Callahan, Daniel 1930-

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CALLAHAN, Daniel 1930-

PERSONAL: Born July 19, 1930, in Washington, DC; son of Vincent F. (an editor) and Florence Anita (Hawkins) Callahan; married Sidney Cornelia deShazo (a social psychologist), June 5, 1954; children: Mark, Stephen, John, Peter, Sarah, David. Education: Yale University, B.A., 1948; Georgetown University, M.A., 1957; Harvard University, Ph.D., 1965. Politics: Democrat. Hobbies and other interests: Tennis, gardening.

ADDRESSES: Home—P.O. Box 260 Ardsley-on-Hudson, NY 10503. Office—The Hastings Center, 21 Malcolm Gordon Rd., Garrison, NY 10524-5555. E-mail—[email protected]

CAREER: Harvard Divinity School, Cambridge, MA, teaching fellow in Roman Catholic studies, 1959-61; Commonweal, New York, NY, 1961-68, became executive editor, 1967; The Population Council, staff associate, 1969-70; Hastings Center, Garrison, NY, cofounder and president, 1969-96; became director of International Programs, 1997; Harvard Medical School, Divison of Medical Ethics, senior fellow, 1998—. Visiting assistant professor at Temple University, 1963, Brown University, 1965, Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, 1996. Lectures widely at American and Canadian universities and before professional and academic associations. Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, Geneva, Switzerland, consultant, 1992; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, member, Advisory Committee to the Director, 1995, Ethics Subcommittee, chair, 1997; Instituto De Bioetica, Madrid, Spain, committee member, 1996; Task Force on Corporate-Association Relationship, American Medical Association, member, 1997-98; Friends of Ethics, Harvard Medical School, chair, 1997; Kaiser Permanente, National Advisory Council on Professional and Organizational Ethics, member, 1998; Pan American Health Organization, Regional Program on Bioethics, International Adivsory Board, member, 1998; Public Agenda, Policy Review Board, member, 1998; Gene Therapy President's Committee, University of Pennsylvania, member, 2000. Military service: U.S. Army, Counterintelligence Corps. 1952-55; became sergeant.

MEMBER: National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, New York Council for the Humanities.

AWARDS, HONORS: National Catholic Book Award, 1964, for The Mind of the Catholic Layman; Thomas More Medal, 1970, for Abortion: Law, Choice, and Morality.

WRITINGS:

The Mind of the Catholic Layman, Scribner (New York, NY), 1963.

Honesty in the Church, Scribner (New York, NY), 1965.

The New Church, Scribner (New York, NY), 1966.

Abortion: Law, Choice, and Morality, Macmillan (New York, NY), 1970.

Ethics and Population Limitation, Population Council (New York, NY), 1971.

The American Population Debate, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1972.

The Tyranny of Survival: And Other Pathologies of Civilized Life, Macmillan (New York, NY), 1973.

Setting Limits: Medical Goals in an Aging Society, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 1987.

What Kind of Life?: The Limits of Medical Progress, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 1990.

The Troubled Dream of Life: Living with Mortality, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 1993, also published as In Search of Peaceful Death, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 1994.

False Hopes: Why America's Quest for Perfect Health Is a Recipe for Failure, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 1998, also published as False Hopes: Overcoming the Obstacles to an Affordable, Sustainable Medicine, Rutgers University Press (Newark, NJ), 1999.

What Price Better Health?: Hazards of the Research Imperative, University of California Press (Berkeley, CA), 2003.

EDITOR

(With D. O'Hanlon and H. Oberman) Christianity Divided, Sheed & Ward (New York, NY), 1961.

Federal Aid and Catholic Schools, Helicon (Baltimore, MD), 1964.

Generation of the Third Eye, Sheed & Ward (New York, NY), 1965.

The Secular City Debate, Macmillan (New York, NY), 1966.

(With others) The Role of Theology in the University, Bruce Publishing (Milwaukee, WI), 1967.

God, Jesus, Spirit, Herder & Herder (New York, NY), 1969.

The Catholic Case for Contraception, Macmillan (New York, NY), 1969.

The American Population Debate, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1971.

(With others) The Ethical Issues in Genetic Counseling and the Use of Genetic Knowledge, Plenum (New York, NY), 1973.

(With Sissela Bok) Ethics Teaching in Higher Education, Plenum Press (New York, NY), 1980.

