Schoenberg (originally, Schönberg), Arnold (Franz Walter)
Schoenberg (originally, Schönberg), Arnold (Franz Walter)
Schoenberg (originally, Schönberg), Arnold (Franz Walter), great Austrian-born American composer whose new method of musical organization in 12 different tones related only to one another profoundly influenced the entire development of modern techniques of composition; b. Vienna, Sept. 13, 1874; d. Los Angeles, July 13, 1951. He studied at the Realschule in Vienna; learned to play the cello, and also became proficient on the violin. His father died when Schoenberg was 16; he took a job as a bank clerk to earn a living; an additional source of income was arranging popular songs and orchestrating operetta scores. Schoenberg’s first original work was a group of 3 piano pieces, which he wrote in 1894; it was also about that time that he began to take lessons in counterpoint from Alexander Zemlinsky, whose sister he married in 1901. He also played cello in Zemlinsky’s instrumental group, Polyhymnia. In 1897 Schoenberg wrote his first String Quartet, in D major, which achieved public performance in Vienna on March 17, 1898. About the same time, he wrote 2 songs with piano accompaniment which he designated as op.l. In 1899 he wrote his first true masterpiece, Verklärte Nacht, set for string sextet, which was first performed in Vienna by the Rosé Quartet and members of the Vienna Phil, on March 18, 1902. It is a fine work, deeply imbued with the spirit of Romantic poetry, with its harmonic idiom stemming from Wagner’s modulatory procedures; it remains Schoenberg’s most frequently performed composition, known principally through its arrangement for string orch. About 1900 he was engaged as conductor of several amateur choral groups in Vienna and its suburbs; this increased his interest in vocal music. He then began work on a choral composition, Gurre-Lieder, of monumental proportions, to the translated text of a poem by the Danish writer Jens Peter Jacobsen. For grandeur and opulence of orchestral sonority, it surpassed even the most formidable creations of Mahler or Richard Strauss; it calls for 5 solo voices, a speaker, 3 men’s choruses, an 8-part mixed chorus, and a very large orch. Special music paper of 48 staves had to be ordered for the MS. He completed the first 2 parts of Gurre-Lieder in the spring of 1901, but the composition of the remaining section was delayed by 10 years; it was not until Feb. 23, 1913, that Franz Schreker was able to arrange its complete performance with the Vienna Phil, and its choral forces.
In 1901 Schoenberg moved to Berlin, where he joined E. von Wolzogen, F. Wedekind, and O. Bierbaum in launching an artistic cabaret, which they called Überbrettl. He composed a theme song for it with trumpet obbligato, and conducted several shows. He met Richard Strauss, who helped him to obtain the Liszt Stipendium and a position as a teacher at the Stern Cons. He returned to Vienna in 1903 and formed friendly relations with Gustav Mahler, who became a sincere supporter of his activities; Mahler’s power in Vienna was then at its height, and he was able to help him in his career as a composer. In March 1904 Schoenberg organized with Alexander Zemlinsky the Vereinigung Schaffender Tonkünstler for the purpose of encouraging performances of new music. Under its auspices he conducted on Jan. 26, 1905, the first performance of his symphonic poem Pelleas und Melisande; in this score occurs the first use of a trombone glissando. There followed a performance on Feb. 8, 1907, of Schoenberg’s Kammersymphonie, op.9, with the participation of the Rosé Quartet and the wind instrumentalists of the Vienna Phil.; the work produced much consternation in the audience and among critics because of its departure from traditional tonal harmony, with chords built on fourths and nominal dissonances used without immediate resolution. About the same time, he turned to painting, which became his principal avocation. In his art, as in his music, he adopted the tenets of Expressionism, that is, freedom of personal expression within a self-defined program. Schoenberg’s reputation as an independent musical thinker attracted to him such progressive-minded young musicians as Alban Berg, Anton von Webern, and Egon Wellesz, who followed Schoenberg in their own development. His second String Quartet, composed in 1908, which included a soprano solo, was his last work that carried a definite key signature, if exception is made for his Suite for Strings, ostentatiously marked as in G major, which he wrote for school use in America in 1934. On Feb. 19, 1909, Schoenberg completed his piano piece op.11, no. 1, which became the first musical composition to dispense with all reference to tonality. In 1910 he was appointed to the faculty of the Vienna Academy of Music; in 1911 he completed his important theory book Harmonielehre, dedicated to the memory of Mahler; it comprises a traditional exposition of chords and progressions, but also offers illuminating indications of possible new musical developments, including fractional tones and melodies formed by the change of timbre on the same note. In 1911 he went again to Berlin, where he became an instructor at the Stern Cons. and taught composition privately. His 5 Orchesterstücke, first perf. in London on Sept. 3, 1912, under Sir Henry Wood’s direction, attracted a great deal of attention; the critical reception was that of incomprehension, with a considerable measure of curiosity. The score was indeed revolutionary in nature, each movement representing an experiment in musical organization. In the same year, Schoenberg produced another innovative work, a cycle of 21 songs with instrumental accompaniment, entitled Pierrot Lunaire, and consisting of 21 “melodramas,” to German texts translated from verses by the Belgian poet Albert Giraud. Here he made systematic use of Sprechstimme, with a gliding speech-song replacing precise pitch (not an entire innovation, for Engelbert Humperdinck had applied it in his incidental music to Rosmer’s play Königskinder in 1897). The work was given, after some 40 rehearsals, in Berlin on Oct. 16, 1912, and the reaction was startling, the purblind critics drawing upon the strongest invective in their vocabulary to condemn the music.
