources (reprise of the results in Purities, Volumes 1-21), Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1986.

Vanquished Nation, Broken Spirit: The Virtues of the Heart in Formative Judaism, Cambridge University Press (New York, NY), 1986.

Judaism in the Matrix of Christianity, Fortress (Philadelphia, PA), 1986.

Sifre to Numbers: An American Translation, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), Volume 1: 1-58, 1986, Volume 2: 59-115, 1986.

The Fathers According to Rabbi Nathan: An Analytical Translation and Explanation, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1986.

Understanding Seeking Faith: Essays on the Case of Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), Volume 1: Debates on Method, Reports of Results, 1986, Volume 2: Literature, Religion, and the Social Study of Judaism, 1987.

Pesiqta deRab Kahana: An Analytical Translation and Explanation, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), Volume 1: 1-14, 1986, Volume 2: 15-28; With an Introduction to Pesiqta deRab Kahana, 1987.

Canon and Connection: Intertextuality in Judaism, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 1986.

Ancient Judaism and Modern Category-Formation: "Judaism, Messianism," and Canon in the Past Quarter-Century, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 1986.

The Religious Study of Judaism: Description, Analysis, Interpretation, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), Volume 1, 1986, Volume 2: The Centrality of Context, 1986, Volume 3: Context, Text, and Circumstance, 1987.

Midrash as Literature: The Primacy of Documentary Discourse, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 1987.

The Wonder-Working Lawyers of Talmudic Babylonia: The Theory and Practice of Judaism in Its Formative Age (reprise of materials in A History of the Jews in Babylonia, Volumes 2-4), University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 1987.

From Description to Conviction: Essays on the History and Theology of Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1987.

Christian Faith and the Bible of Judaism, Eerdmans (Grand Rapids, MI), 1987.

Reading Scriptures: An Introduction to Rabbinic Midrash; With Special Reference to Genesis Rabbah, Rossel (Chappaqua, NY), 1987.

From Testament to Torah: An Introduction to Judaism in Its Formative Age, Prentice-Hall (New York, NY), 1987.

School, Court, Public Administration: Judaism and Its Institutions in Talmudic Babylonia (reprise of materials in A History of the Jews in Babylonia, Volumes 3-5), Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1987.

Judaism and Christianity in the Age of Constantine: History, Messiah, Israel, and the Initial Confrontation, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1987.

The Death and Birth of Judaism: The Impact of Christianity, Secularism, and the Holocaust on Jewish Faith, Basic Books (New York, NY), 1987.

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: Exile and Return in the History of Judaism, Beacon Press (Boston, MA), 1987.

Enchantments of Judaism: Rites of Transformation from Birth through Death, Basic Books (New York, NY), 1987.

Oral Tradition in Judaism: The Case of the Mishnah, Garland (New York, NY), 1987.

Scriptures from the Oral Torah: Sanctification and Salvation in the Sacred Books of Judaism, Harper (New York, NY), 1987.

The Mishnah: A New Translation, Yale University Press (New Haven, CT), 1987.

The Mishnah before 70 (reprise of pertinent results of A History of the Mishnah Law of Purities, Volumes 3, 5, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 17, and 18), Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1987.

From Tradition to Imitation: The Plan and Program of Pesiqta deRab Kahana and Pesiqta Rabbati, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1987.

The Bavli and Its Sources: The Question of Tradition in the Case of Tractate Sukkah, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1987.

Judaism without Christianity (abbreviated version of Judaism: The Evidence of the Mishnah), University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1987.

The Foundations of Judaism (abridged edition of the trilogy titled The Foundations of Judaism: Method, Teleology, Doctrine), Fortress (Philadelphia, PA), 1987.

The Incarnation of God: The Character of Divinity in Formative Judaism, Fortress (Philadelphia, PA), 1988.

What Is Midrash?, Fortress (Philadelphia, PA), 1988.

Invitation to Midrash: The Working of Rabbinic Bible Interpretation; A Teaching Book, Harper (New York, NY), 1988.

Judaism and Story: The Evidence of the Fathers According to Rabbi Nathan, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1988.

(With Calvin Goldscheider) The Social Foundations of Modern Judaism, Prentice-Hall (New York, NY), 1988.

Why No Gospels in Talmudic Judaism?, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1988.

Struggle for the Jewish Mind: Debates and Disputes on Judaism Then and Now, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 1988.

Mekhilta According to Rabbi Ishmael: An Introduction to Judaism's First Scriptural Encyclopaedia, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1988.

Sifra in Perspective: The Documentary Comparison of the Midrashim of Ancient Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1988.

Messiah in Context: Israel's History and Destiny in Formative Judaism, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 1988.

The Systemic Analysis of Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1988.

The Formation of the Jewish Intellect: Making Connections and Drawing Conclusions in the Traditional System of Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1988.

Torah: From Scroll to Symbol in Formative Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1988.

Uniting the Dual Torah: Sifra and Problem of the Mishnah, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1988.

Paradigms in Passage: Patterns of Change in the Contemporary Study of Judaism, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 1988.

Midrash in Context: Exegesis in Formative Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1988.

Wrong Ways and Right Ways in the Study of Formative Judaism: Critical Method and Literature, History, and the History of Religion, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1988.

A Religion of Pots and Pans?: Modes of Philosophical and Theological Discourse in Ancient Judaism: Essays and a Program (essays), Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1988.

The Social Study of Judaism: Essays and Reflections (essays), Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1988.

The Midrash Compilations of the Sixth and Seventh Centuries: An Introduction to the Rhetorical, Logical, and Topical Program, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1989.

The Mishnah: An Introduction, Jason Aronson (Northvale, NJ), 1989.

Writing with Scripture: The Authority and Uses of the Hebrew Bible in the Torah of Formative Judaism, Fortress (Philadelphia, PA), 1989.

Medium and Message in Judaism. First Series, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1989.

The Religious World of Contemporary Judaism: Observations and Convictions, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1989.

Who, Where, and What Is "Israel"?: Zionist Perspectives on Israeli and American Judaism, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 1989.

Judaism and Its Social Metaphors: Israel in the History of Jewish Thought, Cambridge University Press (New York, NY, 1989.

The Philosophical Mishnah, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1989.

Translating the Classics of Judaism: In Theory and in Practice, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1989.

The Ecology of Religion: From Writing to Religion in the Study of Judaism, Abingdon (Nashville, TN), 1989.

Making the Classics in Judaism: The Three States of Literary Formation, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1989.

A Midrash Reader, Fortress (Philadelphia, PA), 1990.

Torah through the Ages: A Short History of Judaism, SCM Press (London, England), 1990.

The Midrash: An Introduction, Jason Aronson (Northvale, NJ), 1990.

The Economics of the Mishnah, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1990.

Tzedakah: Can Jewish Philanthropy Buy Jewish Survival?, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1990.

The Formation of Judaism: In Retrospect and Prospect, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1990.

