Laqueur, Walter 1921–

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Laqueur, Walter 1921–

(Walter Ze'ev Laqueur)

PERSONAL:

Born May 26, 1921, in Breslau, Germany (now Wroclaw, Poland); son of Fritz and Else Laqueur; married Barbara Koch, May 29, 1941; children: Sylvia, Shlomit. Education: Attended Hebrew University, 1938-39.

ADDRESSES:

Office—Center for Strategic & International Studies, Georgetown University, 1800 K St. NW, Washington, DC 20006. E-mail—[email protected]

CAREER:

Agricultural worker in Palestine (now Israel), 1940-44; newspaper correspondent and freelance writer, 1944-55; Survey (quarterly journal), London, England, founder and editor, 1955-65; Institute of Contemporary History and Wiener Library, London, England, director, 1964-91; Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, professor of history of ideas and politics, 1967-72; Georgetown University, Washington, DC, chair of international research council of Center for Strategic & International Studies, 1973—, university professor of government, 1977-91. Visiting professor at Johns Hopkins University and research fellow at Harvard University, 1957; visiting professor at University of Chicago, 1958, Harvard University, 1984, and University of Tel Aviv, 1970—.

AWARDS, HONORS:

Distinguished Writer's Award from Center for Strategic & International Studies, 1969; Inter Nationes Award, 1985; City of Fiuggi and Cortina deAmpezzo literary awards.

WRITINGS:

Communism and Nationalism in the Middle East, Routledge & Kegan Paul (London, England), 1956.

(Editor) The Middle East in Transition: Studies in Contemporary History, Routledge & Kegan Paul (London, England), 1958, reprinted, Books for Libraries Press, 1971.

The Soviet Union and the Middle East, Routledge & Kegan Paul (London, England), 1959.

Young Germany, Routledge & Kegan Paul (London, England), 1962.

(Editor, with Leopold Labedz) Polycentrism, the New Factor in International Communism (first published in England as a special issue of Survey, 1962), Praeger (New York, NY), 1962.

(Editor, with Leopold Labedz) The State of Soviet Studies (essays first published in January and April, 1964, issues of Survey), MIT Press (Cambridge, MA), 1965.

Russia and Germany: A Century of Conflict, Little, Brown (London, England), 1965.

(Editor, with George L. Mosse) International Fascism, 1920-1945, Harper (New York, NY), 1966.

(Editor, with George L. Mosse) The Left-wing Intellectuals between the Wars, 1919-1939, Harper (New York, NY), 1966.

(Compiler, with George L. Mosse) 1914: The Coming of the First World War (essays originally published in Journal of Contemporary History, Volume 1, numbers 3 and 4, 1966), Harper (New York, NY), 1966.

The Fate of the Revolution: Interpretations of Soviet History, Macmillan (New York, NY), 1967, new edition, 1987.

(Editor) Education and Social Structure in the Twentieth Century, Harper (New York, NY), 1967.

(Editor) Literature and Politics in the Twentieth Century, Harper (New York, NY), 1967.

(Editor, with George L. Mosse) The New History, Harper (New York, NY), 1967.

The Road to Jerusalem: The Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1967, Macmillan (New York, NY), 1968 (published in England as The Road to War, Weidenfeld & Nicolson [London, England], 1968).

(Editor) Reappraisals: A New Look at History, Weidenfeld & Nicolson (London, England), 1968.

(Editor, with Barry Rubin) The Israeli-Arab Reader: A Documentary History of the Middle East Conflict, Citadel (New York, NY), 1969, fifth revised edition, Penguin (New York, NY), 1995, sixth revised and updated edition, 2001.

The Struggle for the Middle East: The Soviet Union in the Mediterranean 1958-1968, Macmillan (New York, NY), 1969, (published in England as The Struggle for the Middle East: The Soviet Union and the Middle East, 1958-1968, Routledge & Kegan Paul [London, England], 1969), revised edition published as The Struggle for the Middle East: The Soviet Union and the Middle East 1958-1970, Penguin Books (New York, NY), 1972.

Europe since Hitler, Weidenfeld & Nicolson (London, England), 1970.

The Rebirth of Europe: A History of the Years since the Fall of Hitler, Holt (New York, NY), 1970, revised edition published as Europe since Hitler: The Rebirth of Europe, Penguin Books (New York, NY), 1982.