Meanwhile, Schoenberg made appearances as conductor of his works in various European cities (Amsterdam, 1911; St. Petersburg, 1912; London, 1914). During World War I, he was sporadically enlisted in military service; after the Armistice, he settled in Mödling, near Vienna. Discouraged by his inability to secure performances for himself and his associates in the new music movement, he organized in Vienna, in Nov. 1918, the Verein für Musikalische Privataufführungen (Society for Private Musical Performances), from which critics were demonstratively excluded, and which ruled out any vocal expression of approval or disapproval. The organization disbanded in 1922. About that time, Schoenberg began work on his Suite for Piano, op.25, which was to be the first true 12-tone piece consciously composed in that idiom. In 1925 he was appointed prof. of a master class at the Prussian Academy of Arts in Berlin. With the advent of the beastly Nazi regime, the German Ministry of Education dismissed him from his post as a Jew. As a matter of record, Schoenberg had abandoned his Jewish faith in Vienna on March 25, 1898, by being baptized in the Protestant Dorotheer Community (Augsburger Konfession); 35 years later, horrified by the hideous persecution of Jews at the hands of the Nazis, he was moved to return to his ancestral faith and was reconverted to Judaism in Paris on July 24, 1933. With the rebirth of his hereditary consciousness, he turned to specific Jewish themes in works such as Survivor from Warsaw and Moses und Aron. Although Schoenberg was well known in the musical world, he had difficulty obtaining a teaching position; he finally accepted the invitation of Joseph Maikin, founder of the Maikin Cons. of Boston, to join its faculty. He arrived in the U.S. on Oct. 31, 1933. After teaching in Boston for a season, he moved to Hollywood. In 1935 he became a prof. of music at the Univ. of Southern Calif, in Los Angeles, and in 1936 accepted a similar position at the Univ. of Calif, at Los Angeles, where he taught until 1944, when he reached the mandatory retirement age of 70. On April 11, 1941, he became a naturalized American citizen. In 1947 he received the Award of Merit for Distinguished Achievements from the National Inst. of Arts and Letters. In the U.S. he changed the original spelling of his name from Schönberg to Schoenberg.