(With Phillip G. Clark) Ethical Issues of Population Aid: Culture, Economics, and International Assistance, Irvington Publishers (New York, NY), 1981.

(With Arthur L. Caplan) Ethics in Hard Times, Plenum Press (New York), 1981.

(With H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr.) The Roots of Ethics: Science, Religion, and Values, Plenum Press (New York, NY ), 1981.

(With others) The Teaching of Ethics in the Military, Hastings Center (Hastings-on-Hudson, NY), 1982.

(With Bruce Jennings) Ethics, the Social Sciences, and Policy Analysis, Plenum Press (New York, NY), 1983.

(With wife, Sidney Callahan) Abortion: Understanding Differences, Plenum Press (New York, NY), 1984.

(With Arthur L. Caplan and Bruce Jennings) Applying the Humanities, Plenum Press (New York, NY), 1985.

(With others) Congress and the Media: The Ethical Connection, Hastings Center (Hastings-on-Hudson), NY), 1985.

(With Bruce Jennings) Representation and Responsibility: Exploring Legislative Ethics, Plenum Press (New York, NY), 1985.

(With G. R. Dunstan) Biomedical Ethics: An Anglo-American Dialogue, New York Academy of Sciences (New York, NY), 1988.

(With Philip J. Boyle) What Price Mental Health?: The Ethics and Politics of Setting Priorities, Georgetown University Press (Washington, DC), 1995.

(With others) A World Growing Old: The Coming Health Care Challenges, Georgetown University Press (Washington, DC), 1995.

(With Mark J. Hanson) The Goals of Medicine: The Forgotten Issue in Health Care Reform, Georgetown University Press (Washington, DC), 1999.

Promoting Healthy Behavior: How Much Freedom? Whose Responsibility?, Georgetown University Press (Washington, DC), 2000.

The Role of Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Accommodating Pluralism, Georgetown University Press (Washington, DC), 2002.

EDITOR, WITH H. TRISTRAM ENGELHARDT, JR.; "THE FOUNDATIONS OF ETHICS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO SCIENCE" SERIES

Science, Ethics, and Medicine, Hastings Center (Hastings-on-Hudson, NY), 1976.

Knowledge, Value, and Belief, Hastings Center (Hastings-on-Hudson, NY), 1977.

Morals, Science, and Sociality, Hastings Center (Hastings-on-Hudson, NY), 1978.

Knowing and Valuing: The Search for Common Roots, Hastings Center (Hastings-on-Hudson, NY), 1980.

Contributor to books, including Theology and the University, edited by John Coulson, Darton, Longmans & Todd (London, England), 1964; Religion in America, edited by William G. McLaughlin and Robert N. Bellah, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1968; American Catholic Thought on Social Questions, edited by Aaron I. Abell, Bobbs-Merrill (Indianapolis, IN), 1968; American Philosophy and the Future, edited by Michael Novak, Scribner (New York, NY), 1968; Ethical Issues in Genetic Counseling and the Use of Genetic Knowledge, Plenum Press (New York, NY), 1972; The Population Crisis and Moral Responsibility, edited by Walbert and Butler, Public Affairs Press (Washington, DC), 1973; The Population Crisis and Moral Responsibility, edited by J. Philip Wogaman, Public Affairs Press (Washington, DC), 1973; Ethical Issues in Health Care Management, Center for Health Administration Studies, University of Chicago (Chicago, IL), 1975.