Out of the Ruins of Europe, Library Press (New York, NY), 1971.

(Editor, with Evelyn Anderson and others) A Dictionary of Politics, Free Press (New York, NY), 1971, revised edition, 1974.

Neo-Isolationism and the World of the Seventies, Library Press (New York, NY), 1972.

A History of Zionism, Holt (New York, NY), 1972, reprint with new preface by Laqueur, Schocken Books (New York, NY), 2003.

(With Bernard Krikler) A Reader's Guide to Contemporary History, Quadrangle, 1972.

(Editor, with George L. Mosse) Historians in Politics, Sage Publications (London, England), 1974.

Weimar: A Cultural History, 1918-1933, Putnam (New York, NY), 1974.

Confrontation: The Middle East and World Politics, New York Times Book Company (New York, NY), 1974.

Guerrilla: A Historical and Critical Study, Little, Brown (London, England), 1976.

(Editor) Fascism: A Reader's Guide—Analyses, Interpretations, Bibliography, University of California Press (Berkley, CA), 1976.

(Editor) The Guerrilla Reader: A Historical Anthology, New American Library (New York, NY), 1977.

Terrorism, Little, Brown (London, England), 1977, published as The Age of Terrorism, 1987, published as A History of Terrorism, Transaction (New Brunswick, NJ), 2001.

(Editor) The Terrorism Reader: A Historical Anthology, New American Library (New York, NY), 1978, new edition, 1987.

A Continent Astray: Europe, 1970-1978, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1979.

(Editor, with Barry Rubin) The Human Rights Reader, Temple University Press (Philadelphia, PA), 1979.

The Missing Years: A Novel, Little, Brown (London, England), 1980.

The Political Psychology of Appeasement: Finlandization and Other Unpopular Essays, Transaction (New Brunswick, NJ), 1980.

The Terrible Secret: An Investigation into the Suppression of Information about Hitler's "Final Solution," Little, Brown (London, England), 1980.

Farewell to Europe (novel), Little, Brown (London, England), 1981.

(Editor) The Second World War, Sage Publications (London, England), 1982.

America, Europe, and the Soviet Union, Transaction (New Brunswick, NJ), 1983.

(Editor) The Pattern of Soviet Conduct in the Third World, Praeger (New York, NY), 1983.

(Editor) Looking Forward, Looking Back, Praeger (New York, NY), 1983.

(Editor) European Peace Movements and the Future of the Western Alliance, Transaction (New Brunswick, NJ), 1985.

Germany Today: A Personal Report, Little, Brown (London, England), 1985.

A World of Secrets: The Uses and Limits of Intelligence, Basic Books (New York, NY), 1985, published as The Uses and Limits of Intelligence, Transaction (New Brunswick, NJ), 1983.

(With Richard Breitman) Breaking the Silence, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 1986.

The Long Road to Freedom: Russia and Glasnost, Scribner's (New York, NY), 1989.

(Editor) The Human Rights Reader, New American Library (New York, NY), 1990.

Soviet Realities: Culture and Politics from Stalin to Gorbechev, Transaction (New Brunswick, NJ), 1990.

Stalin: The Glasnost Revelations, Scribner's (New York, NY), 1990.

(With Leon Sloss) European Security in the 1990s: Deterrence and Defense after the INF Treaty, Plenum Press (New York, NY), 1990.

Thursday's Child Has Far to Go: A Memoir of the Journeying Years, Scribner's (New York, NY), 1992.

Europe in Our Time: A History, 1945-1992, Viking (New York, NY), 1992.

Black Hundred: The Rise of the Extreme Right in Russia, HarperCollins (New York, NY), 1993.

The Dream That Failed, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1994.

Fascism: Past, Present, Future, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1996.

Fin de Siecle and Other Essays on America and Europe, Transaction (New Brunswick, NJ), 1997.

The New Terrorism: Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1999.

Generation Exodus: The Fate of Young Jewish Refugees from Nazi Germany, University Press of New England (Hanover, NH), 2001.

(Editor) The Holocaust Encyclopedia, Yale University Press (New Haven, CT), 2001.

No End to War: Terrorism in the Twenty-first Century, Continuum (New York, NY), 2003.

Voices of Terror: Manifestos, Writings, and Manuals of Al Qaeda, Hamas, and Other Terrorists from around the World and throughout the Ages, Reed Press (New York, NY), 2004.