In 1924 Schoenberg’s creative evolution reached the all-important point at which he found it necessary to establish a new governing principle of tonal relationship, which he called the “method of composing with 12 different notes related entirely to one another.” This method was adumbrated in his music as early as 1914, and is used partially in his 5 Klavierstücke, op.23, and in his Serenade, op.24; it was employed for the first time in its integral form in the piano Suite, op.25 (1924); in it, the thematic material is based on a group of 12 different notes arrayed in a certain pre-arranged order; such a tone row was henceforth Schoenberg’s mainspring of thematic invention; development was provided by the devices of inversion, retrograde, and retrograde inversion of the basic series; allowing for transposition, 48 forms were obtainable in all, with counterpoint and harmony, as well as melody, derived from the basic tone row. Immediate repetition of thematic notes was admitted; the realm of rhythm remained free. As with most historic innovations, the 12-tone technique was not the creation of Schoenberg alone but was, rather, a logical development of many currents of musical thought. Josef Matthias Hauer rather unconvincingly claimed priority in laying the foundations of the 12-tone method; among others who had elaborated similar ideas at about the same time with Schoenberg was Jef Golyscheff, a Russian émigré who expounded his theory in a publication entitled “12 Tondauer-Musik.” Instances of themes consisting of 12 different notes are found in the Faust Symphony of Liszt and in the tone poem Also sprach Zarathustra of Richard Strauss in the section on Science. Schoenberg’s great achievement was the establishment of the basic 12-tone row and its changing forms as foundations of a new musical language; using this idiom, he was able to write music of great expressive power. In general usage, the 12-tone method is often termed “dodecaphony,” from Greek dodeca, “12,” and phone, “sound.” The tonal composition of the basic row is devoid of tonality; an analysis of Schoenberg’s works shows that he avoided using major triads in any of their inversions, and allowed the use of only the second inversion of a minor triad. He deprecated the term “atonality” that was commonly applied to his music. He suggested, only half in jest, the term “atonicality,” i.e., absence of the dominating tonic. The most explicit work of Schoenberg couched in the 12-tone idiom was his Klavierstück, op.33a, written in 1928–29, which exemplifies the clearest use of the tone row in chordal combinations. Other works that present a classical use of dodecaphony are Begleitungsmusik zu einer Lichtspielszene, op.34 (1929–30); Violin Concerto (1934–36); and Piano Concerto (1942). Schoenberg’s disciples Berg and Webern followed his 12-tone method in general outlines but with some personal deviations; thus, Berg accepted the occasional use of triadic harmonies, and Webern built tone rows in symmetric groups. Other composers who made systematic use of the 12-tone method were Egon Wellesz, Ernst Krenek, René Leibowitz, Roberto Gerhard, Humphrey Searle, and Luigi Dallapiccola. As time went on, dodecaphony became a lingua franca of universal currency; even in Russia, where Schoenberg’s theories were for many years unacceptable on ideological grounds, several composers, including Shostakovich in his last works, made use of 12-tone themes, albeit without integral development. Ernest Bloch used 12-tone subjects in his last string quartets, but he refrained from applying inversions and retrograde forms of his tone rows. Stravinsky, in his old age, turned to the 12-tone method of composition in its total form, with retrograde, inversion, and retrograde inversion; his conversion was the greatest artistic vindication for Schoenberg, who regarded Stravinsky as his most powerful antagonist, but Schoenberg was dead when Stravinsky saw the light of dodecaphony.
Schoenberg’s personality was both heroic and egocentric; he made great sacrifices to sustain his artistic convictions, but he was also capable of engaging in bitter polemics when he felt that his integrity was under attack. He strongly opposed the claims of Hauer and others for the priority of the 12-tone method of composition, and he vehemently criticized in the public press the implication he saw in Thomas Mann’s novel Doktor Faustus, in which the protagonist was described as the inventor of the 12-tone method of composition; future historians, Schoenberg argued, might confuse fiction with facts, and credit the figment of Mann’s imagination with Schoenberg’s own discovery. He was also subject to superstition in the form of triskaidecaphobia, the fear of the number 13; he seriously believed that there was something fateful in the circumstance of his birth on the 13th of the month. Noticing that the title of his work Moses und Aaron contained 13 letters, he crossed out the second “a” in Aaron to make it 12. When he turned 76 and someone remarked facetiously that the sum of the digits of his age was 13, he seemed genuinely upset, and during his last illness in July 1951, he expressed his fear of not surviving July 13; indeed, he died on that date. Schoenberg placed his MSS in the Music Division of the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C.; the remaining materials were deposited after his death at the Schoenberg Inst. at the Univ. of Southern Calif, in Los Angeles. Schoenberg’s centennial in 1974 was commemorated worldwide. A Journal of the Schoenberg Inst. began publ. in 1976, under the editorship of Leonard Stein.
Schoenberg’s personality, which combined elements of decisive affirmation and profound self-negation, still awaits a thorough analysis. When he was drafted into the Austrian armed forces during World War I (he never served in action, however) and was asked by the examiner whether he was the “notorious” modernist composer, he answered “someone had to be, and I was the one.” He could not understand why his works were not widely performed. He asked a former secretary to Serge Koussevitzky why the Boston Sym. Orch. programs never included any of his advanced works; when the secretary said that Koussevitzky simply could not understand them, Schoenberg was genuinely perplexed. “Aber, er spielt doch Brahms!” he said. To Schoenberg, his works were the natural continuation of German classical music. Schoenberg lived in Los Angeles for several years during the period when Stravinsky was also there, but the two never made artistic contact. Indeed, they met only once, in a downtown food market, where they greeted each other, in English, with a formal handshake. Schoenberg wrote a satirical canon, Herr Modernsky, obviously aimed at Stravinsky, whose neo-Classical works (“ganz wie Papa Bach”) Schoenberg lampooned. But when Schoenberg was dead, Stravinsky said he forgave him in appreciation of his expertise in canonic writing.