Also contributor to Interdisciplinary Workshop on the Interrelationships between Science and Technology, and Ethics and Values, edited by William A. Blanpied and Wendy Weisman-Dermer, American Association for the Advancement of Science (Washington, DC), 1975; The Nature of Scientific Discovery, edited by Owen Gingerich, Smithsonian Institution (Washington, DC), 1975; Small Comforts for Hard Times: Humanists in the Public Forum, edited by F. Stuber and M. Mooney, Columbia University Press (New York, NY), 1976; Genetics and the Law, edited by Aubrey Milunsky, Plenum Press (New York, NY), 1976; Ethics and Health Policy, edited by R. M. Veatch and R. Branson, Ballinger Publishing (Cambridge, MA), 1976; Modifying Man: Implications and Ethics, edited by Craig Ellison, University Press of America (Washington, DC), 1977; Population Policy and Ethics, edited by Robert M. Veatch, Irvington Publishers (New York, NY), 1977; Patterns for Progress: From the Sciences to Medicine, edited by John A. Hogg and Jacob C. Stucki, Upjohn Company (Kalamazoo, MI), 1977; Research with Recombinant DNA, National Academy of Sciences (Washington, DC), 1977; Philosophical Medical Ethics: Its Nature and Significance, edited by Stuart F. Spicker and H. Tristam Engelhardt, Jr., D. Reidel Publishing (Boston, MA), 1977; Risk/Benefit Decisions and the Public Health, edited by J. A. Staffa, Office of Health Affairs, Food and Drug Administration (Washington, DC), 1978; Life-Span, edited by Robert M. Veatch, Harper & Row (New York, NY), 1979; Genetics and the Law II, edited by A. Milunsky, Plenum Press (New York, NY), 1980; Who Decides? Conflicts of Rights in Health Care, edited by Nora K. Bell, Humana Press (Clifton, NJ), 1982; The Professions and Ethics, edited by Louis H.Orzack and Annell L.Simcoe, Rutgers University (Newark, NJ), 1982; By No Extraordinary Means: The Choice to Forgo Life-Sustaining Food and Water, edited by Joanne Lynn, University of Indiana Press (Bloomington, IN), 1986; The Medicare System of Prospective Payment, edited by Mohan L. Garg and Barbara Barzansky, Praeger (New York, NY), 1986; Medical Education: Making the Grade in Cost Containment, edited by Russel D. Cunningham, W. K. Kellogg Foundation (Battle Creek, MI), 1986; What Is a Person, Humana Press (Clifton, NJ), 1988; Casebook on the Termination of Life-Sustaining Treatment and the Care of the Dying, edited by Cynthia B. Cohen, Indiana University Press (Bloomington, IN), 1988; Health Policy, Ethics, and Human Values: European and North American Perspectives, edited by Z. Bankowski and J. H. Bryant, Council for International Organizations (Geneva, Switzerland), 1988.

Also contributor to Ethics in Medicine, edited by Peter Allebeck and Bengt Jansson, Raven Press (New York, NY), 1990; A Good Old Age?: The Paradox of Setting Limits, edited by Paul Homer and Martha Holstein, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 1990; A Time to Be Born and a Time to Die, edited by Barry S. Kogan, Aldine de Gruyter (New York, NY), 1991; Emerging Issues in Biomedical Policy, edited by Robert H. Blank and Andrea Bonnicksen, Columbia University Press (New York, NY), 1992; Basic Benefits and Clinical Guidelines, edited by David C. Hadorn, Westview Press (Boulder, CO), 1992; Ending Human Life: Ethical Issues Surrounding Death and Dying, Center for Ethics Development (Newberry, SC), 1992; Heath Care for an Aging Population, edited by Chris Hackler, SUNY Press (Albany, NY), 1994; A World Growing Old: The Coming Health Care Challenge, edited by Callahan, ter Meulen, and Topinkova, Georgetown University Press (Washington DC), 1995; Controversies in Ethics in Long-Term Care, edited by Ellen Olson, Springer (New York, NY), 1995; Encyclopeida of Bioethics, edited by Warren Reich, Macmillan (New York, NY), 1995; Birth to Death: Science and Bioethics, edited by David C. Thomasma and Thomasine Kushner, Cambridge University Press (Oxford, England), 1996; Philosophical Perspectives in Bioethics, edited by L.W.Summer and Joseph Boyle, University of Toronto Press (Toronto, Canada), 1996; Physician-Assisted Suicide, edited by Robert F. Weir, Indiana University Press (Bloomington, IN), 1997; Getting Doctors to Listen: Ethics and Outcomes Data in Contest, edited by Philip Boyle, Georgetown University Press (Washington, DC), 1998; End of Life Decisions: A Psychosocial Perspective, American Psychiatric Press (Washington, DC), 1998; Mother Time: Women, Aging and Ethics, edited by Margaret Walker, Rowman & Littlefield (Lanham, MD), 1999; Is There a Duty to Die?, edited by John Hardwig, Routledge & Kegan Paul (New York, NY), 1999; Building Bioethics: Conversations with Clouser and Friends on Medical Ethics, edited by Loretta M. Kopelman, Kluwer Publishers (Boston, MA), 1999; Managing Health Behavior: Ethical Dilemmas in Health Promotion, edited by Mark Hanson and Daniel Callahan, Georgetown Press (Washington, DC), 2000; Health Care Reforms and Central and Eastern Europe, edited by Jiri Simek, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education (Prague, Czechoslovakia), 2000; Ethics and the Kidney, edited by Norman Levinsky, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 2000