The Changing Face of Antisemitism: From Ancient Times to the Present Day, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 2006.

Dying for Jerusalem: The Past, Present and Future of the Holiest City, Sourcebooks (Naperville, IL), 2006.

The Last Days of Europe: Epitaph for an Old Continent, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 2007.

Also author of Soviet Union 2000: Reform or Revolution?, 1990. Contributor to periodicals, including Commentary and New York Times Magazine. Founder and coeditor, Journal of Contemporary History, 1966—; founder and editor, Washington Papers, 1972—; founder and coeditor, Washington Quarterly of Strategic and International Studies, 1977—.

SIDELIGHTS:

Historian Walter Laqueur has written numerous books on some of the most complex problems of contemporary history: Arab-Israeli relations and the Middle East's influence on world politics; terrorism and guerrilla warfare Europe since the end of World War II; and the mass murder of Jews in Hitler's devastating "Final Solution." As chair of the international research board of the Center for Strategic & International Studies at Georgetown University, Laqueur serves as an academic consultant on world affairs to governments around the globe. He is better known, however, as a writer.

Laqueur is himself a Jew who left Hitler's Germany for Palestine (now Israel) before his eighteenth birthday, and he injects his works with analyses drawn from personal experience. Laqueur has even drawn upon this "shattered heritage" to produce fiction. His novels, The Missing Years: A Novel and Farewell to Europe, explore the life of an aging Jewish survivor of Hitler's Germany. "As social history expressed through fiction," concluded New York Review of Books essayist Neal Ascherson, "Laqueur's The Missing Years is the shrewdest and most observant study of German Jewry I have read."

As a student, a kibbutz worker, and a journalist, Laqueur witnessed the beginnings of the nation of Israel and many of its subsequent trials and victories. He brings extensive authority to his books on the Middle East, including The Middle East in Transition: Studies in Contemporary History, The Road to Jerusalem: The Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1967, The Israeli-Arab Reader: A Documentary History of the Middle East Conflict, A History of Zionism, and Confrontation: The Middle East War and World Politics. In a Book World review of The Road to Jerusalem, Ronald Steel praised the author's objectivity: "While partial to the Israelis, like most Anglo-American writers on the subject, Laqueur shows considerable sympathy and understanding for the Arabs, and his eminently readable book offers penetrating insight into the [1967] war's origins." Punch correspondent Jon Kimche likewise called the work an "outstandingly admirable and illuminating book on the origins of the Arab-Israeli conflict," which is "so ably and objectively documented … that the reader is able to consider the evidence for himself and reach his own conclusions for the time being. He is greatly helped in this by the balanced and objective presentation of the relevant facts." According to Chaim Potok in the New York Times, The Road to Jerusalem offers "the best account … of the diplomatic maneuverings, the nightmarish dilemmas, the bizarre, almost mindless gambit that took place in the weeks prior to the war. As such, it enables us to see quite clearly the stage upon which the astonishing victory took place."

Laqueur's A History of Zionism places the Jewish presence in the Middle East in broader historical perspective. "By a large margin this history of Zionism from the early nineteenth century to 1948 is superior in quality to its few predecessors," wrote a Times Literary Supplement reviewer. "Walter Laqueur … has brought to his task both professional knowledge of the history of European and Middle Eastern diplomacy and personal experience of Palestine during some of its most trying years. His book, admirably lucid and readable, is at its best when summarizing the arguments about Jewish destiny put forward by both Zionist and non-Zionist Jewish writers, and in several evocative personal vignettes." According to Howard M. Sachar in the New York Times Book Review, the author's insights are both good and valid. "Little that is important in the history of Zionism is neglected in this splendid volume," claimed Sachar. "Laqueur's clarity of exposition is not to be confused with mere fluency. It bespeaks rather a lucidity of understanding that should dispel the myth that convolution of structure or style are necessarily synonymous with profundity. More than any other quality, however, it is the author's rigorous objectivity that elevates A History of Zionism light years above its predecessors in this field."