Controversies in the Study of Judaic Religion and Theology, Garland (New York, NY), 1990.

Lectures on Judaism in the Academy and in the Humanities, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1990.

Lectures on Judaism in the History of Religions, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1990.

Language as Taxonomy: The Rules for Using Hebrew and Aramaic in the Babylonian Talmud, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1990.

The Canonical History of Ideas: The Place of the So-Called Tannaite Midrashim: Mekhilta Attributed to R. Ishmael, Sifra, Sifre to Numbers, and Sifre to Deuteronomy, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1990.

Tradition as Selectivity: Scripture, Mishnah, Tosefta, and Midrash in the Talmud of Babylonia: The Case of Tractate Arakhin, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1990.

The Rules of Composition of the Talmud of Babylonia: The Cogency of the Bavli's Composite, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1991.

The Bavli's One Voice: Types and Forms of Analytical Discourse and Their Fixed Order of Appearance, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1991.

The Twentieth Century Construction of "Judaism": Essays on the Religion of Torah in the History of Religion, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1991.

How the Talmud Shaped Rabbinic Discourse, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1991.

The Discourse of the Bavli: Language, Literature, and Symbolism: Five Recent Findings, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1991.

The Bavli that Might Have Been: The Tosefta's Theory of Mishnah Commentary Compared with the Bavli's, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1991.

The Talmud: A Close Encounter, Fortress (Philadelphia, PA), 1991.

Judaism as Philosophy: The Method and Message of the Mishnah, University of South Carolina (Columbia, SC), 1991.

Symbol and Theology in Early Judaism, Fortress (Philadelphia, PA), 1991.

Studying Classical Judaism: A Primer, Westminster/John Knox Press (Louisville, KY), 1991.

The Yerushalmi—the Talmud of the Land of Israel: An Introduction, Jason Aronson (Northvale, NJ), 1991.

An Introduction to Judaism: A Textbook and Reader, Westminster/John Knox Press (Louisville, KY), 1991.

Jews and Christians: The Myth of a Common Tradition, Trinity (Philadelphia, PA), 1991.

The Bavli's One Statement: The Metapropositional Program of Babylonian Talmud Tractate Zebahim Chapters One and Five, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1991.

The City of God in Judaism: And Other Comparative and Methodological Studies, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1991.

Rabbinic Political Theory: Religion and Politics in the Mishnah, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1991.

Talmudic Thinking: Language, Logic, Law, University of South Carolina (Columbia, SC), 1992.

The Bavli's Primary Discourse: Mishnah Commentary: Its Rhetorical Paradigms and Their Theological Implications in the Talmud of Babylonia, Tractate Moed Qatan, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

Sources of the Transformation of Judaism: From Philosophy to Religion in the Classics of Judaism: A Reader, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

The Mishnah: Introduction and Reader, Trinity (Philadelphia, PA), 1992.

A Short History of Judaism: Three Meals, Three Epochs, Fortress (Philadelphia, PA), 1992.

How to Study the Bavli: The Languages, Literatures, and Lessons of the Talmud of Babylonia, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

The Transformation of Judaism: From Philosophy to Religion, University of Illinois (Champaign, IL), 1992.

The Law behind the Laws: The Bavli's Essential Discourse, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

The Principal Parts of the Bavli's Discourse: A Preliminary Taxonomy: Mishnah Commentary, Sources, Traditions, and Agglutinative Miscellanies, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

The Tosefta: An Introduction, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

Sources and Traditions: Types of Compositions in the Talmud of Babylonia, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

The Bavli: An Introduction, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

Decoding the Talmud's Exegetical Program: From Detail to Principle in the Bavli's Quest for Generalization: Babylonian Talmud Tractate Shabbat, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

The Bavli's Massive Miscellanies; The Problem of Agglutinative Discourse in the Talmud of Babylonia, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

Form-Analytical Comparison in Rabbinic Judaism: Structure and Form in "The Fathers" and "The Fathers According to Rabbi Nathan," Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

The Bavli's Intellectual Character: The Generative Problematic: In Bavli Baba Qamma Chapter One and Bavli Shabbat Chapter One, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

The Foundations of the Theology of Judaism, Jason Aronson (Northvale, NJ), 1992.

Writing with Scripture: The Authority and Uses of the Hebrew Bible in the Torah of Formative Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1993.

Are There Really Tannaitic Parallels to the Gospels?: A Refutation of Morton Smith, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1993.

Foundations of Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1993.

Judaism States its Theology: The Talmudic Representation, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1993.

Abo Addresses: And Other Recent Essays on Judaism in Time and Eternity, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1993.

Judaic Law from Jesus to the Mishnah: A Systematic Reply to Professor E. P. Sanders, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1993.

Telling Tales: Making Sense of Christian and Judaic Nonsense: The Urgency and Basis for Judeo-Christian Dialogue, Westminster/John Knox Press (Louisville, KY), 1993.

Stranger at Home: "The Holocaust," Zionism, and American Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1993.

The Torah in the Talmud: A Taxonomy of the Uses of Scripture in the Talmud: Tractate Qiddushin in the Talmud of Babylonia and the Talmud, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1993.

Androgynous Judaism: Masculine and Feminine in the Dual Torah, Mercer University Press (Macon, GA), 1993.

Israel's Love Affair with God: Song of Songs, Trinity (Philadelphia, PA), 1993.

The Mother of the Messiah in Judaism: The Book of Ruth, Trinity (Philadelphia, PA), 1993.

Judaism and Zoroastrianism at the Dusk of Late Antiquity: How Two Ancient Faiths Wrote Down Their Great Traditions, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1993.

Conservative, American, and Jewish: I Wouldn't Have it Any Other Way, Huntington (Lafayette, IN), 1993.

The Bavli's Unique Voice: A Systematic Comparison of the Talmud of Babylonia and the Talmud of the Land of Israel, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1993.

Rabbinic Literature and the New Testament: What We Cannot Show, We Do Not Know, Trinity (Philadelphia, PA), 1994.

Scripture and Midrash in Judaism, Peter Lang (New York, NY), 1994.

Fortress Introduction to American Judaism: What the Books Say, What the People Do, Fortress (Philadelphia, PA), 1994.

A Rabbi Talks with Jesus: An Intermillennial, Interfaith Exchange, Image (New York, NY), 1994.

Rabbinic Judaism: Disputes and Debates: First Series, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1994.

The Judaism behind the Texts—The Generative Premises of Rabbinic Literature. II, Tosefta, Tractate Abot, and Earlier Midrash Compilations: Sifra, Sifre to Numbers, and Sifre to Deuteronomy, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1994.

The Judaism behind the Texts—The Generative Premises of Rabbinic Literature. III, The Later Midrash Compilations: Genesis Rabbah, Leviticus Rabbah, and Pesiqta deRab Kahana, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1994.