Associate editor of IRB: A Review of Human Subjects Research (1979). Member of the board of numerous journals, including Ethics in Science and Medicine, Science, Technology and Human Values, Social Theory and Practice, Social Theory and Practice, Business and Professional Ethics, Technology in Society, Criminal Justice Ethics, Environmental Ethics, Advanced Studies in Professional Ethics, Medical Humanities Review, Journal of Medicine, Ethics and Law (Canada), Cambridge Quarterly for Healthcare Ethics, and American Journal of Bioethics.

Contributor to numerous periodicals, including American Journal of Ethics and Medicine, American Journal of Geriatric Cardiology, American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Bioethics and Biolaw II, Bioethics Forum, Cambridge Quarterly, Business and Health, Commonweal, Daedalus, Harper's, Atlantic Monthly, Center Magazine, Hastings Center Report, Health Care Analysis, Health Progress, International Journal of Bioethics, Journal of the American Medical Association, Journal of Applied Gerontology, Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, New England Journal of Medicine, New York Times, Progress in Palliative Care, Psychology, Public Policy and Law, Society, and Washington Post.

SIDELIGHTS: When Daniel Callahan speaks and writes, people listen and read. Callahan, a bioethicist and founder of the Hastings Center, a think tank, has pondered much and written widely on such issues as rationing health care, cloning, stem cell research, abortion, aging, dying, alternative medicine, among other topics. He has written several dozen books, and numerous chapters and articles, and because of the controversial nature of his subject matter, Callahan's books often spark debate among scholars, health care professionals, and people interested in health-care issues. To quote Norman B. Levy, of the New England Journal of Medicine, Callahan "is well informed about the status of medical advances, is a well-known philosopher and ethicist, and is clearly a thoughtful and considerate person who writes simply and well."

In his award-winning What Kind of Life?: The Limits of Medical Progress, Callahan returns to a discussion that he had begun in 1987 with Setting Limits: Medical Goals in an Aging Society, expanding it to include all ages. Callahan probes the nature of the "healthcare problem," pondering, "Perhaps the healthcare problem is not what appears on the surface, just a matter of improved financing, equity and efficiency. Perhaps it is a crisis about the meaning and nature of health and about the place that the pursuit of health should have in our lives." Thus Callahan points to values as the crux of the problem, specifically Americans' obsession with medical progress which distorts the common view of what makes up good health. While we allot large sums to certain research and prolonging life beyond reasonable expectations, Callahan argues, we neglect other societal needs. He says that much new medical technology extends lives but offers poor quality of life. Callahan proposes having a central government agency determine societal needs for health care and the agency would pay for the allotted services, with employer-based insurance and individuals paying any costs beyond the stipulated amounts.

What Kind of Life? brought about much discussion among scholars and health care professionals, who offered varied assessments of his arguments' validity. Calling the work a "landmark analysis" in his Hospital & Health Services Administration review, Dean M. Crowder stated: "Often profound, the book provides a thoughtful examination of the values and desires that Americans have and on which our health-care decisions are based." Stanley J. Reiser, writing in the Journal of the American Medical Association, also praised What Kind of Life?, dubbing it a "challenging book, which makes a splendid effort to unite moral and policy analysis and succeeds at many levels. Callahan has many good thoughts on rationing and political strategies to achieve them." Yet the work did not go unchallenged. In the New Leader, Amitai Etzioni commented on the morality of Callahan's plan and remarked that "skeptics who consider Callahan's position morally dubious and politically naive will point out other ways to deal with health-care costs." Although BioScience's Clyde J. Behney praised the work for providing a "needed diagnosis," he found Callahan's remedy "seriously flawed," because his "proposal falls short of being the needed vision and, even for those who might agree with his proposal, never really succeeds in being a practical blueprint for turning the vision into reality." This topic continued to be a focus of Callahan's research. In 1996 he published the results of a two-year joint research project by the Hastings Center and the Institute of Bioethics in Maastricht, The Netherlands, in A World Growing Old: The Coming Healthcare Challenges.