Laqueur has never limited himself to works on the Middle East. He was also a keen observer of twentieth-century European and Soviet affairs. Books such as The Rebirth of Europe: A History of the Years since the Fall of Hitler (republished as Europe since Hitler: The Rebirth of Europe), A Continent Astray: Europe 1970-1978, Weimar: A Cultural History 1918-1933, and The Fate of the Revolution: Interpretations of Soviet History examine the historical trends that influenced economic and cultural development in Europe and the Soviet Union. New York Times contributor David Caute noted that a major theme of The Rebirth of Europe is "the withering away of the more pernicious, and potentially vicious, passions and particularisms of prewar Europe. But the core of Mr. Laqueur's story is this: how a continent physically and morally shattered by Hitler's war recovered its skills, its creativity and self-confidence with a speed exceeding even the most optimistic predictions. …As a general history, The Rebirth of Europe has many virtues; sensibly organized, thoroughly researched, painstakingly accurate and well-written, it displays to advantage the author's already well-proven gift for bringing order to a wide range of material." Adam B. Ulam offered similar praise in a Commentary assessment of The Fate of the Revolution: "The general reader as well as the harassed college teacher will feel grateful for this reliable guide to what to read about the [Bolshevik] Revolution and its great figures, what to reject as historical fantasy, and what aspects of even the most renowned books on the subject are to be treated with caution or skepticism….Mr. Laqueur's book is … an admirable plea for balance in the treatment of the most tangled and controversial events of [modern history]."

Another controversial event—the slow Allied response to information about the Nazi concentration camps during World War II—forms the subject of The Terrible Secret: An Investigation into the Suppression of Information about Hitler's "Final Solution." David Schoenbaum in Tribune Books praised Laqueur for exhaustively charting the political, military, and psychological reasons for Allied reluctance to confront and divert the "Final Solution." The Terrible Secret, concludes Schoenbaum, "reaffirms the tenacity, lucidity, and moral seriousness of one of the most important political commentators, strategic analysts, and contemporary historians of our time."

In order to convey other, more personal thoughts on the legacy of the Holocaust, Laqueur has turned to fiction. The Missing Years, published in 1980, and Farewell to Europe, published the following year, present the life of a Jewish man who survived the Nazis. In The Missing Years, the aging Dr. Lasson reflects on his life in Berlin during World War II and on his sons' attempts to escape the Nazi terror. Farewell to Europe takes Lasson into modern America and Israel, where his sons and grandchildren grapple with their own stresses.

Laqueur has also tackled an issue of increasing pertinence to modern society—terrorism. After completing two works on guerrilla warfare, Guerrilla: A Historical and Critical Study and The Guerrilla Reader: A Historical Anthology, he turned to an overview of terrorist acts in Terrorism and its companion volume, The Terrorism Reader: A Historical Anthology. In the New Republic, Michael Walzer called Terrorism "a modest and balanced survey by a writer of great skill, who knows foreign languages and can range widely over world history," as well as "an admirable introduction to the central forms of contemporary violence." Washington Post Book World reviewer Leonard Bushkoff noted that Terrorism "helps to provide depth and substance to a subject usually drowning in sensationalism…. The background [Laqueur] supplies is rich, the arguments systematic, the conclusions convincing."

In 1999, Laqueur produced a follow-up volume, The New Terrorism: Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction. This work coins the phrase "megaterror- ism" to describe a twenty-first-century threat via chemical and biological weapons whose powers of destruction may be, according to author, "[well] beyond our imagination."

Indeed, noted Laqueur in a 1996 essay for Foreign Affairs, the scope and complexity of terrorist acts has evolved over recent years. "Since 1900, terrorists' motivation, strategy and weapons have changed to some extent," he wrote. "The anarchists and the left-wing terrorist groups that succeeded them, down through the Red Armies … have vanished; if anything, the initiative has passed to the extreme right. Most international and domestic terrorism these days, however, is neither left nor right, but ethnic-separatist in inspiration. Ethnic terrorists have more staying power than ideologically motivated ones, since they draw on a larger reservoir of public support."

Terrorist acts, too, have changed, according to Laqueur. Airline hijackings, once so prominent, have essentially faded from view, "since hijacked planes cannot stay in the air forever and few countries today are willing to let them land, thereby incurring the stigma of openly supporting terrorism." In another chilling trend, terrorists lean less on assassinating high-ranking opponents and more on indiscriminate killings (bombings in marketplaces or public buildings, for example).