The Judaism behind the Texts—The Generative Premises of Rabbinic Literature. IV, The Latest Midrash Compilations, Song of Songs Rabbah, Ruth Rabbah, Esther Rabbah I, and Lamentations Rabbati and the Fathers According to Rabbi Nathan, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1994.

The Judaism behind the Texts—The Generative Premises of Rabbinic Literature. V, The Talmuds of the Land of Israel and of Babylonia, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1994.

From Text to Historical Context in Rabbinic Judaism: Historical Facts in Systemic Documents, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1994.

Introduction to Rabbinic Literature, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1994.

Purity in Rabbinic Judaism: A Systematic Account: The Sources, Media, Effects, and Removal of Uncleanness, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1994.

The Judaism the Rabbis Take for Granted, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1994.

Why There Never Was a "Talmud of Caesarea": Saul Lieberman's Mistakes, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1994.

Rabbinic Judaism: The Documentary History of its Formative Age, 70-600 C.E., CDL (Bethesda, MD), 1994.

The Classics of Judaism: A Textbook and Reader, Westminster/John Knox Press (Louisville, KY), 1995.

Judaism after the Death of "The Death of God," Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1995.

Judaism's Theological Voice: The Melody of the Talmud, University of Chicago (Chicago, IL), 1995.

Children of the Flesh, Children of the Promise: A Rabbi Talks with Paul, Pilgrim (Cleveland, OH), 1995.

The Talmud: Introduction and Reader, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1995.

(With Bruce D. Chilton) Revelation: The Torah and the Bible, Trinity (Philadelphia, PA), 1995.

Talmudic Dialectics, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1995.

Are the Talmuds Interchangeable?: Christine Hayes's Blunder, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1995.

The Talmud of the Land of Israel: A Complete Outline of the Second, Third, and Fourth Divisions. II, The Division of Women, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1995.

Judaism in Modern Times: An Introduction and Reader, Blackwell (Malden, MA), 1995.

(With Bruce D. Chilton) Judaism in the New Testament: Practices and Beliefs, Routledge (New York, NY), 1995.

The Talmud of Babylonia: A Complete Outline, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1995.

Israel after Calamity: The Book of Lamentations, Trinity (Philadelphia, PA), 1995.

Where the Talmud Comes From: A Talmudic Phenomenology: Identifying the Free-Standing Building Blocks of Talmudic Discourse, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1995.

The Initial Phases of the Talmud's Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1995.

The Documentary Foundation of Rabbinic Culture: Mopping Up after Debates with Gerald L. Bruns, S. J. D. Cohen, Arnold Maria Goldberg, Susan Handelman, Christine Hayes, James Kugel, Peter Schaefer, Eliezer Segal, E. P. Sanders, and Lawrence H. Schiffman, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1995.

(With Noah M. M. Neusner) The Price of Excellence: Universities in Conflict During the Cold War Era, Continuum (New York, NY), 1995.

Rabbinic Judaism: Structure and System, Fortress (Philadelphia, PA), 1995.

The Presence of the Past, the Pastness of the Present: History, Time, and Paradigm in Rabbinic Judaism, CDL (Bethesda, MD), 1996.

Uppsala Addresses, and Other Recent Essays and Reviews on Judaism Then and Now (essays), Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1996.

(With Andrew M. Greeley) Common Ground: A Priest and a Rabbi Read Scripture Together, Pilgrim (Cleveland, OH), 1996.

Religion and Law: How Through Halakhah Judaism Sets Forth Its Theology and Philosophy, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1996.

The Talmud of the Land of Israel: A Complete Outline of the Second, Third, and Fourth Divisions. I, The Division of Appointed Times; III, The Division of Damages, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1996.

(With Bruce D. Chilton) Trading Places: The Intersecting Histories of Judaism and Christianity, Pilgrim (Cleveland, OH), 1996.

(With Bruce D. Chilton) The Body of Faith: Israel and the Church, Trinity (Philadelphia, PA), 1996.

The Talmud of Babylonia: An Academic Commentary, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1996.

The Two Talmuds Compared, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1996.

Rationality and Structure: The Bavli's Anomalous Juxtapositions, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1997.

The Theology of Rabbinic Judaism: Prolegomenon, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1997.

The Components of the Rabbinic Documents: From the Whole to the Parts, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1997.

Ancient Judaism: Religious and Theological Perspectives: First Series, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1997.

Jerusalem and Athens: The Congruity of Talmudic and Classical Philosophy, Brill (Boston, MA), 1997.

The Ecology of Religion: From Writing to Religion in the Study of Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1997.

The Mind of Classical Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1997.

(With Bruce D. Chilton) The Intellectual Foundations of Christian and Jewish Discourse: The Philosophy of Religious Argument, Routledge (New York, NY), 1997.

From Scripture to 70: The Pre-Rabbinic Beginnings, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1998.

How Adin Steinsaltz Misrepresents the Talmud: Four False Propositions from His "Reference Guide," Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1998.

How the Rabbis Liberated Women, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1998.

Jewish-Christian Debates: God, Kingdom, Messiah, Fortress (Philadelphia, PA), 1998.

Jewish Law from Moses to the Mishnah: The Hiram College Lectures on Religion for 1999 and Other Papers, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1998.

Messages to Moscow and Other Current Lectures on Learning and Community in Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1998.

The Place of the Tosefta in the Halakhah of Formative Judaism: What Alberdina Houtman Didn't Notice, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1998.

What, Exactly, Did the Rabbinic Sages Mean by "The Oral Torah": An Inductive Answer to the Question of Rabbinic Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1998.

(With Bruce D. Chilton) Types of Authority in Formative Christianity and Judaism, Routledge (New York, NY), 1999.

(With Bruce D. Chilton) Comparing Spiritualities: Formative Christianity and Judaism on Finding Life and Meeting Death, Trinity (Philadelphia, PA), 2000.

(With son Noam M. M. Neusner) Reaffirming Higher Education, Transaction, 2000.

The Emergence of Judaism: Jewish Religion in Response to the Critical Issues of the First Six Centuries, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 2000.

The Halakhah: An Encyclopedia of the Law of Judaism, Brill (Boston, MA), 2000.

If Ideas Mattered: The Intellectual Crisis of American Judaism, Joseph Slifka Center for Jewish Life at Yale, 2000.

Jewish and Christian Doctrines: The Classics Compared, Routledge (New York, NY), 2000.

Judaism's Story of Creation: Scripture, Halakhah, Aggadah, Brill (Boston, MA), 2000.

The Native Category—Formations of the Aggadah, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 2000.

Recovering Judaism: The Universal Dimension of Jewish Religion, Fortress (Philadelphia, PA), 2001.

The Aggadic Role in Halakhic Discourse, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 2001.

The Halakhah and the Aggadah: Theological Perspectives, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 2001.

Dual Discourse, Single Judaism: The Category-Formations of the Halakah and the Aggadah Defined, Compared, and Contrasted, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 2001.

