Huntington, Anna Hyatt (1876–1973)
Huntington, Anna Hyatt (1876–1973)
Huntington, Anna Hyatt (1876–1973)
American sculptor and philanthropist, much admired for her animal, garden, fountain, and equestrian statuary, which are seen as a transition between the traditional monuments of the late 19th century and modern abstract sculpture. Name variations: Anna Vaughn Hyatt; Mrs. Archer M. Huntington. Born Anna Vaughn Hyatt on March 10, 1876, in Cambridge, Massachusetts; died on October 4, 1973, in Redding Ridge, Connecticut; daughter of Audella Beebe Hyatt (an accomplished painter) and Alpheus Hyatt II (a distinguished zoologist and paleontologist); sister of Harriet Hyatt Mayor; attended private school in Cambridge, Massachusetts; studied with sculptor Henry Hudson Kitson, Boston, Massachusetts, in the late 1890s; studied with Herman A. MacNeill and Gutzon Borglum at Art Students League, New York, 1903; self-study of wild animals at the Bronx Zoo; married Archer Milton Huntington (a scholar, poet, and philanthropist), in 1923 (died 1955); no children.
Leo (bronze lion, Art Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1908); Joan of Arc (bronze, Riverside Drive, New York City, and other worldwide locations, 1915); Elephants Fighting (bronze, Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh, PA, 1917); Reaching Jaguar (bronze, 1906) and Jaguar (bronze, 1907) both at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Diana of the Chase (bronze, Fogg Museum, Cambridge, MA, 1922); El Cid Campeador (bronze, Hispanic Society of America, NYC, among others, 1934); Cranes Rising (bronze, Art Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1934); Peacocks Fighting (bronze, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 1935–36); Boabdil (bas-relief, limestone, Hispanic Society of America, 1935–36); Don Quixote (bas-relief, limestone, Hispanic Society of America, 1942); Torch Bearers (aluminum, University of Madrid, Spain, 1955); José Martí (bronze, Central Park, NYC, 1959); General Israel Putnam's Escape at Horse Neck (bronze, Putnam Memorial State Park, Redding, CT, 1969). Work in the collection of Brookgreen Gardens, South Carolina: Youth Taming the Wild (limestone, 1927), Fighting Stallions (aluminum, 1950), Mother (bronze, 1967), among many others. Works are also located in the permanent collections of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA; Brooklyn Children's Museum, Brooklyn, NY; and the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., and among more than 200 other museums, private collections, as well as parks and gardens of major cities throughout the world.
Anna Hyatt Huntington exhibited extensively, across the country and abroad, throughout her life, beginning with a solo show in Boston at age 24 (1900). Major retrospective exhibits: American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York (1936); Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco (1937).
Paris Salon honorable mention for Reaching Jaguar and Jaguar (1910); France's purple rosette and Panama Pacific International Exposition at San Francisco silver medal, both for Joan of Arc (1915); Plastic Club of Philadelphia's Rodin gold medal for Joan of Arc (1917); National Academy of Design's Saltus gold medal for Joan of Arc (1920) and Diana of the Chase (1922); French Legion of Honor for Joan of Arc (1922); National Academy of Design's Shaw Memorial Prize for Bulls Fighting (1928); Spanish Grand Cross of Alphonso XII for El Cid Campeador (1929); American Academy of Arts andLetters gold medal for Bulls Fighting (1930); Syracuse University honorary D.F.A. (1932); American Academy of Arts and Letters gold medal for distinction (1936); Pennsylvania Academy's Widener gold medal for Greyhounds Playing (1937); National Sculpture Society's medal of honor (1940); National Sculpture Society's Watrous gold medal for Don Quixote and Chi Omega Society's National Achievement Award (1948); Spain's Grand Cross of Isabel the Catholic (1952); Allied Arts of America gold medal of honor for Nanny and the Twins (1952); International Institute of Arts and Letters fellowship (1957); National Academy of Design gold medal (1958); Pierpont Morgan Library fellowship. Other honors include honorary vice-president of the National Association of Women Painters and Sculptors; honorary fellow of the National Sculpture Society; member of the National Academy of Design; member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters; corresponding member of the Spanish Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando; University of South Carolina, honorary D.F.A.