In 1993 Callahan served up The Troubled Dream of Life: Living with Mortality, in which he focuses on society's treatment of the dying. First he provides a historical overview of death in the centuries prior to the twentieth, when people died rapidly of infectious diseases rather than lingering because of medical advances. Such improvements in medicine have promoted the perception that death is an enemy to be resisted rather than an integral part of the circle of life. Callahan wonders: "What should [death] mean to us, and what kind of persons should we try to become as we approach our end? How ought we to bear pain, suffering and fear? They are questions of meaning, purpose and character." Callahan proposes that each person must find meaning in his/her own death and that the dying need others to help them do this. We, Callahan says, must try "to see if we can be prodded as a people to begin the work of creating a common view of death . . . sufficient to allow us some shared language and public behavior." Although Callahan does not subscribe to religion or transcendence after death, he states, "I can envy those who have such hope, even if I cannot share it." He concludes, "Can death, and the life in which it is embedded, be transcended? I do not see this for myself, but I hope to live the remainder of my days in a way that at least puts me in a position to be (as Wordsworth put it) 'surprised by joy.' It is unlikely but perhaps not impossible. I wait and watch."

As Michael J. Farrell explained in National Catholic Reporter, The Troubled Dream of Life is a "fascinating" work because compared with other events, death is "a major event . . . and what we conclude about our deaths will determine much about our lives." The study elicited much attention. In Christian Century, Hugh McElwain declared that "only a person of Daniel Callahan's stature as a medical ethicist, with his many years of experience in the field and his capacity for penetrating analysis, could have written such a challenging work." Writing in the Journal of the American Medical Association, Norman B. Levy, noting that "it certainly was difficult to read, but once started it flowed easily," called it an "essential book for all physicians, nonphysicians, medical educators, and medical policymakers." McElwain shared this opinion when he stated that the work "should become regular reading if not required reading for all medical professionals, caregivers and indeed all who confront the task of integrating understandings of life and death."

Callahan returned to what he considers the debacle of the health-care system in his 1998 publication False Hopes: Why America's Quest for Perfect Health Is aRecipe for Failure. Believing that medical advances have come nearly to their limits and subscribing to medical utilitarianism, Callahan espouses a system of health-care rationing to contain rising costs. In a Callahan-designed system, which would be global, measures intended to improve the health of a population would prevail over those geared to specific individuals. Promoting a healthful environment (such as keeping toxins out of the food supply, immunizing children, educating people about healthy behavior) would take precedence over medical research. According to Callahan appropriate goals for this new medical world view would include a normal lifespan, treatment of pain and trauma when a good prognosis exists, and alleviation of chronic pain, while other currently held goals (increased lifespan, cosmetic surgery, infertility treatment, and saving premature babies) would be cast aside.

Booklist's Mary Carroll described False Hopes as "cogently argued; likely to generate debate," which it did, some discussion over practicalities, some over the morality of Callahan's proposal. According to Wesley J. Smith, writing in National Right to Life News, "Callahan's antipathy toward medical progress—and his firm belief that some of us must be pushed out of the lifeboat to benefit others—can be said to reflect fairly the predominant view in the bioethical community." "Whether or not one agrees with Callahan's world view," wrote Robert H. Brook in Lancet, "this book must be read. Its arguments touch the core of current debates about the future relation between medicine and society." Brook tried to put Callahan's effort in perspective, stating, "To appreciate the book's relevance, one must understand something about the author's heart. False Hopes is not written by a person who hates the elderly, or who is anti-technology. It is written by a person who has a good soul, who is struggling with the inequality in health between the developing and developed worlds, and between classes within the developed world, and who firmly believes in the concept of solidarity as expressed in the social movements in Europe." Calling the work "required reading, important, indeed imperative to think about," Washington Monthly contributor Margaret P. Battin nevertheless decided that "we shouldn't swallow the medicine even after we've seen the prescription" because although "much of what he has to say is indeed the right medicine for what ails our health care system . . . 'good enough' isn't really good enough, when it means giving up on patients just as their needs become great. For the vast majority who will need only basic care throughout their lives to write off a minority who need more help is indecent."