The Hermeneutics of the Rabbinic Category-Formations: An Introduction, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 2001.

The Life of Virtue: What Do We Owe Ourselves?, Wadsworth/Thompson (Belmont, CA), 2001.

Making an Honest Living: What Do We Owe the Community?, Wadsworth (Belmont, CA), 2001.

A Theological Commentary to the Midrash, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 2001.

The Unity of Rabbinic Discourse, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 2001.

Extra-and Non-Documentary Writing in the Canon of Formative Judaism, Global Publications (Binghamton, NY), 2001.

The Reader's Guide to the Talmud, Brill (Boston, MA), 2001.

The Social Teaching of Rabbinic Judaism, Brill (Boston, MA), 2001.

The Theology of the Halakhah, Brill (Boston, MA), 2001.

(With Bruce A. Chilton and Craig Evans) The Missing Jesus: Rabbinic Judaism and the New Testament, Brill (Boston, MA), 2002.

The Halakhah: Historical and Religious Perspectives, Brill (Boston, MA), 2002.

Handbook of Rabbinic Theology: Language, System, Structure, Brill (Boston, MA), 2002.

How the Talmud Works, Brill (Boston, MA), 2002.

Judaism: An Introduction, Penguin (London, England), 2002.

Judaism when Christianity Began: A Survey of Belief and Practice, Westminster John Knox Press (Louisville, KY), 2002.

Rabbinic Judaism: The Theological System, Brill (Boston, MA), 2002.

Rabbinic Judaism's Generative Logic, Global Publicatins (Binghamton, NY), 2002.

Talmud Torah: Ways to God's Presence through Learning: An Exercise in Practical Theology, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 2002.

Texts without Boundaries: Protocols of Non-Documentary Writing in the Rabbinic Cannon, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 2002.

(With Bruce Chilton and William Graham) Three Faiths, One God: The Formative Faith and Practice of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, Brill Academic Publishers (Boston, MA), 2002.

Three Questions of Formative Judaism: History, Literature and Religion, Brill (Boston, MA), 2002.

Understanding the Talmud: A Dialogic Approach, KTAV Publishing House (Hoboken, NJ), 2002.

Analysis and Argumentation in Rabbinic Judaism, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 2003.

Halakhic Hermeneutics, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 2003.

The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism, Brill (Boston, MA), 2003.

Neusner on Judaism, three volumes, Ashgate (Burlington, VT), 2003.

The Perfect Torah, Brill (Boston, MA), 2003.

Rabbinic Narrative: A Documentary Perspective, Brill (Boston, MA), 2003.

(With Alan J. Avery-Peck) The Routledge Dictionary of Judaism, Routledge (New York, NY), 2003.

The Torah and the Halakhah: The Four Relationships, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 2003.

Why This, Not That?: Ways Not Taken in the Halakhic Category-Formations of the Mishnah-Tosefta-Yerushalmi-Bavli, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 2003.

Making God's Word Work: A Guide to the Mishnah, Continuum (New York, NY), 2004.

CHILDREN'S TEXTBOOKS

Learn Mishnah, Behrman (New York, NY), 1978.

Learn Talmud, Behrman (New York, NY), 1979.

Meet Our Sages, illustrated by Jim Hellmuth, Behrman (New York, NY), 1980.

Mitzvah, Rossel (Chappaqua, NY), 1981.

Tsedakah: Can Jewish Philanthropy Buy Jewish Survival?, Rossel (Chappaqua, NY), 1982.

EDITOR

Report of the 1965–1966 Seminar on Religions in Antiquity, Dartmouth College Comparative Studies Center, 1966.

Religions in Antiquity: Essays in Memory of Erwin Ramsdell Goodenough, Brill (Boston, MA), 1968.

The Formation of the Babylonian Talmud: Studies on the Achievements of Late Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Historical and Literary-Critical Research, Brill (Boston, MA), 1970.

Contemporary Judaic Fellowship: In Theory and in Practice, Ktav (New York, NY), 1972.

Understanding Jewish Theology: Classical Themes and Modern Perspectives, Ktav (New York, NY), 1973.

The Modern Study of the Mishnah, Brill (Boston, MA), 1973.

Soviet Views of Talmudic Judaism: Five Papers by Yu. A. Solodukho, Brill (Boston, MA), 1973.

The Life of Torah: Readings in the Jewish Religious Experience, Dickenson (Encino, CA), 1974.

Understanding Rabbinic Judaism: From Talmudic to Modern Times, Ktav (New York, NY), 1974.

Understanding American Judaism: Toward the Description of a Modern Religion, Ktav (New York, NY), 1975, Volume 1: The Synagogue and the Rabbi, Volume 2: The Sectors of American Judaism: Reform, Orthodoxy, Conservatism, and Reconstructionism.

(And contributor) Christianity, Judaism, and Other Greco-Roman Cults: Studies for Morton Smith at Sixty, Brill (Boston, MA), 1975, Volume 1: New Testament, Volume 2: Early Christianity, Volume 3: Judaism before 70, Volume 4: Judaism after 70: Other Greco-Roman Cults.

(With Martin Hengel and Peter Schaefer) Übersetzung des Talmud Yerushalmi, J. C. B. Mohr (Tübingen, Germany), 1980.

The Study of Ancient Judaism, Ktav (New York, NY), 1981, Volume 1: Mishnah, Midrash, Siddur, Volume 2: The Palestinian and Babylonian Talmuds.

Take Judaism, for Example: Studies toward the Comparison of Religions, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1983.

In the Margins of the Yerushalmi: Notes on the English Translation, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1983.

The New Humanities and Academic Disciplines: The Case of Jewish Studies, University of Wisconsin Press (Madison, WI), 1984.

(With Ernest S. Frerichs) "To See Others as Others See Us": Jews, Christians, "Others" in Late Antiquity, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1985.

(With Ernest S. Frerichs) Goodenough on History of Religion and on Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1986.

(With Richard S. Sarason) The Tosefta, Volume 1: First Division: Zeraim, Ktav (New York, NY), 1986.

(With Baruch A. Levine and Ernest S. Frerichs) Judaic Perspectives on Ancient Israel, Fortress (Philadelphia, PA), 1987.

(With William Scott Green and Ernest S. Frerichs) Judaisms and Their Messiahs in the Beginning of Christianity, Cambridge University Press (New York, NY), 1987.

Goodenough's Jewish Symbols: An Abridged Edition, Princeton University Press (Princeton, NJ), 1987.

(With Ernest S. Frerichs) Goodenough on History of Earliest Christanity, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1987.

(With Ernest S. Frerichs) New Perspectives on Ancient Judaism, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), Volume 1: Contents and Contexts in Judaic and Christian Interpretation, 1987, Volume 2: The Social Study of Formative Judaism, 1987.

The Social World of Formative Christianity and Judaism: Essays in Tribute to Howard Clark Kee, Fortress (Philadelphia, PA), 1988.

