Bonner, Yelena Georgievna
BONNER, YELENA GEORGIEVNA
Yelena Bonner grew up among the elite of the Communist Party. Her mother, Ruth Bonner, joined the party in 1924. Her stepfather, Gevork Alikhanov, was a secretary of the Communist International. Bonner's childhood ended abruptly with the arrests of her stepfather and mother in 1937. She finished high school in Leningrad and volunteered as a nurse during World War II. After the war, Bonner attended medical school and worked as a pediatrician.
Bonner met physicist and political dissident Andrei Sakharov in 1970, at the trial of human rights activists in Kaluga. They married in 1972. Bonner devoted herself to Sakharov, representing him at the Nobel Peace Prize ceremony in 1975. After Sakharov's exile to Gorky in 1980, Bonner became his sole link to Moscow and the West, until her own exile in 1984. In December 1986, Mikhail Gorbachev invited the couple to return to Moscow.
Since Sakharov's death in 1989, Bonner has emerged as an outspoken and admired advocate of democracy in Russia. She joined the defenders of the Russian parliament during the attempted coup of August 1991. She withdrew her support of Boris Yeltsin to protest the war in Chechnya, which she condemned as a return to totalitarianism. Accepting the 2000 Hannah Arendt Award, Bonner denounced President Vladimir Putin's unlimited power, the state's expanding control over the mass media, its anti-Semitism, and "the de facto genocide of the Chechen people."
See also: dissident movement; sakharov, andrei dmitrievich
Bonner, Elena. (1993). Mothers and Daughters, tr. Antonina W. Bouis. New York: Vintage Books.
Bonner, Elena. (2001). "The Remains of Totalitarianism," tr. Antonina W. Bouis. New York Review of Books (March 8, 2001):4–5.
Lisa A. Kirschenbaum
"Bonner, Yelena Georgievna." Encyclopedia of Russian History. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 9, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bonner-yelena-georgievna
"Bonner, Yelena Georgievna." Encyclopedia of Russian History. . Retrieved December 09, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bonner-yelena-georgievna
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.