Callahan told CA: "I seem to be one of those comparatively rare people who actually enjoys writing. I look forward to it, and when I am too tired to do other things turn to writing as a relief and a rest. I have often joked that one can write books or read them, but that it is hard to do both with equal energy. I am too restless to sit still for long periods of reading, but for me writing is not only a mental activity but a physical activity as well. I am also stimulated to write because my topics are now the daily fare of the media and public debate: the future of American health care, the debates over cloning and stem cell research and, in general, all of the ethical problems of contemporary medicine and biology. Simply by virtue of those topics there will be an interest in what I write; and that is a great help when the going gets tough in writing well about them.

"My writing process is to first read widely on my chosen topics, outline carefully, and work to write as clean a first draft as possible. I do not usually do any broadscale editing and rewriting, but do a good deal of tinkering with the language. While most of my writing these days is aimed at academics and intellectuals rather than the general public, I work hard to make my writing accessible to everyone. My time spent as an editor and editorial writer in my early career was a great help in that respect. I had to learn how to write fast, clearly, and to space what I had to meet hard deadlines, right to the minute."

BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:

PERIODICALS

Ageing and Society, January, 1997, Malvin Schechter, review of A World Growing Old: The Coming Health Care Challenges, pp. 75-76, review of A World Growing Old, pp. 77-78, Alan Maynard, review of A World Growing Old, pp. 78-80.

America, June 25, 1988, review of Setting Limits: Medical Goals in an Aging Society, p. 21; June 30, 1990, Edmund D. Pellegrino, review of What Kind of Life?: The Limits of Medical Progress, pp. 20-21.

Bioethics, January, 1998, Giles Yates, review of What Price Mental Health?: The Ethics and Politics of Setting Priorities, pp. 88-89.

BioScience, February, 1981, Van R. Potter, review of Ethics Teaching in Higher Education, p. 172; April, 1991, Clyde J. Behney, review of What Kind of Life?, p. 265.

Booklist, November 15, 1987, review of Setting Limits, p. 517; December 1, 1989, review of What Kind of Life?, p. 706; August, 1993, William Beatty, review of The Troubled Dream of Life: Living with Mortality, p. 2014; April, 1998, Mary Carroll, review of False Hopes: Why America's Quest for Perfect Health Is a Recipe for Failure, p. 1284.

Change, November, 1980, review of Ethics Teaching in Higher Education, p. 60; April, 1982, Robert L. Spaeth, review of Ethics Teaching in Higher Education, pp. 55-56.

Choice, June, 1981, review of Ethics Teaching in Higher Education, p. 1428; May, 1982, review of The Roots of Ethics: Science, Religion, and Values, p. 1262; January, 1988, review of Setting Limits, p. 844.

Christian Century, April 13, 1988, Bonnie Miller-McLemore, review of Setting Limits, pp. 372-373; May 1, 1991, Carole Bailey Stoneking, review of What Kind of Life?, pp. 493-494; November 17, 1993, Hugh McElwain, review of The Troubled Dream of Life, pp. 1156-1159; September 22, 1999, review of False Hopes, p. 913.

Commentary, December, 1980, review of Ethics Teaching in Higher Education, p. 62; April, 1988, review of Setting Limits, p. 23.

Commonweal, December 4, 1987, review of Setting Limits, p. 706; April 22, 1988, Drew Christiansen, review of Setting Limits, pp. 247-249; March 10, 1989, Margaret Farley, review of Setting Limits, pp. 153-154; May 18, 1990, review of What Kind of Life?, p. 328; October 22, 1993, William F. May, review of The Troubled Dream of Life, pp. 25-26; September 25, 1998, review of False Hopes, p. 24.

Conscience, fall, 1996, review of Abortion: Law, Choice, and Morality, p. 35.

Contemporary Sociology, July, 1987, Caroline Whitbeck, review of Applying the Humanities, pp. 549-550.

Ethics, April, 1982, James M. Giarelli, review of Ethics Teaching in Higher Education, pp. 549-552; October, 1983, Brian Barry, reviews of The Roots of Ethics, and Ethics in Hard Times, pp. 138-140; July, 1984, Susan Sherwin, review of Ethics, the Social Sciences, and Policy Analysis, p. 737; January, 1987, Norman E. Bowie, review of Representation and Responsibility: Exploring Legislative Ethics, pp. 485-486; April, 1987, Thomas D. Eisele, review of Applying the Humanities, p. 700; October, 1989, Larry R. Churchill, review of Setting Limits, pp. 169-176; January, 1991, David C. Thomasma, review of What Kind of Life?, pp. 419-420; July, 1997, review of A World Growing Old, p. 779; October, 2001, review of Promoting Healthy Behavior: How Much Freedom? Whose Responsibility?, p. 191.