A Kirkus Reviews article on New Terrorism cited Laqueur as "quite convincing" and "useful" in his chronicle of the nature of terrorist acts. However, in the reviewer's opinion, Laqueur drew some "questionable, if not offensive," conclusions. "He asserts, for instance, that in non-Western countries ‘human lives count for less’ and so the danger of terrorism in these countries is greater. This is simply unacceptable doggerel." To Los Angeles Times writer Anthony Day, the "implied but powerful" lesson in New Terrorism is that it will take all the powers of diplomacy, law and politics to help protect society from the hands of terrorists who can obtain and launch attacks all too easily.

The collapse of the Soviet Union prompted a 1993 book, Black Hundred: The Rise of the Extreme Right in Russia. An extensive history leading to a description of "activities and theories of Russian nationalists, first in emigration and then in post-Communist Russia," as National Review's Richard Pipes described it. "The purpose of this material is to warn of the danger of the collapse of Russia's fragile democracy and the possible triumph of an ‘authoritarian system based on some nationalist populism.’"

But is such a warning justified? Pipes wondered. As a survivor of Nazi Germany "and an observer of some of the worst atrocities in history," the critic noted, Laqueur "naturally assumes the role of a Cassandra. Much of his published work has served to warn a complacent Western public: about the designs of Arab irredentists, about Soviet expansionism, about the dangers of terrorism. His histories expose the folly of wishful thinking. His philosophy of history is consequently permeated with skepticism and pessimism. This has served him well much of the time, but it also tends to blind him to positive developments."

Still, Pipes praised Black Hundred as "a pioneering analysis" of the coalition between old-time Communists and up-and-coming fascists. Likewise, the book was described as a "judicious, detailed study" by New York Times critic Joshua Rubenstein, and as a "powerful work [that] links the appeal of the extreme right to the worst traditions of the czarist and Communist pasts," by Herbert Mitgang of the same publication.

In The Dream That Failed (1995), Laqueur again examines the former Soviet Union, this time to speculate on why the historic collapse happened when it did. The seeds of this insurgence, he states, were planted "in the ever-growing gap between the [Communist] regime's claims and the realities of everyday life," Jonas Bernstein remarked in his Insight on the News column. As early as the 1960s, a mood change was beginning to be detected; in 1975 activist Andrei Sakharov had predicted an "impending systemic crisis," as Bernstein put it. Yet Western experts remained adamant in their views of the stability of the Soviet system. Their "monumental errors" in not foreseeing the end of the regime, as Laqueur was quoted by Bernstein, "were in no small measure caused by underlying biases—including the belief that ‘the true lesson of the Russian revolution … was the superiority of a planned economy.’ Such beliefs have been effectively laid to rest."

In 2001, Laqueur published two books pertaining to Jews in Nazi Germany, Generation Exodus: The Fate of Young Jewish Refugees from Nazi Germany and The Holocaust Encyclopedia. In Generation Exodus, Laqueur looks at a generation of young German Jews who were in their teens and early twenties when they fled Germany to settle in various places across the globe because of the anti-Jewish policies set in place by the Nazi government. He uses interviews and memoirs to tell various stories of these individuals. "While much of the information presented in this book is well known, it has never before been written about as the portrait of a generation. Thus one sees familiar items in a new context. Since Laqueur writes so well, Generation Exodus is a pleasure to read, especially for those who want to know more about how emigrant Jews overcame uncommon obstacles on their way to successful lifetime achievements," remarked Leonard Dinnerstein in a review of the book for International Migration Review. A Booklist reviewer called the book "a worthy addition to Laqueur's chronicle of European Jewry's grievous history in the last century." In The Holocaust Encyclopedia, Laqueur brings together more than one hundred contributors from almost a dozen countries, including leading Holocaust scholars such as James Young, Stanley Payne, Michael R. Marrus, Raul Hilberg, Israel Gutman, Saul Friendlander, David Cesarani, Daniel Carpi, and Christopher Browning, to "provide both brief and detailed entries on the major players, events, concepts, and themes in contemporary Holocaust studies," wrote Frederic Krome in a review of the book for Library Journal.

In 2003, Laqueur decided to tackle the subject of terrorism again in his book No End to War: Terrorism in the Twenty-first Century. "The pertinent questions raised after September 11th are here elaborated in ten chapters, covering the roots of terrorism in general and Islamic terrorism in particular, the alleged failure of the American intelligence in predicting the attacks, the common grounds between Islamic terrorism and the terrorism of the extreme right and the ultra left, and the future of terrorism," Joaquina Pires-O'Brien explained in a review of the book for Contemporary Review. Reviewing the book for Wilson Quarterly, critic Martin Walker wrote that "the first great merit of Walter Laqueur's characteristically judicious book on the new terrorism is its comprehensiveness." A Kirkus Reviews critic felt that the book is "a sobering analysis of geopolitics and current events."