Religious Writings and Religious Systems: Systemic Analysis of Holy Books in Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Greco-Roman Religions, Ancient Israel, and Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1989.

(With Ernest S. Frerichs and Paul Virgils McCracken Flesher) Religion, Science, and Magic: In Concert and in Conflict, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1989.

(With Ernest S. Frerichs) Studies in the Ethnography and Literature of Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1989.

History of the Jews in the First Century of the Common Era, Garland (New York, NY), 1990.

History of the Jews in the Second through Seventh Centuries of the Common Era, Garland (New York, NY), 1990.

The Literature of Formative Judaism: The Targumim and Other Jewish Writings in Late Antiquity, Garland (New York, NY), 1990.

The Literature of Formative Judaism: Controversies on the Literature of Formative Judaism, Garland (New York, NY), 1990.

History of the Jews in the Second Century of the Common Era, Garland (New York, NY), 1990.

History of the Jews in the Second and First Centuries B.C., Garland (New York, NY), 1990.

Judaism and Christianity in the First Century, Garland (New York, NY), 1990.

The Literature of Formative Judaism: The Midrash-Compilations, Garland (New York, NY), 1990.

The Literature of Formative Judaism: The Mishnah and the Tosefta, Garland (New York, NY), 1990.

The Literature of Formative Judaism: The Talmuds, Garland (New York, NY), 1990.

The Christian and Judaic Invention of History, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1990.

The Pharisees and Other Sects, Garland (New York, NY), 1990.

Normative Judaism, Garland (New York, NY), 1990.

(With William Scott Green) Origins of Judaism: Religion, History, and Literature in Late Antiquity, Garland (New York, NY), 1990.

Religion, Literature, and Society in Ancient Israel, Formative Christianity and Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1990.

To Grow in Wisdom: An Anthology of Abraham Joshua Heschel, Madison Books (New York, NY), 1990.

Approaches to Ancient Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1990, new series, 1997.

Confronting Creation: How Judaism Reads Genesis: An Anthology of Genesis Rabbah, University of South Carolina (Columbia, SC), 1991.

The Study of Ancient Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

Classical Judaism: Torah, Learning, Virtue: An Anthology of the Mishnah, Talmud, and Midrash, Peter Lang (New York, NY), 1993.

The Alteration of Orthodoxy, Garland (New York, NY), 1993.

The Reformation of Reform Judaism, Garland (New York, NY), 1993.

The Academy and Traditions of Jewish Learning, Garland (New York, NY), 1993.

The Religious Renewal of Jewry, Garland (New York, NY), 1993.

The Challenge of America: Can Judaism Survive in Freedom? Garland (New York, NY), 1993.

Israel and Zion in American Judaism: The Zionist Fulfillment, Garland (New York, NY), 1993.

Judaism and Christianity: The New Relationship, Garland (New York, NY), 1993.

How Judaism Reads the Torah, Peter Lang (New York, NY), 1993.

In the Aftermath of the Holocaust, Garland (New York, NY), 1993.

The Rabbinate in America: Reshaping an Ancient Calling, Garland (New York, NY), 1993.

Conserving Conservative Judaism: Reconstructionist Judaism, Garland (New York, NY), 1993.

World Religions in America: An Introduction (essays), Westminster/John Knox Press (Louisville, KY), 1994, third edition, 2003.

Judaism in Late Antiquity, Brill (Boston, MA), 1995.

The Talmudic Anthology in Three Volumes, Peter Lang (New York, NY), 1995.

Judaism Transcends Catastrophe: God, Torah, and Israel beyond the Holocaust, Mercer University (Macon, GA), 1995.

(With William Scott Green) The Religion Factor: An Introduction to How Religion Matters, Westminster/John Knox (Louisville, KY), 1996.

The Book of Jewish Wisdom: The Talmud of the Well-Considered Life, Continuum (New York, NY), 1996.

Religion and the Political Order: Politics in Classical and Contemporary Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1996.

(With William Scott Green) Dictionary of Judaism in the Biblical Period: 450 B.C.E. to 600 C.E., Macmillan (New York, NY), 1996.

Beyond Catastrophe: The Rabbis' Reading of Isaiah's Vision: Israelite Messiah-Prophecies in Formative Judaism: An Anthology of Pesiqta deRab Kahana for the Seven Sabbaths after the Ninth of Ab, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1996.

God, Pilgrim (Cleveland, OH), 1997.

Forging a Common Future: Catholic, Judaic, and Protestant Relations for a New Millennium, Pilgrim (Cleveland, OH), 1997.

Evil and Suffering, Pilgrim (Cleveland, OH), 1998.

Sacred Texts and Authority, Pilgrim (Cleveland, OH), 1998.

Signposts on the Way of Torah, Wadsworth Publishing (Belmont, CA), 1998.

Women and Families, Pilgrim (Cleveland, OH), 1999.

(With Alan J. Avery-Peck) The Blackwell Companion to Judaism, Blackwell (Malden, MA), 2000.

(With Alan J. Avery-Peck) The Blackwell Reader in Judaism, Blackwell (Malden, MA), 2000.

Death and the Afterlife, Pilgrim (Cleveland, OH), 2000.

(Coeditor) Judaism and Islam in Practice: A Sourcebook, Routledge (New York, NY), 2000.

The Ethics of Family Life: What Do We Owe One Another?, Wadsworth/Thompson (Belmont, CA), 2001.

The 2001 Mathers Lecture, the 2001 Rosen Lecture, and Other Queen's University Essays in the Study of Judaism, Global Publications (Binghamton, NY), 2001.

(With Bruce D. Chilton) The Brother of Jesus: James the Just and His Mission, Westminster/John Knox Press (Louisville, KY), 2001.

(With James F. Strange) Religious Texts and Material Contexts, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 2001.

Marvin Fox, Collected Essays on Philosophy and on Judaism, Global Publications (Binghamton, NY), 2001–.

(With Alan J. Avery-Peck) The Mishnah in Contemporary Perspective, Brill (Boston, MA), 2002.

Dictionary of Ancient Rabbis: Selections from the Jewish Encyclopedia, Hendrickson Publishers (Peabody, MA), 2003.

(With Alan J. Avery-Peck) George W. E. Nickelsburg in Perspective: An Ongoing Dialogue of Learning, Volumes 1-2, Brill (Boston, MA), 2003.

God's Rule: The Politics of World Religions (essays), Georgetown University Press (Washington, DC), 2003.

Collected Essays on Philosophy and on Judaism, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 2003.

(With Daniel Harrington and Alan J. Avery-Peck) When Judaism and Christianity Began: Essays in Memory of Anthony J. Saldarini, Brill (Boston, MA), 2004.

Also editor, with Geza Vermes, of "Essays in Honor of Yigael Yadin" contained in a special issue of Journal of Jewish Studies, 1982.