Gerontologist, June, 1988, Robert H. Binstock and Jeff Kahana, review of Setting Limits, pp. 424-426; February, 1992, Edward F. Lawlor, review of What Kind of Life?, pp. 131-133.

Guardian Weekly (London, England), November 8, 1987, review of Setting Limits, p. 20; April 1, 1990, review of What Kind of Life?, p. 20.

Harvard Women's Law Journal, spring, 1986, Sarah Jane Reynolds, review of Abortion: Understanding Differences, pp. 245-251.

Hastings Center Report, March, 1996, review of A World Growing Old, p. 48; May, 1998, review of False Hopes, p. 42; January, 1999, review of False Hopes, p. 45.

Healthcare Financial Management, November, 1988, Carol Howe Hamblen, review of Setting Limits, p. 82.

Healthline, April, 1991, Bettina Wood, review of What Kind of Life?, pp. 15-16.

Hospital & Health Services Administration, fall, 1991, Dean M. Crowder, review of What Kind of Life?, p. 468.

Humanist, March-April, 1988, Ralph C. Greene, review of Setting Limits, p. 39.

Hypatia, summer, 1989, Nora K. Bell, "What Setting Limits May Mean: A Feminist Critique of Daniel Callahan's Setting Limits," pp. 169-178.

Journal of Contemporary Health Law and Policy, spring, 1989, Giovanna M. Cinelli, review of Setting Limits, pp. 355-359; spring, 1992, Francis J. Hearn, Jr., review of What Kind of Life?, pp. 495-498.

Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, fall, 1989, Michael Reagan, review of Setting Limits, pp. 627-633.

Journal of Higher Education, May, 1982, review of Ethics Teaching in Higher Education, p. 360.

Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, fall, 1996, Kimberly Strom-Gottfried, review of What Price Mental Health?, pp. 267-269.

Journal of Legal Medicine, March, 1988, Marshall B. Kapp, review of Setting Limits, pp. 161-178; December, 1990, Dorothy Rasinski Gregory, review of What Kind of Life?, pp. 519-525.

Journal of Medical Ethics, June, 1995, Donna Dickenson, review of The Troubled Dream of Life, pp. 188-189; February, 1997, Hugh Series, review of A World Growing Old, pp. 56-57; February, 1997, Christopher Howard, review of What Price Mental Health?, pp. 57-58.

Journal of Policy Analysis & Management, fall, 1996, Steven M. Teles, review of What Price Mental Health?, pp. 658-670.

Journal of the American Medical Association, May 13, 1988, Steven Miles, review of Setting Limits, p. 2765; May 15, 1991, Stanley J. Reiser, review of What Kind of Life?, pp. 2591-2592; February 22, 1995, Norman B. Levy, review of The Troubled Dream of Life, pp. 677-678.

Jurimetrics Journal of Law, Science and Technology, spring, 1991, Wendy K. Mariner, review of What Kind of Life?, pp. 349-355.

Kirkus Reviews, August 1, 1987, review of Setting Limits, p. 1124; November 15, 1989, review of What Kind of Life?, p. 1643; June 1, 1993, review of The Troubled Dream of Life, p. 692; March 1, 1998, review of False Hopes, p. 311.

Kliatt Young Adult Paperback Book Guide, April, 1991, review of What Kind of Life?, p. 32.

Lancet, August, 1993, review of The Troubled Dream of Life, p. 132; June 15, 1996, C. Roffe, review of A World Growing Old, p. 1679; June 13, 1998, Robert H. Brook, review of "False Hopes or No Hopes?," review of False Hopes, pp. 1822-1823.

Library Journal, January, 1990, Mark L. Shelton, review of What Kind of Life?, p. 139; August, 1993, KellyJo Houtz Parish, review of The Troubled Dream of Life, p. 132; April 1, 1998, Mark L. Shelton, review of False Hopes, p. 116; March 1, 1999, review of False Hopes, p. 47;

Medical Humanities Review, January, 1991, review of What Kind of Life?, p. 35; spring, 1994, review of The Troubled Dream of Life, p. 68; spring, 2001, review of Promoting Healthy Behavior, p. 28.

National Catholic Reporter, February 4, 1994, Michael J. Farrell, review of The Troubled Dream of Life, p. 28.

