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Brontë, Charlotte: Further Reading



Crump, Rebecca W. Charlotte and Emily Brontë: A Reference Guide. 3 vols. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1982-1986, 194 p.

Provides an annotated compilation of secondary sources from 1846 to 1983.

Passel, Anne. Charlotte and Emily Brontë: An Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland Publishing, 1979, 359 p.

Organizes criticism by text.


Gaskell, Elizabeth. The Life of Charlotte Brontë. London: E. P. Dutton, 1908, 411 p.

Offers a biography by one of Brontë's contemporaries; includes large extracts from Brontë's correspondence.

Gérin, Winifred. Charlotte Brontë: The Evolution of Genius. London: Oxford University Press, 1967, 617 p.

Biography focusing on Charlotte Brontë's development as an author.

Gordon, Lyndall. Charlotte Brontë: A Passionate Life. New York: W. W. Norton, 1996, 418p.

Provides revisionist insights into Brontë's life.

Miller, Lucasta. The Brontë Myth. New York: Knopf, 2004, 351p.

Offers a biography that retraces myth surrounding the Brontë sisters, particularly Charlotte.


Adams, Maurianne. "Jane Eyre: Woman's Estate." In The Authority of Experience: Essays in Feminist Criticism, edited by Arlyn Diamond and Lee R. Edwards, pp. 137-59. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1977.

Reads Jane Eyre as a feminist novel despite Jane's initial discomfort with her feminist awareness.

Argyle, Gisela. "Gender and Generic Mixing in Charlotte Brontë's Shirley." Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 35, no. 4 (autumn 1995): 741-56.

Explores the use of the third-person narrator in Shirley as a departure from Brontë's usual style.

Baines, Barbara. "Villette: A Feminist Novel." Victorians Institute Journal (1976): 51-60.

Interprets Villette as the story of a young woman observing the identities available to her and gradually realizing her personal power.

Craik, W. A. The Brontë Novels. London: Methuen, 1968, 266 p.

Studies the novels by the Brontë sisters.

Eagleton, Terry. Myths of Power: A Marxist Study of the Brontës. London: Macmillan, 1975, 148 p.

Takes a Marxist literary approach to interpreting the Brontës' work.

Ewbank, Inga-Stina. "Charlotte Brontë: The Woman Writer As an Author Only." In Their Proper Sphere: A Study of the Brontë Sisters as Early Victorian Female Novelists, pp. 156-204. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1966.

Analyzes Brontë's work in terms of the novelist's principle of artistic truth.

Federico, Annette R. "The Other Case: Gender and Narration in Charlotte Brontë's The Professor." Papers on Language and Literature 30, no. 4 (fall 1994): 323-45.

Discusses Brontë's use of a male narrator in The Professor.

Greene, Sally. "Apocalypse When? Shirley's Vision and the Politics of Reading." Studies in the Novel 26, no. 4 (winter 1994): 350-71.

Contends that earlier feminist criticism of Shirley has failed to consider its context, particularly in its religious themes; argues that anachronistic criticism is unable to recognize the challenges to the limitations placed on women that Brontë's work presents.

Levine, Caroline. "'Harmless Pleasure': Gender, Suspense, and Jane Eyre." Victorian Literature and Culture (2000): 275-86.

Connects Brontë's use of a pseudonym with narrative suspense as pleasurable methods of subversion.

Meyer, Susan. Imperialism at Home: Race and Victorian Women's Fiction. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996, 220 p.

Examines the treatment of race and colonialism in Jane Eyre.

Millett, Kate. "The Sexual Revolution, First Phase: 1830-1930." In Sexual Politics, pp. 61-156. New York: Doubleday and Company, 1970.

Includes Brontë's works in a discussion of subversive works by women; sees in Villette a revolutionary sensibility with respect to gender issues.

Moglen, Helene. Charlotte Brontë: The Self Conceived. New York: W. W. Norton, 1976, 256 p.

Explores Brontë's novels as an indication of the development of her personality.