TRANSLATOR

Mekhilta According to Rabbi Ishmael: An Analytical Translation, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1988.

Sifra: An Analytical Translation, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1988.

Sukkah: A Preliminary Translation and Explanation, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1988.

Esther Rabbah I: An Analytical Translation, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1989.

Ruth Rabbah: An Analytical Translation, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1989.

Lamentations Rabbah: An Analytical Translation, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1989.

Song of Songs Rabbah: An Analytical Translation, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1989.

Temurah, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1990.

The Tosefta, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1990, published with new introduction, Hendrickson Publishers (Peabody, MA), 2002.

Tractate Bekhorot, Chapters 1-4, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1990.

Tractate Bekhorot, Chapters 5-9, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1990.

Tractate Niddah, Chapters 4-10, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1990.

Tractate Bava Mesia, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1990.

Tractate Niddah, Chapters 1-3, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1990.

Tohorot: (The Order of Purities), Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1990.

Hallah, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1991.

Orlah and Bikkurim, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1991.

Tractate Abodah Zarah, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1991.

Tractate Zebahim, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1991.

Tractate Menahot, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1991.

Sheqalim, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1991.

Erubin, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1991.

Tractate Keritot, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1991.

Tractate Makkot, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1991.

Tractate Moed Qatan, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

Tractate Yebamot, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

Tractate Baba Batra, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

Erubin, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

Qiddushin, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

Tractate Shebuot, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

Shabbat, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

Gittin, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

Tractate Ketubot, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

Tractate Nedarim, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

Tractate Baba Qamma, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1992.

Hagigah, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1993.

Pesahim, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1993.

Yoma, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1994.

The Judaic Law of Baptism: Tractate Miqvaot in the Mishnah and the Tosefta: A Form-Analytical Translation and Commentary and a Legal and Religious History, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1995.

The Tosefta: Fifth Division, Qodoshim, the Order of Holy Things, Scholars Press (Atlanta, GA), 1997.

OTHER

Author of foreword for Memory and Manuscript: Oral Tradition and Written Transmission in Rabbinic Judaism and Early Christianity: With, Tradition and Transmission in Early Christianity, Dove, 1998. Contributor to books, including Modern Jewish Educational Thought, edited by David Wienstein and Michael Yizhar, College of Jewish Studies Press, 1965; Ex Orbe Religionum: Studia Geo Widengren Oblata, [Lieden, Germany], 1972; Literatur und Religion des Fruhjudentums, edited by J. Maier and J. Schreiner, [Wurzburg, Germany], 1973; Haggut Ivrit ba Amerika: Studies on Jewish Themes by Contemporary American Scholars, edited by M. Zohori, A. Tartakover, and H. Ormian, Yavneh (Jerusalem, Israel), 1974; Hommages et Opera Minora: Monumentum H. S. Nyberg, [Lieden, Germany], 1975; The Jewish World, edited by Elie Kedourie, Thames & Hudson (London, England), 1979; Approaches to Ancient Judaism II, edited by William Green, Scholars Press, 1980. Also contributor to Encyclopaedia Britannica Yearbook, 1974–92, Cambridge History of Iran, 1981, Encyclopedia Judaica, and American Oxford Encyclopedia. Author of columns for Jewish Digest, 1955–59, and National Jewish Post and Opinion, 1983–89.

Coeditor, Yigael Yadin Festschrift, 1982. Founder and editor of "Studies in Judaism in Late Antiquity" monograph series, E. J. Brill, 1973–91; "Studies in Judaism in Modern Times" monograph series, E. J. Brill, 1975–91; "Library of Judaic Learning" textbook series, Ktav, 1975–89; "Brown Judaic Studies" monograph series, Scholars Press, 1976–90; "Chicago Studies in the History of Judaism" series, University of Chicago Press, 1980–88; "Classics of Judaic Learning" scholarly reprint series, University Press of America, 1984–91; "Brown Studies on Jews and Their Societies" series, Scholars Press, 1985–90; "Studies in Judaism," University Press of America, 1986–90; "New Perspectives on Ancient Judaism" series, University Press of America, 1987–90; "Brown Studies in Religion," Scholars Press, 1988–90; "International Studies in Formative Christianity and Judaism," Scholars Press, 1993–99; "USF Academic Commentary Series," 1994–99; "The Brill Reference Library of Judaism" 1999–; "Academic Studies in the History of Judaism," "Academic Studies in Religion and the Social Order," "International Studies in Formative Christianity and Judaism," and "Classics in Judaism" all Global Publications, 1999–2002; "Studies in Judaism," 1999–, and "Studies in Religion and Society," 2000–02, both Rowman & Littlefield/University Press of America. Founder and senior editor, International Studies in Formative Christianity and Judaism, Scholars Press, 1993–99. Organizer and editor, The Pilgrim Library of World Religions, 1995–2000; The Companion to Judaism and A Blackwell Reader in Judaism, Blackwells, 1996–2000; Comparing Religious Traditions, Wadsworth Publishing, 1997–2001; The Midrash: An Encyclopedia of Bible-Interpretation in Formative Judaism, E. J. Brill, 2003. Organizer and editor-in-chief, The Encyclopedia of Judaism, E. J. Brill, 1999; Dictionary of Religious Writings in Antiquity, 300 B.C.E. to 600 C.E., E. J. Brill, 2001–04; The Encyclopaedia of Judaism. Supplements One, Two, Three, E. J. Brill, 2000–04; "Classics of Judaic Studies," Global Scholarly Publications, 2002–.

Member of advisory or editorial boards for numerous publications, including The Second Century, 1980–92, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 1985–95, Religious Studies and Theology, 1985–92, Hebrew Studies, 1986–88, Oral Traditions, 1987–90, and Religion and Public Life, 1990–.

Contributor of more than one hundred articles and reviews to Commentary, New York Herald Tribune, London Jewish Chronicle, Journal of Jewish Studies, Judaism, and other general and scholarly journals. Contributing editor, Moment, beginning 1977, Reconstructionist, 1983–90, and Jewish Advocate (Boston, MA), beginning 1984.

Many of Neusner's works have been translated into other languages, including French, Italian, and Japanese. Judaism in the Beginning of Christianity has been translated into Dutch, French, German, Italian, and Norwegian.

SIDELIGHTS: The author of hundreds of books regarding Judaic and other religious studies, Jacob Neusner has been a remarkably prolific scholar whose works include several multi-volume studies, encyclopedias and dictionaries, textbooks for children and college students, books on comparative religious studies, and translations of important religious texts. Widely considered one of the most important experts on rabbinic Judaism of modern times, Neusner has helped explain the history and theological evolution of Judaism, compared it with other major faiths in the world, including Christianity, Islam, and even eastern philosophies such as Buddhism and Hinduism, and has championed the need for more open Jewish-Christian dialogue. As Robert J. Hutchinson noted in a Christianity Today article, Neusner "is a pre-eminent authority on Judaism in the first centuries of the Christian era when, after the fall of Jerusalem, the Jewish community gradually organized itself along the lines it exhibits to this day. He has translated into English virtually all the important works of rabbinic Judaism, including the entire texts of both the Palestinian and Babylonian Talmuds and many of the commentaries."