Published a year later in 2004, Voices of Terror: Manifestos, Writings, and Manuals of Al Qaeda, Hamas, and Other Terrorists from around the World and throughout the Ages takes a different approach to the subject of terrorism. The volume is a collection of the writings of terrorists throughout the ages in the form of reprints of eighty-two essays and pamphlets written by terrorists about such things as resistance to despotism, conspiracy, tyranny, guerilla warfare, and revolution, as well as twenty-six pieces of writing created by current terrorist leaders, Muslim and otherwise. Security Management critic Mark H. Beaudry had high praise for the work: "Brilliantly presented and meticulously documented, this book is probably the single best volume on terrorist writings."

In his 2006 work, Dying for Jerusalem: The Past, Present and Future of the Holiest City, Laqueur, who has spent much of his life living in Jerusalem, "offers a fascinating look at Israel that is part memoir, part history, part commentary," according to Booklist critic Ilene Cooper. In the book, he delves into some of Jerusalem's historical, political, and cultural conflicts over the years. Also published in 2006 was a piece Laqueur wrote on the subject of anti-Semitism, titled The Changing Face of Antisemitism: From Ancient Times to the Present Day. The volume traces the history of anti-Semitism from ancient to modern times. Jay Freeman, in his review of the book for Booklist, called it "a disturbing but important work likely to spur further debate."

In his 2007 book, The Last Days of Europe: Epitaph for an Old Continent, Laqueur explores the subjects of European history and politics. He focuses on current trends on the continent in three main areas: the immigration of Muslims, the financing of the welfare state, and the European Union (EU). According to a reviewer for the Economist, "the most controversial bit of Mr. Laqueur's book concerns immigration and the rise of Islam in Europe. He makes no bones about being against both. He believes that, unlike immigrants to America, or previous waves of immigrants to Europe, the millions of Muslims in Britain, France, Germany and other EU countries are not assimilating." Booklist reviewer Gilbert Taylor felt that overall, "Laqueur delivers a pessimistic assessment" of the fate of Europe.

In his 1971 book, Out of the Ruins of Europe, Laqueur states that he resolved to study contemporary history while on guard duty in a kibbutz in 1942. "It occurred to me," he remembers, "that I was very fortunate to be simply alive at a time when so many of my friends and European contemporaries had already perished." Out of his determination to understand the world he lived in arose the desire to explain his conclusions to others—academic and general reader alike.

BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:

BOOKS

Laqueur, Walter, Out of the Ruins of Europe, Library Press (New York, NY), 1971.

Laqueur, Walter, A History of Zionism, Holt (New York, NY), 1972.

Laqueur, Walter, Germany Today: A Personal Report, Little, Brown (London, England), 1985.

Walter Laqueur: A Bibliography of His Work, Center for Strategic & International Studies, 1986.

PERIODICALS

Booklist, March 1, 2001, George Cohen, review of Generation Exodus: The Fate of Young Jewish Refugees from Nazi Germany, p. 1222; October 1, 2001, review of The Holocaust Encyclopedia, p. 350; April 15, 2003, Brendan Driscoll, review of No End to War: Terrorism in the Twenty-first Century, p. 1433; March 15, 2006, Ilene Cooper, review of Dying for Jerusalem: The Past, Present and Future of the Holiest City, p. 21; June 1, 2006, Jay Freeman, review of The Changing Face of Antisemitism: From Ancient Times to the Present Day, p. 11; April 15, 2007, Gilbert Taylor, review of The Last Days of Europe: Epitaph for an Old Continent, p. 19.

Book World, June 23, 1968, Ronald Steel, review of The Road to Jerusalem: The Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1967.

Commentary, February, 1968, Adam B. Ulam, review of The Fate of the Revolution: Interpretations of Soviet History; January, 1995, review of The Dream That Failed; July 1, 2007, "Disunion," p. 82; July/August, 2007, Mark Falcoff, review of The Last Days of Europe, p. 82.

Contemporary Review, February 1, 2004, Joaquina Pires-O'Brien, "A Treatise on Terrorism," p. 113.