Anna Vaughn Hyatt was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on March 10, 1876, the third child and younger of two daughters of Audella Beebe Hyatt and Alpheus Hyatt II. Her ancestors came to America from England as early as 1629, the Hyatts settling in Maryland and the Beebes in Virginia. Anna Hyatt was raised in a comfortable, intellectually stimulating environment. Her father, a renowned paleontologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Boston University, was a pupil and friend of Louis Agassiz, the Swiss naturalist. From her father, Anna gained a keen knowledge of animal behavior and physiology, learning to observe the structure of living things with scientific accuracy. Her mother was an accomplished amateur painter who rendered diagrams and illustrations for her husband's books; she encouraged Anna to observe life and draw what she saw. The family had a lasting influence on Anna's learning by stressing the "hands on" approach to nature and animals. Huntington's technical mastery, evident in her monumental equestrian sculptures, was rooted in her early years spent on a family seaside farm in Annisquam, Massachusetts. It was there she developed her love and knowledge of horses and other animals; family lore relates that even as a child she could recognize the distinguishing characteristics of a hundred thoroughbreds. Her nephew A. Hyatt Mayor wrote of his aunt: "[A]s soon as she could crawl she headed for the horse's hooves to examine them…. [A]ll her life she understood how to control animals, caressing dangerous dogs without being bitten and breaking colts without breaking her bones." From being a young girl who broke and trained colts for neighbors, she grew to be an expert equestrian.
Anna attended private school in Cambridge with the intention of becoming a concert violinist. At age 19, her future course was altered when she underwent a period of recuperation from nervous exhaustion and turned to clay for recreation. She helped her sister Harriet Hyatt (Mayor) , a sculptor, repair a broken foot on a statue. The endeavor proved so successful that Harriet encouraged Anna to collaborate on a sculptural group she was creating, with Harriet doing the human figure and Anna modeling the family's Great Dane as the canine figure. Intrigued, Huntington began to study sculpture with great intensity. Her first studies were with Henry Hudson Kitson of Boston, her sister's teacher. Preferring to learn from nature, she spent time observing and sketching the animals around the farm and at the Bostock's Animal Circus where she gained permission to model the animals (elephants and tigers) at close range.
The sisters planned to open an art academy but never carried this through; Harriet's marriage took up most of her time, though she did complete a modest body of work. Huntington went on to an illustrious career. Her first works were commissioned by local Boston patrons, and she showed small pieces in the shop of the Boston jewelers Shreve, Crump and Low. In 1900, she showed 40 pieces at the Boston Art Club, setting a prodigious standard that she followed throughout her career. One of her small bronze animal studies from this show was acquired by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1903.
Animals have many moods and to represent them is my joy.
—Anna Hyatt Huntington
In 1903, after her father died, the family moved to New York. Huntington was employed by the Brooklyn Museum for a few years, doing plaster restorations of prehistoric animals. She then studied at the Art Students League under Hermon A. MacNeil and George Gray Barnard, and privately with Gutzon Borglum, designer of the Mount Rushmore monument. In an interview, George Gurney asked Huntington if it was true that she had gained her knowledge of horse modeling from Borglum. "Borglum didn't know anything about horses," she replied. "That's the reason I got kicked out. I must have been conceited. I loved horses and knew everything about them." Her knowledge of the horse's anatomy was so vast that she could render the animals from memory. During her short time at the school, Huntington shared an apartment with two women musicians and another sculptor, Abastenia Eberle , with whom she collaborated on a bronze, Men and Bull (1903) which was awarded a bronze medal at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904 in St. Louis. As with her sister, Huntington rendered the animals while Eberle sculpted the human figures. The following year, they again collaborated in the same fashion on Boy and Goat Playing (bronze, 1905), which was exhibited at the Gallery of the Society of American Artists. Independent by nature, Huntington preferred to work on her own, becoming a world-renowned animalier in the tradition of the great French artist Barye and other 19th-century equestrian sculptors. In 1905, a New York Times reporter came across Huntington, "a tall, young woman in a tailor-made frock and a red-plumed hat," at the Bronx Zoo. With her clay on a high stool, she was doing a study of a bison. Huntington told the reporter that her career was soaring and her commissions were plentiful. When asked whether she would go to Paris, she replied, "Not until I feel strong enough artistically to stand it. One ought to be perfectly independent in one's work and above outside influence … before going abroad." Huntington felt Europe had a greater respect for art and the artist, though America was the greater proving ground.