National Right to Life News, August 12, 1998, Wesley J. Smith, review of False Hopes, pp. 11-12.

New England Journal of Medicine, August 18, 1988, Terrie Wetle and Richard W. Besdine, review of Setting Limits, pp. 452-453; August 9, 1990, Herbert P. Gleason, review of What Kind of Life?, p. 424; December 30, 1993, Diane Meier, review of The Troubled Dream of Life, pp. 2042-2043; September 5, 1996, Richard M. Ratzan, review of A World Growing Old, pp. 756-757; September 12, 2002, Barrie R. Cassileth, review of The Role of Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Accommodating Pluralism.

New Leader, November 16, 1987, Barry Gewen, review of Setting Limits, p. 17; March 5, 1990, Amitai Etzioni, review of What Kind of Life?, p. 20.

Newsweek, June 8, 1970.

New Yorker, March 5, 1990, review of What Kind of Life?, p. 106.

New York Review of Books, April 28, 1988, Sidney Hook, review of Setting Limits, pp. 22-25; March 5, 1992, David J. Rothman, review of What Kind of Life?, pp. 32-37.

New York Times Book Review, September 27, 1987, review of Setting Limits, p. 7; December 24, 1989, review of What Kind of Life?, p. 1; February 3, 1991, review of What Kind of Life?, p. 32; April 5, 1998, review of False Hopes, p. 12.

People, August 12, 1985, "Pro-choice vs. Pro-life Is a Moral Dilemma, Says Daniel Callahan" (interview), pp. 89-92.

Public Administration Review, September-October, 1991, Barbara J. Holt, review of What Kind of Life?, pp. 453-454; January-February, 1993, Barbara H. Lord, review of What Kind of Life?, p. 87.

Publishers Weekly, July 17, 1987, review of Setting Limits, p. 44; June 7, 1993, review of The Troubled Dream of Life, p. 62; February 2, 1998, review of False Hopes, p. 72.

Reason, November, 1998, review of False Hopes, p. 66.

Reference & Research Book News, February, 1991, review of What Kind of Life?, p. 29.

Religious Studies Review, April, 1983, review of Ethics Teaching in Higher Education, p. 126; April, 1984, review of Ethics Teaching in Higher Education, p. 163; October, 1990, review of Biomedical Ethics: An Anglo-American Dialogue, p. 337; October, 1998, review of A World Growing Old, p. 398; April, 1991, review of What Kind of Life?, p. 151.

Science, May 23, 1986, Sheldon Rothblatt, review of Applying the Humanities, pp. 1013-1015.

Science Books & Films, November, 1981, review of Ethics Teaching in Higher Education, p. 64; November, 1999, review of False Hopes, p. 271.

Sciences, January-February, 1991, Louis Lasagna, review of What Kind of Life?, pp. 42-47.

SciTech Book News, November, 1988, review of Biomedical Ethics, p. 19; September, 1995, reviews of What Kind of Life? and Setting Limits, p. 33; March, 1996, review of A World Growing Old, p. 27; December, 1999, review of False Hopes, p. 69; June, 2001, review of The Troubled Dream of Life, p. 88.

Social Science & Medicine, August 15, 1996, Constance E. Putnam, review of The Troubled Dream of Life, pp. 566-567.

Social Service Review, March, 1984, review of Ethics, the Social Sciences, and Policy Analysis, p. 160.

Social Work, May, 1984, review of Ethics, the Social Sciences, and Policy Analysis, p. 309.

Teachers College Record, spring, 1982, review of Ethics Teaching in Higher Education, p. 474.

Tricycle: The Buddhist Review, fall, 1997, review of The Troubled Dream of Life, p. 93.

Virginia Quarterly Review, winter, 1994, review of The Troubled Dream of Life, p. 32.

Wall Street Journal, January 7, 1988, review of Setting Limits, p. 17.

Washington Monthly, June, 1998, Margaret P. Battin, review of False Hopes, pp. 48-50.

Washington Post Book World, January 19, 1974; October 11, 1987, review of Setting Limits, p. 1; January 7, 1990, review of What Kind of Life?, p. 11; August 22, 1993, review of The Troubled Dream of Life, p. 7.

West Coast Review of Books, Volume 15, number 4, 1999, review of What Kind of Life?, p. 37.

Wilson Quarterly, February, 1990, review of What Kind of Life?, p. 108.*