Bonner, Elena (1923–)
Bonner, Elena (1923–)
Russian physician and civil-rights activist. Name variations: Luisa (childhood name still used by her family); Yelena or Jelena Bonner. Born Feb 15, 1923, in Merv in Soviet Turkestan; dau. of Levon Sarkisovich Kocharov and Ruth Grigorievna Bonner (subsequently Communist Party official); stepdau. of Gevork Sarkisovich Alikhanov (Communist Party official); attended Herzen Teachers Institute, 1940–41, and 1st Leningrad Medical Institute, 1947–53; m. Ivan Vasilyevich Semyonov, 1950 (sep. 1965); m. Andrei Sakharov, 1971 (died 1989); children (1st m.): Tatyiana (b. 1950), Alexei (b. 1956).
Daughter of high-ranking Soviet officials, victims of Stalin's purges, who became a physician, a civil-rights activist in the Soviet Union, and a spokeswoman and representative for husband Andrei Sakharov; parents arrested during a Stalin purge (1937); served as nurse in WWII (1941–45); was wounded in action which destroyed her sight in one eye, leading to a progressive weakening of vision in the other (1941); mother rearrested (1950); attended medical school (1947–53); mother released from imprisonment (1954); separated from 1st husband, joined Communist Party (1965); became a leading member in the Soviet dissident community (1970); met Sakharov at a protest demonstration (1970), then married him (1971); was now linked personally to one of the nation's greatest scientists and by then an internationally renowned critic of Soviet political life; left Communist Party (1972); when Sakharov could not leave the Soviet Union to receive the Nobel Prize awarded him, received it in his place, then received medical treatment in Italy (1975); with Sakharov exiled in Gorky, became his chief spokesperson and link to the outside world (1980); also arrested and sentenced to exile in Gorky (1984); had medical treatment in Italy and the US (1985–86); husband released from exile (1986), then died (1989); following collapse of the Soviet Union (1991), established Sakharov memorial library in Moscow (1994); as a witness to the purges of the 1930s, as a member of the armed forces during WWII, and as a leading dissident in the era following the death of dictator Joseph Stalin, observed and helped to shape the course of her country's history.
"Bonner, Elena (1923–)." Dictionary of Women Worldwide: 25,000 Women Through the Ages. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 17, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/women/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bonner-elena-1923
"Bonner, Elena (1923–)." Dictionary of Women Worldwide: 25,000 Women Through the Ages. . Retrieved November 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/women/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bonner-elena-1923
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.