From 1906 to 1910, she studied and worked in France and Italy. In 1908, a pair of bronze life-sized jaguars Reaching Jaguar (1906) and Jaguar (1907) won an honorable mention at the Paris Salon, the highest international standard for measuring artistic achievement. Her animal sculptures were remarkable for their movement and motion. With her powerful sense of rhythm and design, coupled with the power of her naturalist's observation, she was able to capture the animals' authentic gestures with a sense of empathy. These animal works are considered to be her finest efforts, though some critics relegate her figurative and equestrian works, writes Charlotte Rubinstein , to "the heavy-handed academic statues of the official sculptors." Rubinstein posits the contrary view that they belong to a post-1900 school of animal and garden sculpture that serves as a bridge between the earlier grandiose public monuments and the later modern movement. In the early 20th century, many sculptors began to move away from the patriotic public commissions so expressive of civic virtue, a movement exemplified by the use of animals as a metaphor for personal feelings, expressions of mood and attitude. These newer works, smaller and more suitable for purchase by private collectors, gave sculptors the opportunity to explore personal views of life and new concepts of form. Anna Hyatt Huntington, though her powerful equestrian work was relatively academic in the European Beaux Arts tradition, became a part of the new thrust in sculpture due to her rhythmic expressive animal groups, such as Cranes Rising (bronze, 1934) and Peacocks Fighting (bronze, 1935–36), which showed a decorative art-nouveau quality.
Penny Dunford contends that Huntington's works were never sentimental, but rather she adapted the model to reveal the essential form of the particular animal feeding, resting, and in motion, appearing both singly and in groups. Eleanor Mellon finds Huntington's work empathetic. The artist understands the fundamental character of her subjects, renders their inherent beauty and dignity, and depicts vitality and grace, the result of great physical strength completely controlled.
In 1909, Huntington set aside all other commissions and turned to the creation of a full-sized equestrian statue of Joan of Arc , a lifelong dream. Traveling to the towns of Orléans and Rouen in France to immerse herself in the spirit of her subject, she studied ancient fragments of armor and tomb tracings to get an accurate representation of the time. To create the monumental work, she rented the Paris Latin Quarter studio of a 19th-century sculptor because it had doors that made it possible to bring in a horse, a magnificent Percheron she saw in the street, to use as the model of the saint's steed. She then amassed a ton of clay, erected a huge armature, and devoted herself to the task. It was apparent to Huntington that she, like other female artists in the past, would be accused of having men do her work, so she hired only one assistant, a woman, to help her carry out the project. A plaster cast of the work won an honorable mention at the Paris Salon of 1910; it was felt that the male judges doubted she did the work entirely alone, or she would have been awarded a medal.
By 1912, Huntington was one of only 12 women in the United States earning $50,000 a year. Her work was extraordinarily popular, and her commissions kept her busy. When World War I began in Europe, however, Anna put her work aside and retired with her family to their farm at Cape Ann, Massachusetts. Her response to cooperative war efforts on the home front was to accept new responsibilities with energy. Though the studio she had used since childhood was at the farm, Anna devoted herself to dairy farming and gardening, producing no artwork during this time. On Sunday afternoons, she welcomed visitors to the farm. Writers, musicians, and artists such as John Singer Sargent often came to spend the afternoons, setting a pattern for her social life for years to come. Two years later, Huntington returned to her studio in New York City.
That year, she was commissioned to execute the Joan of Arc model in bronze to be placed on Riverside Drive in New York City. The committee for the 500th anniversary of the saint's birth was headed by J. Sanford Saltus of Tiffany and Company, one of Huntington's greatest supporters. She perfected her original conception, studying specific details with the curator of armor at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Actual stones from the saint's dungeon in Rouen were used in the base. Rather than concentrate on the frailties of the peasant girl Joan, as she was depicted by other artists, Rubinstein relates that Huntington worked to capture the saint's spiritual intensity:
I thought of her there before her first battle, speaking to her soldiers, holding up the ancient sword. Her wrist is sharply back to show them the hilt, which is in the form of a cross…. It was only her mental attitude, only her religious fervor, that could have enabled her to endure so much physically, to march three or four days with almost no sleep…. That is how I thought of her, that is how I modeled her.