In his private life, Schoenberg had many interests; he was a fairly good tennis player, and also liked to play chess. In his early years in Vienna, he launched several theoretical inventions to augment his income, but none of them ever went into practice; he also designed a set of playing cards. The MSS of arrangements of Viennese operettas and waltzes he had made in Vienna to augment his meager income were eventually sold for large sums of money after his death. That Schoenberg needed money but was not offered any by an official musical benefactor was a shame. After Schoenberg relocated to Los Angeles, which was to be his final destination, he obtained successful appointments as a prof. at the Univ. of Southern Calif, and eventually at the Univ. of Calif., Los Angeles. But there awaited him the peculiar rule of age limitation for teachers, and he was mandatorily retired when he reached his seventieth year. His pension from the Univ. of Calif., Los Angeles, amounted to $38 a month. His difficulty in supporting a family with growing children became acute and eventually reached the press. He applied for a grant from the munificent Guggenheim Foundation, pointing out that since several of his own students had received such awards, he was now applying for similar consideration, but the rule of age limitation defeated him there as well. It was only after the Schoenberg case and its repercussions in the music world that the Guggenheim Foundation cancelled its offensive rule. Schoenberg managed to square his finances with the aid of his publishing income, however, and, in the meantime, his children grew up. His son Ronald (an anagram of Arnold) eventually became a city judge, an extraordinary development for a Schoenberg!
DRAMATIC : Erwartung, monodrama, op.17 (1909; Prague, June 6, 1924, Gutheil-Schoder mezzo-soprano, Zemlinsky conducting); Die glückliche Hand, drama with music, to Schoenberg’s own libretto, op.18 (1910–13; Vienna, Oct. 14, 1924, Stiedry conducting); Von Heute auf Morgen, opera, op.32 (1928–29; Frankfurt am Main, Feb. 1, 1930, W. Steinberg conducting); Moses und Aron, biblical drama, to Schoenberg’s own libretto (2 acts composed 1930–32; third act begun in 1951, but not completed; radio perf. of Acts 1 and 2, Hamburg, March 12, 1954, Rosbaud conducting; stage perf., Zürich, June 6, 1957, Rosbaud conducting). ORCH.: Trillings Tod, symphonic poem (fragment, 1898; Berlin, March 18, 1984, R. Chailly conducting); Pelleas und Melisande, symphonic poem, after Maeterlinck, op.5 (1902–03; Vienna, Jan. 26, 1905, composer conducting); Kam-mersymphonie No. 1 for 15 Instruments, op.9 (1906; Vienna, Feb. 8, 1907; arranged for Orch., 1922; new version for Orch., op.9b, 1935); 5 Orchester-Stücke, op.16 (1909; London, Sept. 3, 1912, Sir Henry Wood conducting; rev. 1922 and 1949); 3 Little Pieces for Chamber Orch. (1911; Berlin, Oct. 10, 1957); Variations, op.31 (1926–28; Berlin, Dec. 2, 1928, Furtwängler conducting); Begleitungsmusik zu einer Lichtspielszene, op.34 (1929–30; Berlin, Nov. 6, 1930, Klemperer conducting); Suite in G major for Strings (1934; Los Angeles, May 18, 1935, Klemperer conducting); Violin Concerto, op.36 (1934–36; Philadelphia, Dec. 6, 1940, Krasner soloist, Stokowski conducting); second Chamber Sym., op.38a (1906–16; 1939; N.Y., Dec. 15, 1940, Stiedry conducting; op.38b is an arrangement for 2 Pianos, 1941–42); Piano Concerto, op.42 (1942; N.Y., Feb. 6, 1944, Steuermann