Pell, Nancy. "Resistance, Rebellion, and Marriage: The Economics of 'Jane Eyre.'" Nineteenth-Century Fiction 31, no. 4 (March 1977): 397-420.

Interprets Jane Eyre as a critique of the social and economic strictures on Victorian women.

Plasa, Carl. "Charlotte Brontë's Foreign Bodies: Slavery and Sexuality in The Professor." Journal of Narrative Theory 30, no. 1 (winter 2000): 1-28.

Examines the representation of colonialism found in The Professor.

Poovey, Mary. "The Anathematized Race: The Governess and Jane Eyre." In Feminism and Psychoanalysis, edited by Richard Feldstein and Judith Roof, pp. 230-54. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989.

Considers the historical position of the governess and Brontë's treatment of it in her work.

Ratchford, Fannie E. The Brontës' Web of Childhood. New York: Columbia University Press, 1941, 293 p.

A pioneering study of the Brontës' childhood works.

Rich, Adrienne. "'Jane Eyre': The Temptations of a Motherless Woman." In On Lies, Secrets, and Silence: Selected Prose, 1966-1978, pp. 89-106. New York: W. W. Norton, 1979.

Assesses Jane Eyre as a novel that depicts alternatives for women.

Spacks, Patricia Meyer. "Power and Passivity." In The Female Imagination, pp. 45-96. New York: Avon, 1975.

Suggests that while Brontë's heroines must accept their dependency on men, they are able to retain at least some power in their relationships.

Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. "Three Women's Texts and a Critique of Imperialism." Critical Inquiry 12, no. 1 (autumn 1985): 243-61.

Relates Jane Eyre to Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and Jean Rhys's reimagining of Bertha Mason's story in Wide Sargasso Sea.

Taylor, Irene. "The Professor, Jane Eyre, Shirley." In Holy Ghosts: The Male Muses of Emily and Charlotte Brontë, pp. 159-99. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.

Links Brontë's characters' struggles with gender roles with her own desires for gender equality in society and a deeper sense of balance between the male and female qualities within herself.

Tillotson, Kathleen. "Jane Eyre." In Novels of the Eighteen-Forties, pp. 257-313. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1954.

Describes Jane Eyre as a novel of the inner life; discusses Brontë's development as a writer through the Angrian chronicles and The Professor to the more coherent and insightful Jane Eyre.

Woolf, Virginia. "Jane Eyre and Wuthering Heights." In The Common Reader, pp. 219-27. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1925.

Emphasizes the poetry of Brontë's writing and the intensity of Jane Eyre.

Yaeger, Patricia. "Honey-Mad Women: Charlotte Brontë's Bilingual Heroines." Browning Institute Studies 14 (1986): 11-35.

Compares the treatment of bilingualism in Jane Eyre and Villette with Romantic poetry.

Zonana, Joyce. "The Sultan and the Slave: Feminist Orientalism and the Structures of Jane Eyre." Signs 18, no. 3 (spring 1993): 592-617.

Looks at Brontë's use of Orientalist themes and their relationship to feminist issues in Jane Eyre.


Additional coverage of Brontë's life and career is contained in the following sources published by the Gale Group: Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Vol. 17; Beacham's Guide to Literature for Young Adults, Vol. 2; British Writers, Vol. 5; British Writers: The Classics, Vol. 2; British Writers Retrospective Supplement, Vol. 1; Concise Dictionary of British Literary Biography, 1832-1890; Dictionary of Literary Biography, Vols. 21, 159, 199; DISCovering Authors; DISCovering Authors: British Edition; DISCovering Authors: Canadian Edition; DISCovering Authors Modules: Most-studied Authors and Novelists; DISCovering Authors, 3.0; Exploring Novels; Literature and Its Times, Vol. 2; Literature Resource Center; Nineteenth-Century Literature Criticism, Vols. 3, 8, 33, 58, 105; Novels for Students, Vol. 4; Twayne's English Authors; World Literature and Its Times, Vol. 4; and World Literature Criticism.

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