Skip to main content


Brontotheriidae (brontotheres, titanotheres; class Mammalia, order Perissodactyla) A suborder (ranked by some authorities as a family of the suborder Hippomorpha) of rhinoceros-like animals that flourished in the Eocene and Oligocene, and then became extinct. Probably they appeared first in N. America, but they spread to Asia and some lived in eastern Europe. Brontotheres were large, some reaching 2.4 m at the shoulder (as large as modern elephants). The skull was long and low, the brain small. Bony horns were present in later forms, often large and presumed larger in males than females, carried as a pair, side by side on the front of the head. Some (e.g. Brontotherium) had Y- or V-shaped horns on their noses. The limbs were graviportal. The teeth were primitive, the incisors and a premolar absent in some forms, the molars large, low-crowned, and bunolophodont. The brontotheres seem to have evolved rapidly to large size, but their teeth must have restricted their diet to soft plant material, perhaps making them vulnerable to minor environmental changes.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Brontotheriidae." A Dictionary of Zoology. . 22 Mar. 2019 <>.

"Brontotheriidae." A Dictionary of Zoology. . (March 22, 2019).

"Brontotheriidae." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Retrieved March 22, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.