pianist, Stokowski conducting); Theme and Variations for Wind Band, op.43a (1943; arranged for Orch., op.43b, Boston, Oct. 20, 1944, Koussevitzky conducting). CHAMBER : 1 unnumbered string quartet in D major (1897; Vienna, March 17, 1898); 4 numbered string quartets: No. 1, in D minor, op.7 (1904–05; Vienna, Feb. 5, 1907), No. 2, in F-sharp minor, op.10, with Voice (Vienna, Dec. 21, 1908, Rosé Quartet, Gutheil Schoder mezzo-soprano; arranged for String Orch., 1929), No. 3, op.30 (Vienna, Sept. 19, 1927, Kolisch Quartet), and No. 4, op.37 (1936; Los Angeles, Jan. 9, 1937, Kolisch Quartet); Verklärte Nacht, sextet for Strings, op.4 (1899; Vienna, March 18, 1902; arranged for String Orch., 1917; rev. 1943; perf. as the ballet The Pillar of Fire, N.Y., April 8, 1942); Ein Stelldichein for Oboe, Clarinet, Violin, Cello, and Piano (1905); Die eiserne Brigade, march for String Quartet and Piano (1916); Weihnachtsmusik for 2 Violins, Cello, Harmonium, and Piano (1921); Serenade for Clarinet, Bass Clarinet, Mandolin, Guitar, Violin, Viola, and Cello, op.24 (fourth movement with a sonnet by Petrarch for Baritone; 1920–23; Donaueschingen, July 20, 1924); Quintet for Flute, Oboe, Clarinet, Horn, and Bassoon, op.26 (Vienna, Sept. 13, 1924); Suite for 2 Clarinets, Bass Clarinet, Violin, Viola, Cello, and Piano, op.29 (1925–26; Paris, Dec. 15, 1927); Ode to Napoleon for String Quartet, Piano, and Reciter, after Byron (1942; also a version with String Orch., N.Y., Nov. 23, 1944, Rodzinski conducting); String Trio, op.45 (1946; Cambridge, Mass., May 1, 1947); Phantasy for Violin, with Piano Accompaniment (Los Angeles, Sept. 13, 1949). keyboard : Piano : 3 Klavierstücke, op.ll (1909; Vienna, Jan. 14, 1910; rev. 1924); 6 kleine Klavierstücke, op.l9 (1911; Berlin, Feb. 4, 1912); 5 Klavierstücke, op.23 (1920–23); Suite, op.25 (1921–23); Klavierstück, op.33a (1928–29; Hamburg, Jan. 30, 1931); Klavierstück, op.33b (1931). Organ: Variations on a Recitative, op.40 (1941; N.Y., April 10, 1944). VOCAL : Choral : Gurre-Lieder for Soloists, Chorus, and Orch. (1900–03; 1910–11; Vienna, Feb. 23, 1913, Schreker conducting); Friede auf Erden, op.l3 (1907; Vienna, Dec. 9, 1911, Schreker conducting); 4 pieces for Chorus, op.27 (1925); 3 Satires, op.28 (1925); 3 German folk songs (Vienna, Nov. 1929); 6 pieces for Men’s Chorus, op.35 (1929–30; Frankfurt am Main, Nov. 29, 1931, F. Schmidt conducting); Kol Nidre for Speaker, Chorus, and Orch., op.39 (Los Angeles, Oct. 4, 1938, composer conducting); Genesis, prelude for Orch. and Chorus (Los Angeles, Jan. 11, 1945); A Survivor from Warsaw for Narrator, Chorus, and Orch., op.46 (1947; Albuquerque, Nov. 4, 1948); 3 German folk songs for Chorus, op.49 (1948); Dreimal tausend Jahre for Chorus, op.50a (Fylkingen, Sweden, Oct. 29, 1949); De Profundis for Chorus, after a Hebrew text, op.50b (1950; Cologne, Jan. 29, 1954); Modern Psalm for Chorus, Speaker, and Chorus, after the composer (unfinished; Cologne, May 29, 1956, Sanzogno conducting). The oratorio Die Jakobsleiter, begun in 1917, was left unfinished; a performing version was prepared by Winfried Zillig, and given for the first time in Vienna on June 16, 1961. Songs :2 songs, op.l (1898); 4 songs, op.2 (1899); 7 Chansons, Bretll-Lieder (1901); Nachtwandler for Soprano, Piccolo, Trumpet, Side Drum, and Piano (1901); 6 songs, op.3 (1899–1903); 8 songs, op.6 (1903–05); 6 songs, op.8 (nos. 2, 5, and 6 for Orch., Prague, Jan. 