Eberle, Abastenia St. Leger (1878–1942)
American sculptor, influenced by the Ash Can School. Name variations: Abastenia Saint Leger. Born Mary Abastenia St. Leger in Webster City, Louisiana, in 1878; died in 1942; grew up in Canton, Ohio, and Puerto Rico; daughter of a physician; studied in Ohio under Frank Vogan and at the Art Students League, New York City, under Kenyon Cox and George Grey Barnard; also studied in Naples, Italy.
With a penchant for small bronze sculptures in urban settings, Abastenia Eberle drew many of her subjects from life on New York's Lower East Side: ragpickers, the unemployed, immigrant mothers, and slum children at play. Her works include The Girl on Roller Skates, Mowgli, Victory (all housed at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), Little Mother (Art Institute of Chicago), as well as Dance of the Ghetto Children and The White Slave. A sometime collaborator with Anna Hyatt Huntington when they shared a studio in 1904, Eberle was forced to abandon sculpture in 1919 because of ill health. She was an ardent socialist and suffragist, who once said: "The artist has no right to work as an individualist." She is the "specialized eye of society," who must "see for people, reveal them to themselves." One of her most popular works, Windy Doorstep (Worcester Art Museum), was awarded a prize from the National Academy of Design in 1910. The work was rendered at her summer cottage in Woodstock, New York, after she overheard local farmwives discussing the best techniques for sweeping. Notes Nancy Heller , the figure "demonstrates Eberle's ability to convey a sense of movement in three dimensions. The breeze whips the woman's skirt to one side as she concentrates intently on her task, eyes down and elbows locked; the fact that the broom extends beyond the sculpture's base also adds to the feeling of brisk motion." Eberle used this technique in many of her other sculptures.
Heller, Nancy. Women Artists. Abbeville Press, 1987.
Rubinstein claims Huntington's own "mental attitude" resembled that of her heroine. After the unveiling in 1915, a time during which the country was in sympathy with the French because of the First World War, the artist was inundated with praise and won the coveted Saltus Medal for Merit from the National Academy of Design in 1920.
The Joan of Arc is considered a landmark in the history of women sculptors. With her later execution of El Cid Campeador (bronze, 1927), as well as her Joan of Arc, she would earn the highest honors possible from governments of the U.S., Cuba, and Spain; France awarded her the Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Replicas of Joan of Arc have also been placed in the Garden of the Bishops, in the city of Blois, France, at Gloucester, Massachusetts, and in front of the California Palace of the Legion of Honor in San Francisco. Other notable works of this period are Diana of the Chase, which won her a second Saltus gold medal in 1922, and Youth Taming the Wild (1933), a romantic vision of man and animal. A bas-relief wall sculpture based on the Joan of Arc was erected at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City.
It was at this time that she served on a committee to plan a sculpture exhibition at the Hispanic Museum, founded by the scholar, poet, and philanthropist Archer Milton Huntington, the adopted son of the railroad magnate Collis Potter Huntington. It was said that wherever Archer put his foot down, a museum sprang up. When they met, he was suffering from depression, having lost his wife to another man. He quickly fell in love with Anna Hyatt and proposed. Anna, who led an active and successful professional lifestyle, was reluctant to change, but when Archer Huntington became extremely ill she relented. In 1923, they surprised everyone by being married without fanfare at her studio. The newlyweds shared many cultural interests and a sense of duty toward their community. A common cause was the Hispanic Museum. Archer was a scholar of Spanish culture, and Anna shared his enthusiasm.
Following her marriage, Huntington was in a position to benefit from her new, more comfortable circumstances, such as working on a scale that was not financially feasible before. Her monumental full-sized and larger-than-life-sized equestrian monuments date from this time. But this asset was in marked contrast to the loss of creative hours due to the entertaining required of her life with the director of many important philanthropies. As the owners of several large estates and a summer camp in northern New York State, the Huntingtons were extremely busy. In 1926, while continuing her hectic social life, helping settle the estate of her husband's mother, and working on her own sculpture, Anna became seriously ill with bronchitis. A year later, she was diagnosed with tuberculosis.