Covenant, November, 2006, Alexander H. Joffe "An Interview with Walter Laqueur."

Economist, May 5, 2007, "Eurabia Revisited; Europe's Future," p. 105.

Foreign Affairs, September/October, 1993, review of Black Hundred: The Rise of the Extreme Right in Russia; July/August, 1996, review of Fascism: Past, Present, Future; September/October, 1996, Walter Laqueur, "Postmodern Terrorism: New Rules for an Old Game"; November/December, 1995, review of The Dream That Failed.

History: Review of New Books, March 22, 2002, Joseph Robert White, review of Generation Exodus, p. 113.

Insight on the News, February 20, 1995, Jonas Bernstein, review of The Dream That Failed.

International Migration Review, June 22, 2003, Leonard Dinnerstein, review of Generation Exodus, p. 510.

Kirkus Reviews, June 1, 1999, review of The New Terrorism: Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction, p. 862; March 1, 2003, review of No End to War, p. 363.

Library Journal, April 15, 2001, Randall L. Schroeder, review of Generation Exodus, p. 114; May 1, 2001, Frederic Krome, review of The Holocaust Encyclopedia, p. 72; June 15, 2006, Frederic Krome, review of The Changing Face of Antisemitism, p. 83.

Los Angeles Times, November 14, 1999, Anthony Day, review of The New Terrorism: Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction.

Middle East Quarterly, September 22, 2007, Eunice G. Pollack, review of The Changing Face of Antisemitism, p. 72.

National Review, August 9, 1993, review of Black Hundred; October 8, 2007, "Gathering Storm," p. 64.

New Leader, December 19, 1995, review of The Dream That Failed; January 1, 2001, Karl E. Meyer, review of Generation Exodus, p. 23.

New Republic, June 18, 1977, Michael Walzer, review of Terrorism.

New York Review of Books, June 12, 1980, Neal Ascherson, review of The Missing Years: A Novel.

New York Times, June 2, 1968, Chaim Potok, review of The Road to Jerusalem; January 11, 1970, David Caute, review of The Rebirth of Europe: A History of the Years since the Fall of Hitler; November 12, 1972, Howard M. Sachar, review of A History of Zionism; May 28, 1989, review of The Long Road to Freedom: Russia and Glasnost; November 18, 1990, review of Stalin: The Glasnost Revelations; June 13, 1993, review of Black Hundred; July 21, 1993, review of Black Hundred; March 19, 1995, review of The Dream That Failed.

Perspectives on Political Science, June 22, 2003, Audrey Kurth Cronin, review of No End to War, p. 184.

Policy Review, October 1, 2003, "Terrorism as War," p. 84.

Political Science Quarterly, March 22, 2004, John Prados, review of No End to War, p. 184.

Progressive, March, 1994, review of Black Hundred.

Publishers Weekly, February 26, 2001, review of Generation Exodus, p. 67; March 19, 2001, review of The Holocaust Encyclopedia, p. 85; April 14, 2003, review of No End to War, p. 57.

Punch, April 3, 1968, Jon Kimche, review of The Road to Jerusalem.

Reference & Research Book News, November 1, 2005, review of Voices of Terror: Manifestos, Writings,and Manuals of Al Qaeda, Hamas, and Other Terrorists from around the World and throughout the Ages; August 1, 2006, review of Dying for Jerusalem.

Security Management, April 1, 2006, Mark H. Beaudry, review of Voices of Terror, p. 106.

Shofar, January 1, 2004, review of No End to War, p. 212; January 1, 2008, Bruce Thompson, review of The Changing Face of Antisemitism, p. 181.

Times Literary Supplement, December 22, 1972, review of A History of Zionism.

Tribune Books (Chicago, IL), June 15, 1980, David Schoenbaum, review of The Terrible Secret: An Investigation into the Suppression of Information about Hitler's "Final Solution."

Washington Post Book World, October 17, 1977, Leonard Bushkoff, review of Terrorism.

Wilson Quarterly, June 22, 2001, Walter Reich, review of The Holocaust Encyclopedia, p. 114; June 22, 2003, Martin Walker, review of No End to War, p. 118.

ONLINE

Center for Strategic & International Studies,http://www.csis.org/ (July 3, 2008), profile of author.

Walter Laqueur Home Page,http://www.laqueur.net (July 3, 2008).