29, 1914, Zemlinsky conducting); 2 ballads, op.12 (1907); 2 songs, op.14 (1907–08); cycle of 15 poems after Stefan George’s Das Buch der hängenden Gärten (1908–09; Vienna, Jan. 14, 1910); Herzgewächse for Soprano, Celesta, Harmonium, and Harp, after Maeterlinck, op.20 (1911); Pierrot Lunaire, 21 poems for Sprechstimme, Piano, Flute/Piccolo, Clarinet/Bass Clarinet, Violin/Viola, and Cello, after Albert Giraud, op.21 (Berlin, Oct. 16, 1912, A. Zehme soloist, composer conducting); 4 songs, op.22 (with Orch.; 1913–16; Frankfurt am Main, Feb. 21, 1932, Rosbaud conducting); Lied der Waldtaube for Mezzo-soprano and Chamber Ensemble (1922; arranged from Gurre-Lieder); 3 songs, op.48 (1933; London, June 5, 1952). arrangements and transcriptions : 2 chorale preludes by Bach, for Large Orch.: No. 1, Komm, Gott, Schöpfer, Heiliger Geist, and No. 2, Schmucke dich, O liebe Seele (N.Y., Dec. 12, 1922); Prelude and Fugue in E-flat major for Organ by Bach, for Large Orch. (1928; Vienna, Nov. 10, 1929, Webern conducting); Piano Quartet No. 1, in G minor, op.25, by Brahms, for Orch. (1937; Los Angeles, May 7, 1938, Klemperer conducting); also a Cello Concerto, transcribed from a Harpsichord Concerto by G.M. Monn (1932–33; London, Dec. 7, 1935, Feuermann soloist); Concerto for String Quartet and Orch. after Handel’s Concerto Grosso, op.6, No. 7 (1933; Prague, Sept. 26, 1934, Kolisch Quartet); etc.
Harmonielehre (Vienna, 1911; third ed., rev., 1922; abr. Eng. tr., 1947, as Theory of Harmony; complete Eng. tr., 1978); Models for Beginners in Composition (N.Y., 1942; third ed., rev., 1972, by L. Stein); Style and Idea (N.Y., 1950; enl. ed. by L. Stein, London, 1975); Structural Functions of Harmony (N.Y., 1954; second ed., rev., 1969, by L. Stein); Preliminary Exercises in Counterpoint, ed. by L. Stein (London, 1963); Fundamentals of Musical Composition, ed. by L. Stein (London, 1967); also numerous essays in German and American publs.
collected works, source material : J. Rufer and his successors are preparing a complete ed. of his works, A. S.: Sämtliche Werke (Mainz, 1966 et seq.). Rufer also compiled an annotated catalogue, Das Werk A. S.s (Kassel, 1959; Eng. tr., 1962; second Ger. ed., rev., 1975). I. Vojtch ed. Vol. I of the Gesammelte Schriften (Frankfurt am Main, 1976). See also the following: A. S.: Mit Beiträgen von Alban Berg, Paris von Gutersloh…(Munich, 1912); E. Wellesz, A. S. (Leipzig, 1921; Eng. tr., rev., London, 1925); E. Stein, Praktischer Leitfaden zu S.s Harmonielehre (Vienna, 1923); P. Stefan, A. S.: Wandlung, Legende, Erscheinung, Bedeutung (Vienna, 1924); A. S. zum 60. Geburtstag (Vienna, 1934); H. Wind, Die Endkrise der bürgerlichen Musik und die Rolle A. S.s (Vienna, 1935); M. Armitage, ed., A. S. (N.Y., 1937); R. Leibowitz, S. et son école (Paris, 1947; Eng. tr., 1949); D. Newlin, Bruckner, Mahler, S. (N.Y., 1947; rev. ed., 1978); H. Stuckenschmidt, A. S. (Zürich, 1951; second ed., rev., 1957; Eng. tr., 1959); J. Rufer, Die Komposition mit zwölf Tönen (Berlin, 1952; Eng. tr., 1954, as Composition with 12 Notes Related to One Another); L. Rognoni, Espressionismo e dodecafonia (Turin, 1954; second ed., rev., 1966, as La scuola musicale di Vienna); K. Werner, Gotteswort und Magie (Heidelberg, 1959; Eng. tr., rev., 1963, as S.’s “Moses and Aron”); M. Kassler, The Decision of A. S.’s Twelve-Note-Class-System and Related Systems (Princeton, 1961); G. Perle, Serial Composition and