As a scholar of rabbinic Judaism, Neusner studies the major texts of Jewish law and religious thought, such as the Mishnah, written circa 200 C.E., the Palestinian Talmud, written around 400 C.E., and the Babylonian Talmud, which has been dated around 600 C.E. The detailed study of such documents is central to an understanding of rabbinic Judaism, which is distinct from Christianity and Islam because, as Wout J. van Bekkum explained in his Journal for the Study of Judaism review of The Four Stages of Rabbinic Judaism, it "produced and preserved neither the distinctive and singular record of a particular sage nor books about named sages. Christianity focused upon the deeds and teachings of Jesus Christ and Islam focused uniquely upon the teaching and recording of the verbatim revelation by God to the Prophet Muhammad; however, Rabbinic Judaism is a religion that we know from its own books alone." Therefore, Neusner believes that the evolution of Judaism can be discerned through the analysis of its major texts. From this, he has come to conclude that in ancient times there was more than one school of religious thought among the Jews.

As Daniel Boyarin wrote in a Journal of the American Oriental Society essay, "Neusner makes very dramatic and impressive claims for his research on the history of rabbinic thought. He believes that he has shown that there are two distinct Judaic systems, each comprising a theory of the social order made up of a worldview, way of life, and doctrine of the social entity ('Israel'); each system, or Judaism, is internally coherent, responding with an answer deemed self-evidently true to a question regarded as urgent and critical." One, the "philosophical system," is defined in the Tosefta and Mishna, the other, the "religious theory" system, in the Palestinian Talmud.

In later works, such as Judaism when Christianity Began: A Survey of Belief and Practice, Neusner also writes about the various forms of Judaism, noting, however, that while various minor schools of thought rooted in traditions contributed to the Jewish religion, a dominant form prevailed. Contrary to many scholars in the field, but similar to ideas put forth by George Foot Moore, Neusner feels that Judaism in antiquity was not as diverse as many have thought. Rather, as E. Carson Brisson explained in Interpretation, "For Neusner, the rabbinic Judaism that emerges by the third century C.E. constitutes the expression of a vision already present at Sinai; one that did not sustain much if any remarkable competition."

In addition to analysis of Judaism within its own literature and traditions, Neusner has frequently compared and contrasted Judaism with other major world religions, especially Christianity and Islam. For example, in Three Faiths, One God: The Formative Faith and Practice of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, the scholar offers a text that examines rabbinic writings, the Muslim texts of the Hadith and Qur'an, and the Christian New Testament, then analyzes how each compare in such areas as devotion to God, what followers believe their destiny is, and guidelines for appropriate lifestyles. "The results indicate many points of continuity and analogy among the three traditions," observed P. S. Spalding in a Choice review.

In other works, Neusner has compared Judaism with just one other religion. For instance, in Comparing Religions through Law: Judaism and Islam he comments on how these two religions are similar in how their faiths are defined in many ways upon law. Neusner remarks on both the differences and the similarities between the two, but it is his inclusion of the latter that most impressed critics such as Muslim World reviewer Ghada Talhami, who appreciated the publication of such a work at a time "when the heirs of these two civilizations are locked in a death grip of political frenzy and hatred." Talhami congratulated the author on producing a "rare book" that discusses Judaism and Islam when most comparative studies have focused on Judaism and Christianity.

But Neusner has also written many books concerning Judaism and Christianity, a number of them done in collaboration with New Testament scholar and Protestant priest Bruce D. Chilton and/or with liberal Roman Catholic author and sociologist Andrew M. Greeley. Neusner has felt that while many scholars and priests have given a great deal of lip service to the idea of open dialogue between Christians and Jews, very little open-minded discussion has actually taken place. Books such as Judaism in the New Testament: Practices and Beliefs, The Missing Jesus: Rabbinic Judaism and the New Testament, Jewish-Christian Debates: God, Kingdom, Messiah, and Common Ground: A Priest and a Rabbi Read Scripture Together try to rectify this. Reviewing Jewish-Christian Debates, Choice contributor S. H. Webb appreciated the text's usefulness as an introduction to both religions, as well as the fact that the authors "are not afraid to disagree with each other." While debaters find many points of contention, in Common Ground, as the title indicates, they find much that is similar between Christianity and Judaism. For example, in this work Neusner and Greeley agree "that the Bible is to be read as a love story between God and the People of God," as John Gillman explained in his Journal of Ecumenical Studies review.

Despite such concessions, however, Neusner remains a faithful Jew who believes that the teachings of Jesus diverge too much from God's laws as delivered by Moses, a point he makes clear in such books as A Rabbi Talks with Jesus: An Intermillenial, Interfaith Exchange, in which he argues that Jesus' claim that he had come to fulfill the prophecies of the Torah, not to rewrite its laws, is false because Jesus does, in fact, contradict those laws a number of times. Neusner further explains why these laws are important in the first place, and must therefore be observed. The usefulness of this exercise, noted a number of critics such as one Publishers Weekly reviewer, is in how it "will compel both Jews and Christians to look more deeply at the sources of their faith." Hutchinson added, "Neusner's book is valuable for Christians because, as an observant Jew, he is able to explain to Torah-illiterate Christians just what is at stake in seemingly innocuous statements of Jesus. He shows that based solely on what Jesus taught—leaving aside questions of miracles and the resurrection—Jesus is clearly announcing himself as far more than just another Jewish prophet." Hutchinson admired Neusner's frankness and willingness to debate issues with Christians, stating, "That is the only way sincere, serious people can really learn anything about one another."

BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:

PERIODICALS

Academic Questions, winter, 2000, Carol Iannone, "Books, Articles, and Items of Academic Interest," p. 90.

America, March 12, 1994, Daniel J. Harrington, review of A Rabbi Talks with Jesus: An Intermillennial, Interfaith Exchange, p. 19.

American Theological Review, fall, 2002, Ephraim Radner, review of Comparing Spiritualities: Formative Christianity and Judaism on Finding Life and Meeting Death, pp. 1020-1022.

Booklist, November 1, 1996, Steve Schroeder, review of The Religion Factor: An Introduction to How Religion Matters, p. 462; April 15, 2000, Deborah Rollins and Mary Ellen Quinn, review of The Encyclopedia of Judaism, p. 1570.

Catholic Biblical Quarterly, July, 2001, Arland D. Jacobson, review of Jewish and Christian Doctrines: The Classics Compared, p. 583; October, 2002, Steven Leonard Jacobs, review of The Halakhah: An Encyclopaedia of the Law of Judaism, pp. 742-744.