For the next seven years, the Huntingtons' primary cause was the recovery of Anna's health. They traveled to warmer climates, notably the Carolinas. In 1930, they purchased a 6,700-acre tract of land on the South Carolina coast near Charleston, the site of four old plantations, and built a house on the ocean as their winter residence. Without the aid of a landscape architect, Anna laid out a large butterfly-shaped formal garden, with pools and fountains, keeping the rest of the land as a nature preserve of indigenous flora and fauna. Archer Huntington had intended the garden as a display space for Anna's sculptures, but the generous artist included works of her colleagues as well, until the collection grew to 300 pieces. During 1932, Anna recuperated at a sanitarium in Switzerland and spent a long rest period in Arizona. The Huntingtons presented their outdoor museum, called Brookgreen Gardens, to the state of South Carolina that same year to be used as a state park. Brookgreen Gardens is now the largest outdoor garden of academic sculpture in the United States. At the entrance, visitors are greeted by Huntington's Fighting Stallions, a huge 17′×14′×7′ statue, representative of the work she pioneered using aluminum as a sculptural medium. She felt that the alloy "had a vibrant quality."
As Anna came to share her husband's passion for Spanish culture, the Huntingtons traveled extensively in Spain as part of her recovery from tuberculosis. While there, Huntington dedicated a cast of El Cid Campeador at Seville in 1927. For this statue of the 11th-century Spanish hero, she was awarded the Grand Cross of Alphonso XII by the government of Spain, presented personally by the king of Spain in 1929. At the time, she was the only sculptor so honored. A replica was placed on the terrace of the Hispanic Society of America in New York and before the California Palace of the Legion of Honor Museum in San Francisco, where it is a companion piece to her Joan of Arc. Though her production was reduced during her illness, she continued to receive widespread recognition. The American Academy of Arts and Letters awarded her the gold medal for distinction in 1930 and held a retrospective exhibition of 171 of her works in 1936.
By 1937, Huntington had found it oppressive to live in the ornate New York City mansion that required so many servants. Convinced that the demands of city living were detrimental to creative work, she persuaded her husband to satisfy her need for a simple, more earthy life by purchasing an estate in Haverstraw, New York, called "Rocas," where Anna had her own zoo. Monkeys, bears, and wolves were among her models. While there, she completed four life-sized
groups as well as 15 or more smaller pieces. After a few years, the Huntingtons turned "Rocas" over to New York State as a park. With the Second World War looming, the Huntingtons decided to purchase a practical home where farming was possible. In 1940, they bought a wild stretch of 900 acres in Redding Ridge, Connecticut, on a ridge overlooking Long Island Sound. At Stanerigg, they built a stark, 20-room, cement-block house and studio, where Anna maintained a working organic farm and a kennel of around 100 Scottish deerhounds, doing much of the physical labor herself. With five other families, she converted a barn into a cannery to preserve produce from six Victory gardens. She also set up a branch of the Danbury Red Cross at her house so she and her neighbors would not waste precious gasoline traveling to volunteer. Each Sunday, the Huntingtons held "at home" teas attended by intellectuals and dignitaries from across the globe. Anna served tea and discussed science and art with her guests; Archer read from the Koran and long passages from the Spanish writer Cervantes.
Even with her wartime activities, Huntington worked continuously at her sculpture, while her husband published articles, wrote poetry, and engaged in a wide variety of philanthropies. In 1942 and 1943, she produced two major works in bas-relief, Don Quixote and Boabdil, for the Hispanic Society of America. Besides their continuing support of the Hispanic Society, the Huntingtons were responsible for the founding of 14 museums and the establishment of four public wildlife preserves. When the couple left their Fifth Avenue mansion, they donated it to the National Academy of Design for its headquarters. The philanthropic spirit that permeated their lives had a major impact on the communities in which they lived and worked. A $100,000 gift from the Huntingtons made possible an exhibition of the National Sculpture Society which was accompanied by a catalog that became a major resource about American academic sculpture.