Atonality: An Introduction to the Music of S., Berg and Webern (Berkeley, 1962; fifth ed., rev., 1982); W. Rogge, Das Klavierwerke A. S.s (Regensburg, 1964); J. Meyerowitz, A. S. (Berlin, 1967); B. Boretz and E. Cone, eds., Perspectives on S. and Stravinsky (Princeton, 1968); G. Krieger, S.s Werke für Klavier (Göttingen, 1968); A. Payne, S. (London, 1968); W. Reich, A. S., oder Der konservative Revolutionär (Vienna, 1968; Eng. tr., 1971); R. Brinkmann, A. S.: Drei Klavierstücke Op.ll (Wiesbaden, 1969); R. Leibowitz, S. (Paris, 1969); D. Rexroth, A. S. als Theoretiker der tonalen Harmonik (Bonn, 1971); J. Maegaard, Studien zur Entwicklung des dodekaphonen Satzes bei A. S. (Copenhagen, 1972); A. Whittall, S. Chamber Music (London, 1972); E. Freitag, A. S. in Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten (Reinbek, 1973); H. Stuckenschmidt, S.: Leben, Umwelt, Werk (Zürich, 1974; Eng. tr., 1976, as S.: His Life, World and Work); G. Manzoni, A. S.: L’uomo, l’opera, i testi musicati (Milan, 1975; rev. ed., 1997); C. Rosen, A. S. (N.Y., 1975); G. Schubert, S.s frühe Instrumentation (Baden-Baden, 1975); M. Macdonald, S. (London, 1976); D. Newlin, S. Remembered: Diaries and Recollections (1938–76) (N.Y., 1980); W. Bailey, Programmatic Elements in the Works of A. S. (Ann Arbor, 1983); W. Jakobik, A. S.: die Verräumlichte Zeit (Regensburg, 1983); J. Hahl-Koch, ed., A. S./Wassily Kandinsky: Letters, Pictures and Documents (London, 1984); P. Franklin, The Idea of Music: S. and Others (London, 1985); G. Bauer, A Contextual Approach to S.’s Atonal WORKS: Self Expression, Religion, and Music Theory (diss., Wash. Univ., 1986); J. Brand, C. Hailey, and D. Harris, eds., The Berg-S. Correspondence (N.Y., 1986); E. Smaldone, Linear Analysis of Selected Posttonal Works of A. S.: Toward an Application of Schenkerian Concepts to Music of the Posttonal Era (diss., City Univ. of N.Y., 1986); J. Smith, S. and His Circle: A Viennese Portrait (N.Y., 1986); M. Mäckelmann, S.: Fünf Orchesterstücke op.l6 (Munich, 1987); J. and J. Christensen, From A. S.’s Literary Legacy: A Catalog of Neglected Items (Warren, Mich., 1988); G. Beinhorn, Das Groteske in der Musik: A. S.s Pierrot Lunaire (Pfaffenweiler, 1989); G. Biringer, Registrai and Temporal Influences on Segmentation and Form in S.’s Twelve-Tone Music (diss., Yale Univ., 1989); R. Boestfleisch, A. S.s frühe Kammermusik: Studien unter besonderer Berücksightigung der ersten beiden Streichquartette (Frankfurt am Main, 1990); E. Haimo, S.’s Serial Odyssey: The Evolution of his Twelve-Tone Method, 1914–1928 (Oxford, 1990); A. Ringer, A. S.: The Composer as Jew (Oxford, 1990); M. Sichardt, Die Entstehung der Zwölftonmethode A. S.s (Mainz, 1990); A. Trenkamp and J. Suess, eds., Studies in the S.ian Movement in Vienna and the United States: Essays in Honor of Marcel Dick (Lewiston, N.Y, 1990); W. Thomson, S.’s Error (Philadelphia, 1991); J. Dunsby, S.; Pierrot lunaire (Cambridge, 1992); B. Meier, Feschichtliche Signaturen der Musik bei Mahler, Strauss und S. (Hamburg, 1992); S. Mustein, A. S.: Notes, Sets, Forms (Cambridge, 1992); N. Nono-Schoenberg, ed., A S., 1874–1951: Lebensgeschichte in Begegnungen (Klagenfurt, 1992); W. Frisch, The Early Works of A. S., 1893–1908 (Berkeley, 1993); C. Sterne, A. S.: The Composer as Numerologist (Lewiston, N.Y., 1993); C.-S. 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—Nicolas Slonimsky/Laura Kuhn/Dennis McIntire