Choice, February, 1989, S. H. Levey, review of The Mishnah: A New Translation; March, 1989, A.-J. Levine, review of Judaisms and Their Messiahs at the Turn of the Christian Era; November, 1989, M. Scult, review of Judaism and Its Social Metaphors: Israel in the History of Jewish Thought; April, 1991, A. J. Avery-Peck, review of The Midrash: An Introduction; July, 1996, J. F. Biter, review of The Price of Excellence: Universities in Conflict during the Cold War Era; September, 1996, D. Kranzler, review of Dictionary of Judaism in the Biblical Period: 450 B.C.E. to 600 C.E.; November, 1998, S. H. Webb, review of Jewish-Christian Debates: God, Kingdom, Messiah; July, 2000, D. Kranzler, review of The Encyclopedia of Religion; October, 2000, J. E. Lindsay, review of Judaism and Islam in Practice: A Sourcebook, and T. M. Pucelik, review of Comparing Religions through Law: Judaism and Islam; June, 2001, J. S. Kaminsky, review of The Blackwell Companion to Judaism; June, 2002, Z. Garber, review of The Mishnah in Contemporary Perspective; October, 2003, N. R. Deutsch, review of The Missing Jesus: Rabbinic Judaism and the New Testament, and P. S. Spalding, review of Three Faiths, One God: The Formative Faith and Practice of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; February, 2004, C. H. Lippy, review of God's Rule: The Politics of World Religions.

Christian Century, October 18, 2003, Stephen Healey, "Politics and Piety," p. 45.

Christianity Today, September 13, 1993, Robert J. Hutchinson, "What the Rabbi Taught Me about Jesus," p. 27.

Clergy Journal, November-December, 2003, Donald E. and Rachel T. Keeney, "Books and Bytes: Religions and Religious Dialogue," pp. 42-44.

Dead Sea Discoveries, July, 2000, George J. Brooke, review of Judaism in Late Antiquity, Where We Stand: Issues and Debates in Ancient Judaism, pp. 259-261.

Ecumenical Review, January, 1995, Hans Ucko, review of Telling Tales: Making Sense of Christian and Judaic Nonsense, the Urgency and Basis for Judeo-Christian Dialogue, p. 108.

Ideas on Liberty, August, 2001, George C. Leef, review of Reaffirming Higher Education, p. 59.

Interpretation, July, 1993, Jack N. Lightstone, review of Judaism without Christianity: An Introduction to the System of the Mishnah, p. 319; July, 1999, Jeffrey S. Siker, review of Sacred Texts and Authority, p. 325; April, 2004, E. Carson Brisson, review of Judaism when Christianity Began, p. 192.

Journal for the Study of Judaism: In the Persian Hellenistic & Roman Period, August, 2000, Wout J. van Bekkum, review of The Four Stages of Rabbinic Judaism, pp. 338-340.

Journal of Ecumenical Studies, spring, 1998, John Charles Cooper, review of Forging a Common Future: Catholic, Judaic, and Protestant Relations for a New Millennium, p. 303; summer, 1998, Marilyn Salmon, review of Trading Places: The Intersecting Histories of Judaism and Christianity, p. 521, and John Gillman, review of Common Ground: A Priest and a Rabbi Read Scripture Together, p. 522; winter, 2000, Regina A. Boisclair, review of Judaism in the New Testament: Practices and Beliefs, p. 83; winter, 2001, Regina A. Boisclair, review of Dharma in the Hindu Scriptures and in the Bible & Sacred Texts and Authority, p. 112.

Journal of the American Oriental Society, July-September, 1992, Daniel Boyarin, "On the Status of the Tannaitic Midrashim," p. 455; January-March, 1996, Shaye J. D. Cohen, review of Are There Really Tannaitic Parallels to the Gospels?, p. 85.

Journal of Theological Studies, April, 1993, Hyam Maccoby, review of Uniting the Dual Torah: Sifra and the Problem of the Mishnah, p. 315; April, 2003, Marie E. Isaacs, review of The Brother of Jesus: James the Just and His Mission, pp. 259-262.

Judaism: A Quarterly Journal of Jewish Life and Thought, spring, 1996, William Nicholls, review of Judaism and Modern Times: An Introduction and Reader, p. 246.

Library Journal, January, 1997, Paul Kaplan, review of Trading Places, p. 104; January, 1998, Bernadette McGrath, review of God, p. 108; September 1, 1999, Paul M. Kaplan, review of The Encyclopedia of Judaism, p. 176; March 1, 2003, David B. Levy, review of The Tosefta, p. 82.

Middle East Quarterly, June, 2000, Daniel Pipes, review of Comparing Religions through Law: Judaism and Islam, p. 77.

Muslim World, January, 2003, Ghada Talhami, review of Comparing Religions through Law.

National Catholic Reporter, November 8, 1996, Tom Klonoski and William C. Graham, review of The Price of Excellence, p. 31.

National Review, August 9, 1993, Matthew Scully, review of A Rabbi Talks with Jesus, p. 61; August 12, 1996, Tracy Lee Simmons, review of The Price of Excellence, p. 55; November 6, 2000, Tracy Lee Simmons, "Books in Brief."

New Republic, October 1, 1990, "Jacob the Unwise," p. 12.

Perspectives on Political Science, fall, 2003, David M. L. Klocek, review of God's Rule: The Politics of World Religions, p. 242.

Publishers Weekly, January 11, 1993, review of The Rabbit Talks with Jesus, p. 50; January 10, 1994, review of Androgynous Judaism: Masculine and Feminine in the Dual Torah, p. 31; February 26, 1996, review of Common Ground, p. 96; September 30, 1996, review of The Religion Factor, p. 75; March 24, 1997, review of Forging a Common Future, p. 74; September 27, 1999, "October Publications" and "Judaism and Christian Science—The Trilogies," p. 96.

Religious Studies, September, 1998, Oliver Leaman, review of The Intellectual Foundations of Christian and Jewish Discourse: The Philosophy of Religious Argument, p. 354.

Review of Biblical Literature, Volume 3, 2001, David W. Suter, review of Judaism in Late Antiquity, pp. 269-274; Volume 4, 2002, Arnold Jacob, review of The Encyclopedia of Judaism, pp. 72-75.

Reviews in Religion & Theology, February, 2000, Jonathan Campbell, review of Types of Authority in Formative Christianity and Judaism; September, 2000, Gerard Norton, review of Dictionary of Judaism in the Biblical Period.

Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies, spring, 2000, Peter J. Haas, review of Jerusalem and Athens: The Congruity of Talmudic and Classical Philosophy; spring, 2004, review of Judaism: An Introduction, p. 197.

Studies in World Christianity, Volume 7, issue 2, 2001, H. A. F. Prior, review of Judaism and Islam in Practice, pp. 254-255.

Times Literary Supplement, August 13, 1982; March 2, 2001, Hyam MacCoby, "Obsessed with Purity?"