With the advent of modern abstract sculpture, Huntington was disturbed by what she referred to as an "overwhelming flood of degenerate trash drowning sincere and conservative workers in all the arts." Although disappointed that traditional sculpture was giving way to a growing public interest in innovative forms, she continued working in her own style and gained further recognition. In appreciation of her artistic achievements and her unfailing interest in and aid to her fellow sculptors, the National Sculpture Society awarded her a special medal of honor in 1940. Huntington's works were included in the N.Y. State Department of Commerce's color film released in 1950, entitled New York's Heritage. In 1952, she was awarded the grand cross of Isabel the Catholic from the government of Spain. Honors would come to her throughout her life, among them a second honorary degree from the University of South Carolina, as well as the designation of honorary vice-president of the National Association of Women Painters and Sculptors and fellow of the National Sculpture Society. A particular honor was being named a corresponding member of the Spanish Academia de Artes de San Fernando, an honor never before given to a woman.
In the spring of 1955, shortly before her husband's death, she completed the symbolic grouping Torch Bearers. After his death, Anna Huntington, at age 79, returned with renewed creativity to her art. Over the next two decades, she executed a range of works, from small animal studies to her trademark monumental equestrians, the last five of which she completed at her Stanerigg studio. In 1956, she was commissioned to do an equestrian statue honoring Cuba and chose for her subject the Cuban patriot José Martí; the monument showed the hero falling from his rearing horse at the instant he was hit by Spanish bullets. In 1959, Fidel Castro's unseating of the dictator Fulgencio Batista resulted in pro- and anti-Castro groups rioting in New York at the designated site of the monument at 59th Street at Central Park, so the unveiling was canceled. Years later, in 1965, the statue was erected secretly at dawn. As Huntington's gift to New York City, the statue had a quiet unveiling a few weeks later, attended by the artist and Martí's grandson, actor Cesar Romero.
A 1961 article in Connecticut Life described her at 85 as a "woman of vigorous wit and charm who could scamper up a ten-foot ladder to work on her massive sculptures or knock down with her .22 caliber any squirrels molesting the birds on her estate." Her monument to revolutionary-war hero Israel Putnam was completed in 1966, when she was 90. General Israel Putnam's Escape at Horse Neck stands on her estate in Connecticut, where a state park was planned at the time of her death in 1973.
The preceding year, Huntington had suffered several dozen small strokes. When she died, at age 97, she left works in progress, but her nephew relates that she was unhappy at the time of her death, convinced she had outlived herself, that her kind of sculpture was superseded and that no one would be interested in it again. Though she was reconciled that she had had her day, she was saddened that it seemed to be over. There is, however, a renewed interest in her style of sculpture, particularly in the work of her contemporary, Augustus Saint Gaudens. The full range of Anna Hyatt Huntington's extraordinary output over a period of 70 years is represented in the collections of more than 200 museums, parks and gardens of major cities throughout the world.
"Anna Hyatt Huntington," in Current Biography, 1953. NY: H.W. Wilson, 1954.
Dunford, Penny. A Biographical Dictionary of Women Artists in Europe and America since 1850. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989.
Eden, Myrna Garvey. Energy and Individuality in the Art of Anna Huntington, Sculptor, and Amy Beach, Composer. Composers of North America, No. 2. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1987.
"A Giant's Horse for the Asking," in Connecticut Life. October 5, 1961.
Gurney, George. Interview with Anna Hyatt Huntington. March 19, 1970. Index of American Sculptors, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware.
Heller, Nancy G. Women Artists: An Illustrated History. NY: Abbeville Press, 1987.
Mayor, A. Hyatt. A Century of American Sculpture: Treasures from Brookgreen Gardens. NY: Abbeville Press, 1987.
Mellon, Eleanor M. Anna Hyatt Huntington. American Sculptors Series 3. NY: W.W. Norton, 1947.
The New York Times (obituary). October 4, 1973.
Rubinstein, Charlotte Streifer. American Women Artists. Boston, MA: G.K. Hall, 1982.
——. American Women Sculptors. Boston, MA: G.K. Hall, 1990.
Sicherman, Barbara and Carol Hurd Green, eds. Notable American Women: The Modern Period. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1980.
Correspondence, manuscripts, photographs, scrapbooks, diaries, in addition to critical and biographical material, at Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York.
Laurie Twist Binder , Library Media Specialist, Buffalo Public Schools, Buffalo, New York, and freelance graphic artist and illustrator